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Full text of "History "Of Plimoth Plantation," from the original manuscript, with a report of the proceedings incident to the return of the manuscript to Massachusetts"

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To many people the return of the Bradford Manu- 
script is a fresh discovery of colonial history. By very 
many it has been called, incorrectly, the log of the 
"Mayflower." Indeed, that is the title by which it is 
described in the decree of the Consistorial Court of 
London. The fact is, however, that Governor Brad- 
ford undertook its preparation long after the arrival 
of the Pilgrims, and it cannot be properly considered 
as in any sense a log or daily journal of the voyage 
of the "Mayflower." It is, in point of fact, a history 
of the Plymouth Colony, chiefly in the form of annals, 
extending from the inception of the colony down to 
the year 1647. The matter has been in print since 
1856, put forth through the public spirit of the Mas- 
sachusetts Historical Society, which secured a tran- 
script of the document from London, and printed it 
in the society's proceedings of the above-named year. 
As thus presented, it had copious notes, prepared with 
great care by the late Charles Deane ; but these are 
not given in the present volume, wherein only such 
comments as seem indispensable to a proper under- 
standing of the story have been made, leaving what- 


ever elaboration may seem desirable to some future 
private enterprise. 

It is a matter of regret that no picture of Governor 
Bradford exists. Only Edward Winslow of the May- 
flower Company left an authenticated portrait of him- 
self, and that, painted in England, is reproduced in 
this volume. In those early days Plymouth would 
have been a poor field for portrait painters. The 
people were struggling for their daily bread rather 
than for to-morrow's fame through the transmission 
of their features to posterity. 

The volume of the original manuscript, as it was 
presented to the Governor of the Commonwealth and 
is now deposited in the State Library, is a folio 
measuring eleven and one-half inches in length, seven 
and seven-eighths inches in width and one and one-half 
inches in thickness. It is bound in parchment, once 
white, but now grimy and much the worse for wear, 
being somewhat cracked and considerably scaled. Much 
scribbling, evidently by the Bradford family, is to be 
seen upon its surface, and out of the confusion may 
be read the name of Mercy Bradford, a daughter of 
the governor. On the inside of the front cover is 
pasted a sheet of manilla paper, on which is written 
the following : 

*' Consistory Court of the Diocese of London 

In the matter of the application of The Honorable Thomas 
Francis Bayard, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 


in London of the United States of America, for the delivery to 
him, on behalf of the President and Citizens of the said States, 
of the original manuscript book entitled and known as The Log 
of the Mayflower. 

Produced in Court this 25th day of March, 1897, and marked 
with the letter A. 


1 Deans Court 

Doctors Commons" 

Then come two manilla leaves, on both sides of 
which is written the decree of the Consistorial Court. 
These leaves and the manilla sheet pasted on the in- 
side of the front cover were evidently inserted after 
the decree was passed. 

Next comes a leaf (apparently the original first leaf 
of the book), and on it are verses, signed "A. M.," 
on the death of Mrs. Bradford. The next is evidently 
one of the leaves of the original book. At the top 
of the page is written the following : 

This book was rit by govener William bradford and given 
to his son mager "William Bradford and by him to his son mager 
John Bradford, rit by me Samuel bradford mach 20, 1705 

At the bottom of the same page the name John 
Bradford appears in different handwriting, evidently 
written with the book turned wrong side up. 


The next is a leaf bearing the following, in the 
handwriting of Thomas Prince : 

TUESDAY, June 4 1728 

Calling at Major John Bradford's at Kingston near Plimouth, 
son of Major Wm. Bradford formerly Dep Gov'r of Plimouth 
Colony, who was eldest son of Wm. Bradford Esq their 2nd 
Gov'r, & author of this History ; ye sd Major John Bradford 
gave me several manuscript octavoes wh he assured me were 
written with his said Grandfather Gov'r Bradford's own hand. 
He also gave me a little Pencil Book wrote with a Blew lead 
Pencil by his sd Father ye Dep Gov'r. And He also told me 
yt He had lent & only lent his sd Grandfather Gov'r Brad- 
ford's History of Plimouth Colony wrote by his own Hand also, 
to judg Sewall ; and desired me to get it of Him or find it out, 
& take out of it what I thought proper for my New-England 
Chronology : wh I accordingly obtained, and This is ye sd His- 
tory : wh I found wrote in ye same Handwriting as ye Octavo 
manuscripts above sd. 


N. B. I also mentioned to him my Desire of lodging this History 
in ye New England Library of Prints & manuscripts, wh I had been 
then collecting for 23 years, to wh He signified his willingness only 

yt He might have ye Perusal of it while He lived. 


Following this, on the same page, is Thomas Prince's 
printed book-mark, as follows : 

This Book "belongs to 
The New-England-Zjibrary, 

Begu.n to be collected, by Thomas IPrinee, upon 

his entring Harvard-College, July 6 

17"O3; and \vas given "by 


On the lower part of a blank space which follows 
the word * by " is written : 

// now belongs to the Bishop of London's Library at Fulham. 

There are evidences that this leaf did not belong to 
the original book, but was inserted by Mr. Prince. 

At the top of the first page of the next leaf, which 
was evidently one of the original leaves of the book, 
is written in Samuel Bradford's hand, " march 20 
Samuel Bradford;" and just below there appears, in 
Thomas Prince's handwriting, the following : 

But major Bradford tells me & assures me that He only lent 
this Book of his Grandfather's to Mr. Sewall & that it being of 
his Grandfather's own hand writing He had so high a value of 
it that he would never Part with ye Property, but would lend 
it to me & desired me to get it, which I did, & write down this 
that sd Major Bradford and his Heirs may be known to be the 
right owners. 

Below this, also in Thomas Prince's handwriting, 
appears this line : 

" Page 243 missing when ye Book came into my Hands at 1st." 

Just above the inscription by Prince there is a line 
or two of writing, marked over in ink so carefully as 
to be wholly undecipherable. On the reverse page of 
this leaf and on the first page of the next are written 
Hebrew words, with definitions. These are all in Gov- 


ernor Bradford's handwriting. On the next page ap- 
pears the following : 

Though I am growne aged, yet I have had a long- 

ing desire, to see with my own eyes, something of 

that most ancient language, and holy tongue, 

in which the Law, and oracles of God were 

write; and in which God, and angels, spake to 

the holy patriarks, of old time; and what 

names were given to things, from the 

creation. And though I canot attaine 

to much herein, yet I am refreshed, 

to have seen some glimpse here- 

of ; (as Moses saw the Land 

of canan afarr of) my aime 

and desire is, to see how 

the words, and phrases 

lye in the holy texte ; 

and to dicerne some- 

what of the same 

for my owne 



Then begins the history proper, the first page of 
which is produced in facsimile in this volume, slightly 
reduced. The ruled margins end with page thirteen. 
From that page to the end of the book the writing 
varies considerably, sometimes being quite coarse and 
in other places very fine, some pages containing nearly 
a thousand words each. As a rule, the writing is 
upon one side of the sheet only, but in entering notes 
and subsequent thoughts the reverse is sometimes used. 
The last page number is 270, as appears from the 
facsimile reproduction in this volume of that page. 
Page 270 is followed by two blank leaves ; then on 


the second page of the next leaf appears the list of 
names of those who came over in the "Mayflower," 
covering four pages and one column on the fifth page. 
The arrangement of this matter is shown by the fac- 
simile reproduction in this volume of the first page 
of these names. Last of all there is a leaf of heavy 
double paper, like the one in the front of the book 
containing the verses on the death of Mrs. Bradford, 
and on this last leaf is written an index to a few por- 
tions of the history. 

For copy, there was used the edition printed in 
1856 by the Massachusetts Historical Society. The 
proof was carefully compared, word for word, with 
the photographic facsimile issued in 1896 in both 
London and Boston. The value of this comparison is 
evident in that a total of sixteen lines of the original, 
omitted in the original first copy, is supplied in this 
edition. As the work of the Historical Society could 
not be compared, easily, with the original manu- 
script in London, these omissions, with sundry minor 
errors in word and numeral, are not unreasonable. 
The curious will be pleased to learn that the sup- 
plied lines are from the following pages of the man- 
uscript, viz.: page 122, eight lines; page 129, two 
lines; the obverse of page 201, found on the last 
page of Appendix A, two lines; page 219, two 


lines ; pages 239 and 258, one line each. The pages 
of the manuscript are indicated in these printed pages 
by numerals in parentheses. 

There are several errors in the paging of the origi- 
nal manuscript. Pages 105 and 106 are marked 145 
and 146, and pages 219 and 220 are marked 119 and 
120, respectively. Page 243 is missing. 

Such as it is, the book is put forth that the public 
may know what manner of men the Pilgrims were, 
through what perils and vicissitudes they passed, and 
how much we of to-day owe to their devotion and 





MONDAY, MAY 24, 1897. 

The following message from His Excellency the Gov- 
ernor came up from the House, to wit : 

BOSTON, May 22, 1897. 

To the Honorable Senate and House of Representatives. 

I have the honor to call to your attention the fact that 
Wednesday, May 26, at 11 A.M., has been fixed as the date of 
the formal presentation to the Governor of the Commonwealth 
of the Bradford Manuscript History, recently ordered by decree 
of the Consistory Court of the Diocese of London to be returned 
to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by the hands of the 
Honorable Thomas F. Bayard, lately Ambassador at the Court 
of St. James ; and to suggest for the favorable consideration 
of your honorable bodies that the exercises of presentation be 
held in the House of Representatives on the day and hour above 
given, in the presence of a joint convention of the two bodies 
and of invited guests and the public. 


Thereupon, on motion of Mr. Roe, 

Ordered, That, in accordance with the suggestion of 
His Excellency the Governor, a joint convention of 
the two branches be held in the chamber of the House 



of Kepresentatives, on Wednesday, May the twenty- 
sixth, at eleven o'clock A.M., for the purpose of wit- 
nessing the exercises of the formal presentation, to 
the Governor of the Commonwealth, of the Bradford 
Manuscript History, recently ordered by decree of 
the Consistory Court of the Diocese of London to be 
returned to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts by 
the hands of the Honorable Thomas F. Bayard, lately 
Ambassador at the Court of St. James ; and further 

Ordered, That the clerks of the two branches give 
notice to His Excellency the Governor of the adop- 
tion of this order. 

Sent down for concurrence. (It was concurred with 
same date.) 




WEDNESDAY, MAY 26, 1897. 

Joint Convention. 

At eleven o'clock A.M., pursuant to assignment, the 
two branches met in 

in the chamber of the House of Representatives. 

On motion of Mr. Roe, 

Ordered, That a committee, to consist of three mem- 
bers of the Senate and eight members of the House 
of Representatives, be appointed, to wait upon His 
Excellency the Governor and inform him that the two 
branches are now in convention for the purpose of 
witnessing the exercises of the formal presentation, to 
the Governor of the Commonwealth, of the Bradford 
Manuscript History. 

Messrs. Roe, Woodward and Gallivan, of the Senate, 
and Messrs. Pierce of Milton, Bailey of Plymouth, 
Brown of Gloucester, Fairbank of Warren, Bailey of 
Newbury, Sanderson of Lynn, Whittlesey of Pittsfield 


and Bartlett of Boston, of the House, were appointed 
the committee. 

Mr. Roe, from the committee, afterwards reported 
that they had attended to the duty assigned them, and 
that His Excellency the Governor had been pleased 
to say that he received the message and should be 
pleased to wait upon the Convention forthwith for the 
purpose named. 

His Excellency the Governor, accompanied by His 
Honor the Lieutenant-Governor and the Honorable 
Council, and by the Honorable Thomas F. Bayard, 
lately Ambassador of the United States at the Court 
of St. James's, the Honorable George F. Hoar, Sena- 
tor from Massachusetts in the Congress of the United 
States, and other invited guests, entered the chamber. 

The decree of the Consistorial and Episcopal Court 
of London, authorizing the return of the manuscript 
and its delivery to the Governor, was read. 

The President then presented the Honorable George 
F. Hoar, who gave an account of the manuscript and 
of the many efforts that had been made to secure its 

The Honorable Thomas F. Bayard was then intro- 
duced by the President, and he formally presented 
the manuscript to His Excellency the Governor, who 
accepted it in behalf of the Commonwealth. 

On motion of Mr. Bradford, the following order 
was adopted : 


Whereas, In the presence of the Senate and of the 
House of Eepresentatives in joint convention assembled, 
and in accordance with a decree of the Consistorial and 
Episcopal Court of London, the manuscript of Brad- 
ford's ' ' History of the Plimouth Plantation " has this 
day been delivered to His Excellency the Governor 
of the Commonwealth by the Honorable Thomas F. 
Bayard, lately Ambassador of the United States at the 
Court of St. James's ; and 

Whereas, His Excellency the Governor has accepted 
the said manuscript in behalf of the Commonwealth; 
therefore, be it 

Ordered, That the Senate and the House of Eepre- 
sentatives of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts place 
on record their high appreciation of the generous and 
gracious courtesy that prompted this act of inter- 
national good- will, and express their grateful thanks 
to all concerned therein, and especially to the Lord 
Bishop of London, for the return to the Common- 
wealth of this precious relic ; and be it further 

Ordered, That His Excellency the Governor be re- 
quested to transmit an engrossed and duly authenti- 
cated copy of this order with its preamble to the 
Lord Bishop of London. 

His Excellency, accompanied by the other dignita- 
ries, then withdrew, the Convention was dissolved, 
and the Senate returned to its chamber. 

Subsequently a resolve was passed (approved June 


10, 1897) providing for the publication of the history 
from the original manuscript, together with a report 
of the proceedings of the joint convention, such report 
to be prepared by a committee consisting of one mem- 
ber of the Senate and two members of the House of 
Representatives, and to include, so far as practicable, 
portraits of His Excellency Governor Roger Wolcott, 
William Bradford, the Honorable George F. Hoar, the 
Honorable Thomas F. Bayard, the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury and the Lord Bishop of London; facsimiles 
of pages from the manuscript history, and a picture 
of the book itself; copies of the decree of the Con- 
sistorial and Episcopal Court of London, the receipt 
of the Honorable Thomas F. Bayard for the manu- 
script, and the receipt sent by His Excellency the 
Governor to the Consistorial and Episcopal Court ; an 
account of the legislative action taken with reference 
to the presentation and reception of the manuscript ; 
the addresses of the Honorable George F. Hoar, the 
Honorable Thomas F. Bayard and His Excellency 
Governor Roger Wolcott; and such other papers and 
illustrations as the committee might deem advisable ; the 
whole to be printed under the direction of the Secre- 
tary of the Commonwealth, and the book distributed by 
him according to directions contained in the resolve. 
Senator Alfred S. Roe of Worcester and Represent- 
atives Francis C. Lowell of Boston and Walter L. 
Bouv6 of Hingham were appointed as the committee. 





MANDELL by Divine Permission 
ARD Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary to Her Most Gracious 
Majesty Queen Victoria at the Court of Saint James's 
in London and To The Governor and Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts in the United States of America 
Greeting WHEEEAS a Petition has been filed in 
the Eegistry of Our Consistorial and Episcopal Court 
of London by you the said Honorable Thomas Francis 
Bayard as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipoten- 
tiary to Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria 
at the Court of Saint James's in London on behalf 
of the President and Citizens of the United States of 
America wherein you have alleged that there is in 
Our Custody as Lord Bishop of London a certain 
Manuscript Book known as and entitled "The Log 
of the Mayflower " containing an account as narrated 
by Captain William Bradford who was one of the 
Company of Englishmen who left England in April 
1620 in the ship known as "The Mayflower" of 
the circumstances leading to the prior Settlement of 



that Company at Ley den in Holland their return to 
England and subsequent departure for New England 
their landing at Cape Cod in December 1620 their 
Settlement at New Plymouth and their later history 
for several years they being the Company whose Set- 
tlement in America is regarded as the first real Colo- 
nisation of the New England States and wherein you 
have also alleged that the said Manuscript Book had 
been for many years past and was then deposited in 
the Library attached to Our Episcopal Palace at Ful- 
ham in the County of Middlesex and is of the great- 
est interest importance and value to the Citizens of 
the United States of America inasmuch as it is one 
of the earliest records of their national History and 
contains much valuable information in regard to the 
original Settlers in the States their family history and 
antecedents and that therefore you earnestly desired 
to acquire possession of the same for and on behalf 
of the President and Citizens of the said United States 
of America AND WHEREIN you have also alleged 
that you are informed that We as Lord Bishop of 
London had fully recognised the value and interest 
of the said Manuscript Book to the Citizens of the 
United States of America and the claims which they 
have to its possession and that We were desirous 
of transferring it to the said President and Citizens 
AND WHEREIN you have also alleged that you are 
advised and believe that the Custody of documents in 


the nature of public or ecclesiastical records belong- 
ing to the See of London is vested in the Consis- 
torial Court of the said See and that any disposal 
thereof must be authorised by an Order issued by the 
Judge of that Honorable Court And that you there- 
fore humbly prayed that the said Honorable Court 
would deliver to you the said Manuscript Book on 
your undertaking to use every means in your power 
for the safe transmission of the said Book to the 
United States of America and its secure deposit and 
custody in the Pilgrim Hall at New Plymouth or in 
such other place as may be selected by the President 
and Senate of the said United States and upon such 
conditions as to security and access by and on behalf 
of the English Nation as that Honorable Court might 
determine AND WHEREAS the said Petition was set 
down for hearing on one of the Court days in Hilary 
Term to wit Thursday the Twenty fifth day of March 
One thousand eight hundred and ninety seven in Our 
Consistorial Court in the Cathedral Church of Saint 
Paul in London before The Right Worshipful Thomas 
Hutchinson Tristram Doctor of Laws and one of Her 
Majesty's Counsel learned in the Law Our Vicar Gen- 
eral and Official Principal the Judge of the said Court 
and you at the sitting of the said Court appeared by 
Counsel in support of the Prayer of the said Petition 
and during the hearing thereof the said Manuscript 
Book was produced in the said Court by Our legal 


Secretary and was then inspected and examined by 
the said Judge and evidence was also given before 
the Court by which it appeared that the Registry at 
Fulham Palace was a Public Registry for Historical 
and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to the Diocese 
of London and to the Colonial and other possessions 
of Great Britain beyond the Seas so long as the same 
remained by custom within the said Diocese AND 
WHEREAS it appeared on the face of the said Man- 
uscript Book that the whole of the body thereof with 
the exception of part of the last page thereof was in 
the handwriting of the said William Bradford who 
was elected Governor of New Plymouth in April 
1621 and continued Governor thereof from that date 
excepting between the years 1635 and 1637 up to 
1650 and that the last five pages of the said Manu- 
script which is in the handwriting of the said Wil- 
liam Bradford contain what in Law is an authentic 
Register between 1620 and 1650 of the fact of the 
Marriages of the Founders of the Colony of New 
England with the names of their respective wives 
and the names of their Children the lawful issue of 
such Marriages and of the fact of the Marriages of 
many of their Children and Grandchildren and of the 
names of the issue of such marriages and of the 
deaths of many of the persons named therein And 
after hearing Counsel in support of the said applica- 
tion the Judge being of opinion that the said Manu- 


script Book had been upon the evidence before the 
Court presumably deposited at Fulham Palace some- 
time between the year 1729 and the year 1785 during 
which time the said Colony was by custom within the 
Diocese of London for purposes Ecclesiastical and the 
Registry of the said Consistorial Court was a legiti- 
mate Registry for the Custody of Registers of Mar- 
riages Births and Deaths within the said Colony and 
that the Registry at Fulham Palace was a Registry 
for Historical and other Documents connected with 
the Colonies and possessions of Great Britain beyond 
the Seas so long as the same remained by custom 
within the Diocese of London and that on the Dec- 
laration of the Independence of the United States of 
America in 1776 the said Colony had ceased to be 
within the Diocese of London and the Registry of the 
Court had ceased to be a public registry for the said 
Colony and having maturely deliberated on the Cases 
precedents and practice of the Ecclesiastical Court 
bearing on the application before him and having 
regard to the Special Circumstances of the Case De- 
creed as follows (1) That a Photographic facsimile 
reproduction of the said Manuscript Book verified by 
affidavit as being a true and correct Photographic re- 
production of the said Manuscript Book be deposited 
in the Registry of Our said Court by or on behalf 
of the Petitioner before the delivery to the Petitioner 
of the said original Manuscript Book as hereinafter 


ordered (2) That the said Manuscript Book be 
delivered over to the said Honorable Thomas Francis 
Bayard by the Lord Bishop of London or in his 
Lordship's absence by the Eegistrar of the said Court 
on his giving his undertaking in writing that he will 
with all due care and diligence on his arrival from 
England in the United States convey and deliver in 
person the said Manuscript Book to the Governor 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United 
States of America at his Official Office in the State 
House in the City of Boston and that from the time 
of the delivery of the said Book to him by the said 
Lord Bishop of London or by the said Registrar until 
he shall have delivered the same to the Governor of 
Massachusetts he will retain the same in his own Per- 
sonal custody (3) That the said Book be deposited 
by the Petitioner with the Governor of Massachusetts 
for the purpose of the same being with all convenient 
speed finally deposited either in the State Archives of 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the City of 
Boston or in the Library of the Historical Society 
of the said Commonwealth in the City of Boston as 
the Governor shall determine (4) That the Gov- 
ernors of the said Commonwealth for all time to 
come be officially responsible for the safe custody 
of the said Manuscript Book whether the same be 
deposited in the State Archives at Boston or in the 
Historical Library in Boston aforesaid as well as for 


the performance of the following conditions subject to 
a compliance wherewith the said Manuscript Book is 
hereby decreed to be deposited in the Custody of the 
aforesaid Governor of the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts and his Successors to wit : (a) That all 
persons have such access to the said Manuscript Book 
as to the Governor of the said Commonwealth for the 
time being shall appear to be reasonable and with such 
safeguard as he shall order (b) That all persons 
desirous of searching the said Manuscript Book for 
the bona fide purpose of establishing or tracing a 
Pedigree through persons named in the last five pages 
thereof or in any other part thereof shall be per- 
mitted to search the same under such safeguards as 
the Governor for the time being shall determine on 
payment of a fee to be fixed by the Governor 
(c) That any person applying to the Official having 
the immediate custody of the said Manuscript Book 
for a Certified Copy of any entry contained in proof 
of Marriage Birth or Death of persons named therein 
or of any other matter of like purport for the pur- 
pose of tracing descents shall be furnished with such 
certificate on the payment of a sum not exceeding one 
Dollar (d) That with all convenient speed after 
the delivery of the said Manuscript Book to the Gov- 
ernor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts the Gov- 
ernor shall transmit to the Registrar of the Court a 
Certificate of the delivery of the same to him by 


the Petitioner and that he accepts the Custody of 
the same subject to the terms and conditions herein 
named AND the Judge lastly decreed that the Peti- 
tioner on delivering the said Manuscript Book to the 
Governor aforesaid shall at the same time deliver to 
him this Our Decree Sealed with the Seal of the 
Court WHEREFORE WE the Bishop of London 
aforesaid well weighing and considering the premises 
DO by virtue of Our Authority Ordinary and Epis- 
copal and as far as in Us lies and by Law We may 
or can ratify and confirm such Decree of Our Vicar 
General and Official Principal of Our Consistorial and 
Episcopal Court of London IN TESTIMONY whereof 
We have caused the Seal of Our said Vicar General 
and Official Principal of the Consistorial and Episco- 
pal Court of London which We use in this behalf to 
be affixed to these Presents DATED AT LONDON 
this Twelfth day of April One thousand eight hun- 
dred and ninety seven and in the first year of Our 


Exd. H.E.T. Registrar 

(L. S.) 





In the Consistory Court of London 



lately Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 
of the United States of America at the Court of 
Saint James's London Do hereby undertake, in com- 
pliance with the Order of this Honourable Court 
dated the twelfth day of April 1897 and made on 
my Petition filed in the said Honourable Court, that 
I will with all due care and diligence on my arrival 
from England in the United States of America safely 
convey over the Original Manuscript Book Known 
as and entitled "The Log of the Mayflower" which 
has been this twenty ninth day of April 1897 deliv- 
ered over to me by the Lord Bishop of London, to 
the City of Boston in the United States of America 
and on my arrival in the said City deliver the same 
over in person to the Governor of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts at his Official Office in the 
State House in the said City of Boston AND I fur- 
ther hereby undertake from the time of the said 



delivery of the said Book to me by the said Lord 
Bishop of London until I shall have delivered the 
same to the Governor of Massachusetts, to retain 
the same in my own personal custody. 

(Signed) T. F. BAYARD 

29 April 1897 





His Excellency ROGER WOLCOTT, Governor of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, in the United States of America. 

To the Registrar of the Consistorial and Episcopal Court of London. 

Whereas, The said Honorable Court, by its decree 
dated the twelfth day of April, 1897, and made on 
the petition of the Honorable Thomas Francis Bayard, 
lately Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 
of the United States of America at the Court of 
Saint James in London, did order that a certain 
original manuscript book then in the custody of the 
Lord Bishop of London, known as and entitled 
"The Log of the Mayflower," and more specifically 
described in said decree, should be delivered over to 
the said Honorable Thomas Francis Bayard by the 
Lord Bishop of London, on certain conditions spec- 
ified in said decree, to be delivered by the said 
Honorable Thomas Francis Bayard in person to the 
Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
thereafter to be kept in the custody of the aforesaid 
Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and 
his successors, subject to a compliance with certain 
conditions, as set forth in said decree ; 

And Whereas, The said Honorable Court by its 
decree aforesaid did further order that, with all con- 
venient speed after the delivery of the said manuscript 
book to the Governor of the Commonwealth of Massa- 


chusetts, the Governor should transmit to the Kegis- 
trar of the said Honorable Court a certificate of the 
delivery of the same to him by the said Honorable 
Thomas Francis Bayard, and his acceptance of the 
custody of the same, subject to the terms and con- 
ditions named in the decree aforesaid; 

JVbw, Therefore, In compliance with the decree 
aforesaid I do hereby certify that on the twenty-sixth 
day of May, 1897, the said Honorable Thomas Francis 
Bayard delivered in person to me, at my official 
office in the State House in the city of Boston, in 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the United 
States of America, a certain manuscript book which 
the said Honorable Thomas Francis Bayard then and 
there declared to be the original manuscript book 
known as and entitled "The Log of the Mayflower," 
which is more specifically described in the decree 
aforesaid ; and I do further certify that I hereby 
accept the custody of the same, subject to the terms 
and conditions named in the decree aforesaid. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto signed my 
name and caused the seal of the Commonwealth to 
be affixed, at the Capitol in Boston, this twelfth day 
of July in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and ninety-seven. 


By His Excellency the Governor, 


Secretary of the Commonwealth. 




The first American Ambassador to Great Britain, at 
the end of his official service, comes to Massachusetts 
on an interesting errand. He comes to deliver to the 
lineal successor of Governor Bradford, in the presence 
of the representatives and rulers of the body politic 
formed by the compact on board the " Mayflower," 
Nov. 11, 1620, the only authentic history of the 
founding of their Commonwealth ; the only authentic 
history of what we have a right to consider the most 
important political transaction that has ever taken 
place on the face of the earth. 

Mr. Bayard has sought to represent to . the mother 
country, not so much the diplomacy as the good-will 
of the American people. If in this anybody be 
tempted to judge him severely, let us remember 
what his great predecessor, John Adams, the first 
minister at the same court, representing more than 
any other man, embodying more than any other man, 
the spirit of Massachusetts, said to George III., on 
the first day of June, 1785, after the close of our 
long and bitter struggle for independence: "I shall 
esteem myself the happiest of men if I can be instru- 



mental in restoring an entire esteem, confidence and 
affection, or, in better words, the old good-nature 
and the old good-humor between people who, though 
separated by an ocean and under different govern- 
ments, have the same language, a similar religion 
and kindred blood." 

And let us remember, too, the answer of the old 
monarch, who, with all his faults, must have had 
something of a noble and royal nature stirring in his 
bosom, when he replied: "Let the circumstances of 
language, religion and blood have their natural and 
full effect." 

It has long been well known that Governor Brad- 
ford wrote and left behind him a history of the 
settlement of Plymouth. It was quoted by early 
chroniclers. There are extracts from it in the rec- 
ords at Plymouth. Thomas Prince used it when he 
compiled his annals. Hubbard depended on it when 
he wrote his "History of New England." Cotton 
Mather had read it, or a copy of a portion of it, 
when he wrote his "Magnalia." Governor Hutchin- 
son had it when he published the second volume of 
his history in 1767. From that time it disappeared 
from the knowledge of everybody on this side of the 
water. All our historians speak of it as lost, and can 
only guess what had been its fate. Some persons sus- 
pected that it was destroyed when Governor Hutchin- 
son's house was sacked in 1765, others that it was 


carried off by some officer or soldier when Boston 
was evacuated by the British army in 1776. 

In 1844 Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford, 
afterward Bishop of Winchester, one of the brightest 
of men, published one of the dullest and stupidest of 
books. It is entitled "The History of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in America." It contained extracts 
from manuscripts which he said he had discovered in 
the library of the Bishop of London at Fulham. The 
book attracted no attention here until, about twelve 
years later, in 1855, John Wingate Thornton, whom 
many of us remember as an accomplished antiquary 
and a delightful gentleman, happened to pick up a 
copy of it while he was lounging in Burnham's book 
store. He read the bishop's quotations, and carried 
the book to his office, where he left it for his friend, 
Mr. Barry, who was then writing his " History of 
Massachusetts," with passages marked, and with a 
note which is not preserved, but which, according 
to his memory, suggested that the passages must have 
come from Bradford's long-lost history. That is the 
claim for Mr. Thornton. On the other hand, it is 
claimed by Mr. Barry that there was nothing of that 
kind expressed in Mr. Thornton's note, but in read- 
ing the book when he got it an hour or so later, 
the thought struck him for the first time that the 
clew had been found to the precious book which had 
been lost so long. He at once repaired to Charles 


Deane, then and ever since, down to his death, as 
President Eliot felicitously styled him, "the master 
of historical investigators in this country." Mr. Deane 
saw the importance of the discovery. He communi- 
cated at once with Joseph Hunter, an eminent English 
scholar. Hunter was high authority on all matters 
connected with the settlement of New England. He 
visited the palace at Fulham, and established beyond 
question the identity of the manuscript with Governor 
Bradford's history, an original letter of Governor Brad- 
ford having been sent over for comparison of hand- 

How the manuscript got to Fulham nobody knows. 
Whether it was carried over by Governor Hutchin- 
son in 1774 ; whether it was taken as spoil from the 
tower of the Old South Church in 1775 ; whether, 
with other manuscripts, it was sent to Fulham at the 
time of the attempts of the Episcopal churches in 
America, just before the revolution, to establish an 
episcopate here, nobody knows. It would seem 
that Hutchinson would have sent it to the colonial 
office ; that an officer would naturally have sent it to 
the war office ; and a private would have sent it to 
the war office, unless he had carried it off as mere 
private booty and plunder, in which case it would 
have been unlikely that it would have reached a pub- 
lic place of custody. But we find it in the posses- 
sion of the church and of the church official having, 


until independence was declared, special jurisdiction 
over Episcopal interests in Massachusetts and Plym- 
outh. This may seem to point to a transfer for some 
ecclesiastical purpose. 

The bishop's chancellor conjectures that it was sent 
to Fulham because of the record annexed to it of 
the early births, marriages and deaths, such records 
being in England always in ecclesiastical custody. 
But this is merely conjecture. 

I know of no incident like this in history, unless 
it be the discovery in a chest in the castle of 
Edinburgh, where they had been lost for one hun- 
dred and eleven years, of the ancient regalia of Scot- 
land, the crown of Bruce, the sceptre and sword 
of state. The lovers of Walter Scott, who was one 
of the commissioners who made the search, remem- 
ber his intense emotion, as described by his daughter, 
when the lid was removed. Her feelings were worked 
up to such a pitch that she nearly fainted, and drew 
back from the circle. 

As she was retiring she was startled by his voice 
exclaiming, in a tone of the deepest emotion, " some- 
thing between anger and despair," as she expressed 
it: "By God, no!" One of the commissioners, not 
quite entering into the solemnity with which Scott 
regarded this business, had, it seems, made a sort 
of motion as if he meant to put the crown on the 
head of one of the young ladies near him, but the 


voice and the aspect of the poet were more than 
sufficient to make this worthy gentleman understand 
his error; and, respecting the enthusiasm with which 
he had not been taught to sympathize, he laid down 
the ancient diadem with an air of painful embar- 
rassment. Scott whispered, "Pray forgive me," and 
turning round at the moment observed his daughter 
deadly pale and leaning by the door. He immedi- 
ately drew her out of the room, and when she had 
somewhat recovered in the fresh air, walked with 
her across Mound to Castle Street. " He never 
spoke all the way home," she says, "but every 
now and then I felt his arm tremble, and from that 
time I fancied he began to treat me more like a 
woman than a child. I thought he liked me better, 
too, than he had ever done before." 

There have been several attempts to procure the 
return of the manuscript to this country. Mr. Win- 
throp, in 1860, through the venerable John Sinclair, 
archdeacon, urged the Bishop of London to give it 
up, and proposed that the Prince of Wales, then just 
coming to this country, should take it across the 
Atlantic and present it to the people of Massachu- 
setts. The Attorney-General, Sir Fitzroy Kelley, ap- 
proved the plan, and said it would be an exceptional 
act of grace, a most interesting action, and that he 
heartily wished the success of the application. But 
the bishop refused. Again, in 1869, John Lothrop 


Motley, then minister to England, who had a great 
and deserved influence there, repeated the proposi- 
tion, at the suggestion of that most accomplished 
scholar, Justin Winsor. But his appeal had the same 
fate. The bishop gave no encouragement, and said, 
as had been said nine years before, that the prop- 
erty could not be alienated without an act of Par- 
liament. Mr. Winsor planned to repeat the attempt 
on his visit to England in 1877. When he was at 
Fulham the bishop was absent, and he was obliged 
to come home without seeing him in person. 

In 1881, at the time of the death of President 
Garfield, Benjamin Scott, chamberlain of London, pro- 
posed again in the newspapers that the restitution 
should be made. But nothing came of it. 

Dec. 21, 1895, I delivered an address at Plymouth, 
on the occasion of the two hundred and seventy-fifth 
anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims upon the 
rock. In preparing for that duty, I read again, with 
renewed enthusiasm and delight, the noble and touch- 
ing story, as told by Governor Bradford. I felt that 
this precious history of the Pilgrims ought to be in 
no other custody than that of their children. But 
the case seemed hopeless. I found myself compelled 
by a serious physical infirmity to take a vacation, 
and to get a rest from public cares and duties, which 
was impossible while I stayed at home. When I 
went abroad I determined to visit the locality, on the 


borders of Lincolnshire and Yorkshire, from which 
Bradford and Brewster and Eobinson, the three lead- 
ers of the Pilgrims, came, and where their first church 
was formed, and the places in Amsterdam and Leyden 
where the emigrants spent thirteen years. But I 
longed especially to see the manuscript of Bradford 
at Fulham, which then seemed to me, as it now 
seems to me, the most precious manuscript on earth, 
unless we could recover one of the four gospels 
as it came in the beginning from the pen of the 

The desire to get it back grew and grew dur- 
ing the voyage across the Atlantic. I did not know 
how such a proposition would be received in Eng- 
land. A few days after I landed I made a call upon 
John Morley. I asked him whether he thought the 
thing could be done. He inquired carefully into the. 
story, took down from his shelf the excellent though 
brief life of Bradford in Leslie Stephen's "Bio- 
graphical Dictionary," and told me he thought the 
book ought to come back to us, and that he should 
be glad to do anything in his power to help. It 
was my fortune, a week or two after, to sit next 
to Mr. Bayard at a dinner given to Mr. Collins by 
the American consuls in Great Britain. I took occa- 
sion to tell him the story, and he gave me the 
assurance, which he has since so abundantly and 
successfully fulfilled, of his powerful aid. I was 


compelled, by the health of one of the party with 
whom I was travelling, to go to the continent almost 
immediately, and was disappointed in the hope of an 
early return to England. So the matter was delayed 
until about a week before I sailed for home, when 
I went to Fulham, in the hope at least of seeing 
the manuscript. I had supposed that it was a quasi- 
public library, open to general visitors. But I found 
the bishop was absent. I asked for the librarian, 
but there was no such officer, and I was told very 
politely that the library was not open to the public, 
and was treated in all respects as that of a private 
gentleman. So I gave up any hope of doing any- 
thing in person. But I happened, the Friday before 
I sailed for home, to dine with an English friend 
who had been exceedingly kind to me. As he took 
leave of me, about eleven o'clock in the evening, 
he asked me if there was anything more he could 
do for me. I said, "No, unless you happen to know 
the Lord Bishop of London. I should like to get 
a sight at the manuscript of Bradford's history before 
I go home." He said, "I do not know the bishop 
myself, but Mr. Grenfell, at whose house you spent 
a few days in the early summer, married the bishop's 
niece, and will gladly give you an introduction to his 
uncle. He is in Scotland. But I will write to him 
before I go to bed." 

Sunday morning brought me a cordial letter from 


Mr. Grenfell, introducing me to the bishop. I wrote 
a note to his lordship, saying I should be glad to 
have an opportunity to see Bradford's history; that 
I was to sail for the United States the next Wednes- 
day, but would be pleased to call at Fulham Tuesday, 
if that were agreeable to him. 

I got a note in reply, in which he said if I would 
call on Tuesday he would be happy to show me "The 
Log of the Mayflower," which is the title the English, 
without the slightest reason in the world, give the 
manuscript. I kept the appointment, and found the 
bishop with the book in his hand. He received me 
with great courtesy, showed me the palace, and said 
that that spot had been occupied by a bishop's palace 
for more than a thousand years. 

After looking at the volume and reading the records 
on the flyleaf, I said: "My lord, I am going to say 
something which you may think rather audacious. I 
think this book ought to go back to Massachusetts. 
Nobody knows how it got over here. Some people 
think it was carried off by Governor Hutchinson, the 
Tory governor; other people think it was carried off 
by British soldiers when Boston was evacuated; but 
in either case the property would not have changed. 
Or, if you treat it as a booty, in which last case, 
I suppose, by the law of nations ordinary property 
does change, no civilized nation in modern times 


applies that principle to the property of libraries and 
institutions of learning." 

"Well," said the bishop, "I did not know you 
cared anything about it." 

4 'Why," said I, "if there were in existence in 
England a history of King Alfred's reign for thirty 
years, written by his own hand, it would not be more 
precious in the eyes of . Englishmen than this manu- 
script is to us." 

"Well," said he, "I think myself it ought to go 
back, and if it had depended on me it would have gone 
back before this. But the Americans who have been 
here many of them have been commercial people 
did not seem to care much about it except as a curi- 
osity. I suppose I ought not to give it up on my 
own authority. It belongs to me in my official 
capacity, and not as private or personal property. 
I think I ought to consult the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. And, indeed," he added, "I think I ought 
to speak to the Queen about it. We should not do 
such a thing behind Her Majesty's back." 

I said: "Very well. When I go home I will have 
a proper application made from some of our literary 
societies, and ask you to give it consideration." 

I saw Mr. Bayard again, and told him the story. 
He was at the train when I left London for the 
steamer at Southampton. He entered with great in- 


terest into the matter, and told me again he would 
gladly do anything in his power to forward it. 

When I got home I communicated with Secretary 
Olney about it, who took a kindly interest in the 
matter, and wrote to Mr. Bayard that the adminis- 
tration desired he should do everything in his power 
to promote the application. The matter was then 
brought to the attention of the council of the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society, the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, the Pilgrim Society of Plymouth and the 
New England Society of New York. These bodies 
appointed committees to unite in the application. 
Governor Wolcott was also consulted, who gave his 
hearty approbation to the movement, and a letter was 
dispatched through Mr. Bayard. 

Meantime Bishop Temple, with whom I had my 
conversation, had himself become Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, and in that capacity Primate of all England. 
His successor, Rev. Dr. Creighton, had been the 
delegate of John Harvard's College to the great cele- 
bration at Harvard University on the two hundred 
and fiftieth anniversary of its foundation, in 1886. 
He had received the degree of doctor of laws from 
the university, had been a guest of President Eliot, 
and had received President Eliot as his guest in 

He is an accomplished historical scholar, and very 
friendly in sentiment to the people of the United 


States. So, by great fortune, the two eminent eccle- 
siastical personages who were to have a powerful 
influence in the matter were likely to be exceed- 
ingly well disposed. Dr. Benjamin A. Gould, the 
famous mathematician, was appointed one of the com- 
mittee of the American Antiquarian Society. He died 
suddenly, just after a letter to the Bishop of London 
was prepared and about to be sent to him for sign- 
ing. He took a very zealous interest in the matter. 
The letter formally asked for the return of the manu- 
script, and was signed by the following-named gentle- 
men : George F. Hoar, Stephen Salisbury, Edward 
Everett Hale, Samuel A. Green, for the American 
Antiquarian Society ; Charles Francis Adams, William 
Lawrence, Charles W. Eliot, for the Massachusetts 
Historical Society; Arthur Lord, William M. Evarts, 
William T. Davis, for "the Pilgrim Society of Plym- 
outh ; Charles C. Beaman, Joseph H. Choate, J. Pier- 
pont Morgan, for the New England Society of New 
York; Roger Wolcott, Governor of Massachusetts. 

The rarest good fortune seems to have attended 
every step in this transaction. 

I was fortunate in having formed the friendship of 
Mr. Grenfell, which secured to me so cordial a 
reception from the Bishop of London. 

It was fortunate that the Bishop of London was 
Dr. Temple, an eminent scholar, kindly disposed 
toward the people of the United States, and a man 


thoroughly capable of understanding and respecting 
the deep and holy sentiment which a compliance 
with our desire would gratify. 

It was fortunate, too, that Bishop Temple, who 
thought he must have the approbation of the arch- 
bishop before his action, when the time came had 
himself become Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate 
of all England. 

It was fortunate that Dr. Creighton had succeeded 
to the see of London. He is, himself, as I have 
just said, an eminent historical scholar. He has 
many friends in America. He was the delegate of 
Emmanuel, John Harvard's College, at the great Har- 
vard centennial celebration in 1886. He received the 
degree of doctor of laws at Harvard and is a mem- 
ber of the Massachusetts Historical Society. He had, 
as I have said, entertained President Eliot as his 
guest in England. 

It was fortunate, too, that the application came in 
a time of cordial good-will between the two coun- 
tries, when the desire of John Adams and the long- 
ing of George III. have their ample and complete 
fulfilment. This token of the good-will of England 
reached Boston on the eve of the birthday of the 
illustrious sovereign, who is not more venerated and 
beloved by her own subjects than by the kindred 
people across the sea. 

It comes to us at the time of the rejoicing of the 



English people at the sixtieth anniversary of a reign 
more crowded with benefit to humanity than any 
other known in the annals of the race. Upon the 
power of England, the sceptre, the trident, the lion, 
the army and the fleet, the monster ships of war, 
the all-shattering guns, the American people are 
strong enough now to look with an entire indiffer- 
ence. We encounter her commerce and her manu- 
facture in the spirit of a generous emulation. The 
inheritance from which England has gained these 
things is ours also. We, too, are of the Saxon 


In our halls is hung 
Armory of the invincible knights of old. 

Our temple covers a continent, and its porches are 
upon both the seas. Our fathers knew the secret to 
lay, in Christian liberty and law, the foundations of 
empire. Our young men are not ashamed, if need 
be, to speak with the enemy in the gate. 

But to the illustrious lady, type of gentlest woman- 
hood, model of mother and wife and friend, who came 
at eighteen to the throne of George IV. and William ; 
of purer eyes than to behold iniquity ; the maiden 
presence before which everything unholy shrank ; the 
sovereign who, during her long reign, "ever knew 
the people that she ruled ; " the royal nature that 
disdained to strike at her kingdom's rival in the 
hour of our sorest need; the heart which even in 


the bosom of a queen beat with sympathy for the 
cause of constitutional liberty ; who, herself not un- 
acquainted with grief, laid on the coffin of our dead 
Garfield the wreath fragrant with a sister's sympa- 
thy, to her our republican manhood does not dis- 
dain to bend. 

The eagle, lord of land and sea, 
Will stoop to pay her fealty. 

But I am afraid this application might have had 
the fate of its predecessors but for our special good 
fortune in the fact that Mr. Bayard was our ambas- 
sador at the Court of St. James. He had been, as 
I said in the beginning, the ambassador not so much 
of the diplomacy as of the good-will of the American 
people. Before his powerful influence every obstacle 
gave way. It was almost impossible for Englishmen 
to refuse a request like this, made by him, and 
in which his own sympathies were so profoundly 

You are entitled, sir, to the gratitude of Massa- 
chusetts, to the gratitude of every lover of Massa- 
chusetts and of every lover of the country. You 
have succeeded where so many others have failed, 
and where so many others would have been likely 
to fail. You may be sure that our debt to you is 
fully understood and will not be forgotten. 

The question of the permanent abiding-place of this 


manuscript will be settled after it has reached the 
hands of His Excellency. Wherever it shall go it 
will be an object of reverent care. I do not think 
many Americans will gaze upon it without a little 
trembling of the lips and a little gathering of mist 
in the eyes, as they think of the story of suffering, 
of sorrow, of peril, of exile, of death and of lofty 
triumph which that book tells, which the hand of 
the great leader and founder of America has traced 
on those pages. 

There is nothing like it in human annals since the 
story of Bethlehem. These Englishmen and English 
women going out from their homes in beautiful Lin- 
coln and York, wife separated from husband and 
mother from child in that hurried embarkation for 
Holland, pursued to the beach by English horsemen; 
the thirteen years of exile ; the life at Amsterdam 
* ' in alley foul and lane obscure ; " the dwelling at 
Ley den ; the embarkation at Delfthaven ; the farewell 
of Eobinson ; the terrible voyage across the Atlantic ; 
the compact in the harbor; the landing on the rock; 
the dreadful first winter; the death roll of more than 
half the number ; the days of suffering and of famine ; 
the wakeful night, listening for the yell of wild 
beast and the war-whoop of the savage ; the build- 
ing of the State on those sure foundations which 
no wave or tempest has ever shaken ; the breaking 
of the new light; the dawning of the new day; the 


beginning of the new life ; the enjoyment of peace 
with liberty, of all these things this is the origi- 
nal record by the hand of our beloved father and 
founder. Massachusetts will preserve it until the 
time shall come that her children are unworthy of 
it ; and that time shall come, never. 





Your Excellency, Gentlemen of the two Houses of 
the Legislature of Massachusetts, Ladies and Gentle- 
men, Fellow Countrymen : The honorable and most 
gratifying duty with which I am charged is about 
to receive its final act of execution, for I have the 
book here, as it was placed in my hands by the 
Lord Bishop of London on April 29, intact then and 
now ; and I am about to deliver it according to the 
provisions of the decree of the Chancellor of Lon- 
don, which has been read in your presence, and the 
receipt signed by me and registered in his court that 
I would obey the provisions of that decree. 

I have kept my trust ; I have kept the book as 
I received it; I shall deliver it into the hands of 
the representative of the people who are entitled 
to its custody. 

And now, gentlemen, it would be superfluous for 
me to dwell upon the historical features of this 
remarkable occasion, for it has been done, as we 
all knew it would be done, with ability, learning, 
eloquence and impressiveness, by the distinguished 
Senator who represents you so well in the Con- 
gress of the United States. 


For all that related to myself, and for every 
gracious word of recognition and commendation that 
fell from his lips in relation to the part that I have 
taken in the act of restoration, I am profoundly 
grateful. It is an additional reward, but not the 
reward which induced my action. 

To have served your State, to have been instru- 
mental in such an act as this, was of itself a high 
privilege to me. The Bradford manuscript was in the 
library of Fulham palace, and if, by lawful means, I 
could have become possessed of the volume, and have 
brought it here and quietly deposited it, I should 
have gone to my home with the great satisfaction of 
knowing that I had performed an act of justice, an 
act of right between two countries. Therefore the 
praise, however grateful, is additional, and I am very 
thankful for it. 

It may not be inappropriate or unpleasing to you 
should I state in a very simple manner the history 
of my relation to the return of this book, for it all 
has occurred within the last twelve months. 

I knew of the existence of this manuscript, and 
had seen the reproduction in facsimile. I knew that 
attempts had been made, unsuccessfully, to obtain the 
original book. 

At that time Senator Hoar made a short visit to 
England, and in passing through London I was 
informed by him of the great interest that he, in 


common with the people of this State, had in the 
restoration of this manuscript to the custody of the 

We discussed the methods by which it might be 
accomplished, and after two or three concurrent sug- 
gestions he returned to the United States, and pres- 
ently I received, under cover from the Secretary of 
State, a distinguished citizen of your own. State, 
Mr. Olney, a formal note, suggesting rather than 
instructing that in an informal manner I should en- 
deavor to have carried out the wishes of the various 
societies that had addressed themselves to the Bishop 
of London and the Archbishop of Canterbury, in 
order to obtain the return of this manuscript. 

It necessarily had to be done informally. The strict 
regulations of the office I then occupied forbade my 
correspondence with any member of the British gov- 
ernment except through the foreign office, unless it 
were informal. An old saying describes the entire 
case, that "When there's a will there's a way." There 
certainly was the will to get the book, and there cer- 
tainly was also a will and a way to give the book, 
and that way was discovered by the legal custodians 
of the book itself. 

At first there were suggestions of difficulty, some 
technical questions ; and following a very safe rule, 
the first thought was, What is the law? and the case 
was submitted to the law officers of the Crown. 


Then there arose the necessity of a formal act of 

There could be entertained no question as to the 
title to the manuscript in the possession of the British 
government. There was no authority to grant a claim, 
founded on adverse title, and the question arose as 
to the requisite form of law of a permissive rather 
than of a mandatory nature, in order to be authorita- 
tive with those who had charge of the document. 

But, as I have said, when there was a will there 
was found a way. By personal correspondence and 
interviews with the Bishop of London, I soon discov- 
ered that he was as anxious to find the way as I was 
that he should find it. In March last it was finally 
agreed that I should employ legal counsel to present 
a formal petition in the Episcopal Consistorial Court 
of London, and there before the Chancellor to repre- 
sent the strong desire of Massachusetts and her people 
for the return of the record of her early Governor. 

Accordingly, the petition was prepared, and by my 
authority signed as for me by an eminent member 
of the bar, and it was also signed by the Bishop of 
London, so that there was a complete consensus. The 
decree was ordered, as is published in the London 
"Times" on March 25 last, and nothing after that 
remained but formalities, in which, as you are well 
aware, the English law is not lacking, especially in 
the ecclesiastical tribunals. 


These formalities were carried out during my ab- 
sence from London on a short visit to the Conti- 
nent, and the decree which you have just heard read 
was duly entered on April 12 last, consigning the 
document to my personal custody, to be delivered 
by me in this city to the high official therein named, 
subject to those conditions which you have also heard. 

Accordingly, on the 29th of April last I was sum- 
moned to the court, and there, having signed the re- 
ceipt, this decree was read in my presence. Then the 
Bishop of London arose, and, taking the book in 
his hands, delivered it with a few gracious words 
into my custody, and here it is to-day. 

The records of those proceedings will no doubt be 
preserved here as accompanying this book, as they 
are in the Episcopal Consistorial Court in London, 
and they tell the entire story. 

But that is but part. The thing that I wish to 
impress upon you, and upon my fellow countrymen 
throughout the United States, is that this is an % act 
of courtesy and friendship by another government 
the government of what we once called our "mother 
country " to the entire people of the United States. 

You cannot limit it to the Governor of this Com- 
monwealth ; nor to the Legislature ; nor even to the 
citizens of this Commonwealth. It extends in its 
courtesy, its kindness and comity to the entire people 
of the United States. From first to last there was 


the ready response of courtesy and kindness to the 
request for the* restoration of this manuscript record. 

I may say to you that there has been nothing that 
I have sought more earnestly than to place the affairs 
of these two great nations in the atmosphere of ( 
mutual confidence and respect and good-will. If it 
be a sin to long for the honor of one's country, 
for the safety and strength of one's country, then 
I have been a great sinner, for I have striven to 
advance the honor and the safety and the welfare 
of my country, and believed it was best accom- 
plished by treating all with justice and courtesy, and 
doing those things to others which we would ask to 
have done to ourselves. 

When the Chancellor pronounced his decree in March 
last, he cited certain precedents to justify him in re- 
storing this volume to Massachusetts. One precedent 
which powerfully controlled his decision, and which 
in the closing portion of his judgment he emphasizes, 
was an act of generous liberality upon the part of 
the American Library Society in Philadelphia in vol- 
untarily returning to the British government some 
volumes of original manuscript of the period of James 
the First, which by some means not very clearly 
explained had found their way among the books of 
that institution. 

Those books were received by a distinguished man, 
Lord Romilly, Master of the Rolls, who took occasion 


to speak of the liberality and kindness which dictated 
the action of the Philadelphia library. Gentlemen, I 
am one of those who believe that a generous and 
kindly act is never unwise between individuals or 

The return of this book to you is an echo of the 
kindly act of your countrymen in the city of Phila- 
delphia in 1866. 

It is that, not, as Mr. Hoar has said, any influence 
or special effort of mine ; but it is international good 
feeling and comity which brought about to you the 
pleasure and the joy of having this manuscript re- 
turned, and so it will ever be. A generous act will 
beget a generous act; trust and confidence will beget 
trust and confidence ; and so it will be while the world 
shall last, and well will it be for the man or for the 
people who shall recognize this truth and act upon it. 

Now, gentlemen, there is another coincidence that 
I may venture to point out. It is history repeating 
itself. More than three hundred years ago the ances- 
tors from whom my father drew his name and blood 
were French Protestants, who had been compelled to 
flee from the religious persecutions of that day, and 
for the sake of conscience to find an asylum in Hol- 
land. Fifty years after they had fled and found safety 
in Holland, the little congregation of Independents 
from the English village of Scrooby, under the pas- 
torate of John Robinson, was forced to fly, and with 


difficulty found its way into the same country of the 
Netherlands, seeking an asylum for consciences' sake. 

Time passed on. The little English colony re- 
moved, as this manuscript of William Bradford will 
tell you, across the Atlantic, and soon after the 
Huguenot family from whom I drew my name found 
their first settlement in what was then the New 
Netherlands, now New York. Both came from the 
same cause; both came with the same object, the 
same purpose, ''soul freedom," as Roger Williams 
well called it. Both came to found homes where 
they could worship God according to their own con- 
science and live as free men. They came to these 
shores, and they have found the asylum, and they 
have strengthened it, and it is what we see to-day, 
a country of absolute religious and civil freedom, 
of equal rights and toleration. 

And is it not fitting that I, who have in my veins 
the blood of the Huguenots, should present to you and 
your Governor the log of the English emigrants, who 
left their country for the sake of religious freedom? 

They are blended here, their names, their inter- 
ests. No man asks and no man has a right to ask 
or have ascertained by any method authorized by law 
what is the conscientious religious tenet or opinion 
of any man, of any citizen, as a prerequisite for 
holding an office of trust or power in the United 

I think it well on this occasion to make, as I am 
sure you are making, acknowledgment to that heroic 
little country, the Lowlands as they call it, the Neth- 
erlands, the country without one single feature of 
military defence except the brave hearts of the men 
who live in it and defend it. 

Holland was the anvil upon which religious and 
civil liberty was beaten out in Europe at a time 
when the clang was scarcely heard anywhere else. 
We can never forget our historical debt to that 
country and to those people. Puritan, Independent, 
Huguenot, whoever he may be, forced to flee for 
conscience's sake, will not forget that in the Nether- 
lands there was found in his time of need the 
asylum where conscience, property and person might 
be secure. 

And now my task is done. I am deeply grateful 
for the part that I have been enabled to take in this 
act of just and natural restitution. In Massachusetts 
or out of Massachusetts there is no one more will- 
ing than I to assist this work; and here, sir [address- 
ing Governor Wolcott], I fulfil my trust in placing in 
your hands the manuscript. 

To you, as the honored representative of the people 
of this Commonwealth, I commit this book, in pur- 
suance of my obligations, gladly undertaken under 
the decree of the Episcopal Consistorial Court of 





On receiving the volume, Governor Wolcott, ad- 
dressing Mr. Bayard, spoke as follows : I thank you, 
sir, for the diligent and faithful manner in which 
you have executed the honorable trust imposed upon 
you by the decree of the Consistorial and Episcopal 
Court of London, a copy of which you have now 
placed in my hands. It was fitting that one of your 
high distinction should be selected to perform so 
dignified an office. 

The gracious act of international courtesy which is 
now completed will not fail of grateful appreciation 
by the people of this Commonwealth and of the 
nation. It is honorable alike to those who hesitated 
not to prefer the request and to those whose generous 
liberality has prompted compliance with it. It may 
be that the story of the departure of this precious 
relic from our shores may never in its every detail 
be revealed; but the story of its return will be read 
of all men, and will become a part of the history 
of the Commonwealth. There are places and objects 
so intimately associated with the world's greatest men 
or with mighty deeds that the soul of him who gazes 
upon them is lost in a sense of reverent awe, as it 


listens to the voice that speaks from the past, in 
words like those which came from the burning bush, 
"Put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place 
whereon thou standest is holy ground." 

On the sloping hillside of Plymouth, that bathes 
its feet in the waters of the Atlantic, such a voice 
is breathed by the brooding genius of the place, and 
the ear must be dull that fails to catch the whispered 
words. For here not alone did godly men and women 
suffer greatly for a great cause, but their noble pur- 
pose was not doomed to defeat, but was carried to 
perfect victory. They stablished what they planned. 
Their feeble plantation became the birthplace of re- 
ligious liberty, the cradle of a free Commonwealth. 
To them a mighty nation owns its debt. Nay, they 
have made the civilized world their debtor. In the 
varied tapestry which pictures our national life, the 
richest spots are those where gleam the golden threads 
of conscience, courage and faith, set in the web by 
that little band. May God in his mercy grant that 
the moral impulse which founded this nation may 
never cease to control its destiny; that no act of 
any future generation may put in peril the funda- 
mental principles on which it is based, of equal 
rights in a free state, equal privileges in a free 
church and equal opportunities in a free school. 

In this precious volume which I hold in my hands 
the gift of England to the Commonwealth of Mas- 


sachusetts is told the noble, simple story " of 
Plmioth. Plantation." In the midst of suffering and 
privation and anxiety the pious hand of William 
Bradford here set down in ample detail the history 
of the enterprise from its inception to the year 1647. 
From him we may learn " that all great and hon- 
ourable actions are accompanied with great difficulties, 
and must be both enterprised and overcome with 
answerable courages." 

The sadness and pathos which some might read into 
the narrative are to me lost in victory. The triumph 
of a noble cause even at a great price is theme for 
rejoicing, not for sorrow, and the story here told 
is one of triumphant achievement, and not of defeat. 

As the official representative of the Commonwealth, 
I receive it, sir, at your hands. I pledge the faith 
of the Commonwealth that for all time it shall be 
guarded in accordance with the terms of the decree 
under which it is delivered into her possession as one 
of her chiefest treasures. I express the thanks of the 
Commonwealth for the priceless gift. And I venture 
the prophecy that for countless years to come and 
to untold thousands these mute pages shall eloquently 
speak of high resolve, great suffering and heroic en- 
durance made possible by an absolute faith in the 
over-ruling providence of Almighty God. 







Oct. 16, 1897. 


I would ask you to express to the Convention 
of the two branches of the General Court of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts my grateful thanks 
for the copy of their resolution of May 26, which 
was presented to me by Mr. Adams.* 

I consider it a great privilege to have been asso- 
ciated with an act of courtesy, which was also an 
act of justice, in restoring to its proper place a 
document which is so important in the records of 
your illustrious Commonwealth. 

I am 

Yours faithfully, 


Clerk of the Convention. 

* The Hon. Charles Francis Adams. 


Of Plimoth Plantation. 

AND first of y e occasion and indusments ther unto ; 
the which that I may truly unfould, I must begine at 
y e very roote & rise of y e same. The which I shall 
endevor to manefest in a plaine stile, with singuler 
regard unto y e simple trueth in all things, at least as 
near as my slender judgmente can attaine the same. 

1. Chapter. 

IT is well knowne unto y e godly and judicious, how 
ever since y e first breaking out of y e lighte of y e gospell 
in our Honourable Nation of England, (which was y e 
first of nations whom y e Lord adorned ther with, affiter 
y* grosse darknes of popery which had covered & over- 
spred y e Christian worled,) what warrs & opposissions. 
ever since, Satan hath raised, maintained, and continued 
against the Saincts, from time to time, in one sorte or 
other. Some times by bloody death and cruel I tor- 
ments ; other whiles imprisonments, banishments, & 
other hard usages ; as being loath his kingdom should 
goe downe, the trueth prevaile, and y e churches of God 
reverte to their anciente puritie, and recover their prima- 
tive order, libertie, & bewtie. But when he could not 


prevaile by these means, against the maine trueths of 
y e gospell, but that they began to take rootting in many 
places, being watered with y e blooud of y c martires, and 
blessed from heaven with a gracious encrease ; He then 
begane to take him to his anciente strategemes, used 
of old against the first Christians. That when by y e 
bloody & barbarous persecutions of y e Heathen Em- 
perours, he could not stoppe & subuerte the course 
of y e gospell, but that it speedily overspred with a 
wounderfull celeritie the then best known parts of y e 
world, He then begane to sow errours, heresies, and 
wounderfull dissentions amongst y e professours them 
selves, (working upon their pride & ambition, with 
other corrupte passions incidente to all mortall men, 
yea to y e saints them selves in some measure,) by 
which wofull effects followed ; as not only bitter con- 
tentions, & hartburnings, schismes, with other horrible 
confusions, but Satan tooke occasion & advantage therby 
to foyst in a number of vile ceremoneys, with many 
unprofitable cannons & decrees, which have since been 
as snares to many poore & peaceable souls even to this 
day.v So as in y e anciente times, the persecutions [2] 
by y e heathen & their Emperours, was not greater then 
of the Christians one against other ; the Arians & other 
their complices against y e orthodoxe & true Christians. 
As witneseth Socrates in his 2. booke. His words are 
these ; * The violence truly (saith he) was no less than 

Lib. 2 Chap. 22. 


that of ould practised towards y 6 Christians when they 
were compelled & drawne to sacrifice to idoles ; for many 
indured sundrie kinds of tormente, often racking s> & dis- 
membering of their joynts; confiscating of ther goods; 
some bereaved of their native soyle; others departed this 
life under y e hands of y e tormentor; and some died in 
banishmete, & never saw ther cuntrie againe, <&c. 

The like methode Satan hath seemed to hold in these 
later times, since y e trueth begane to springe & spread 
after y e great defection made by Antichrist, y 4 man of 

For to let pass y e infinite examples in sundrie na- 
tions and severall places of y e world, and instance in 
our owne, when as y* old serpente could not prevaile 
by those firie flames & other his cruell tragedies, which 
he* by his instruments put in ure every wher in y e 
days of queene Mary & before, he then begane an 
other kind of warre, & went more closly to worke ; 
not only to oppuggen, but even to ruinate & destroy 
y c kingdom of Christ, by more secrete & subtile means, 
by kindling y e flames of contention and sowing y e 
seeds of discorde & bitter enmitie amongst y e proffes- 
sors & seeming reformed them selves. For when he 
could not prevaile by y e former means against y e prin- 
cipall doctrins of faith, he bente his force against ye 
holy discipline & outward regimente of y e kingdom of 

* In the text, parentheses are used frequently, apparently in place of commas. 
For this reason, many are omitted in the reprint. 


Christ, by which those holy doctrines should be con- 
served, & true pietie maintained amongest the saints 
& people of God. 

Mr. Foxe recordeth how y* besids those worthy 
martires & confessors which were burned in queene 
Marys days & otherwise tormented,* many (both stu- 
dients & others) fled out of y* land, to y e number of 
800. And became severall congregations. A.t Wesell, 
Frankford, Bassill, Emden, Markpurge, Strausborugh, 
& Geneva, &c. Amongst whom (but especialy those 
at Frankford) begane y l bitter warr of contention & 
persecutio aboute y e ceremonies, & servise-booke, and 
other popish and antichristian stuffe, the plague of 
England to this day, which are like y e highplases in 
Israeli, w ch the prophets cried out against, & were 
their ruine ; [3] which y e better parte sought, accord- 
ing to y e puritie of y e gospell, to roote out and 
utterly to abandon. And the other parte (under 
veiled pretences) for their ouwn ends & advancments, 
sought as stifly to continue, maintaine, & defend. As 
appeareth by y e discourse therof published in printe, 
An : 1575 ; a booke y* deserves better to be knowne 
and considred. 

The one side laboured to have y e right worship of 
God & discipline of Christ established in y e church, 
according to y e simplicitie of y e gospell, without the 
mixture of mens inventions, and to have & to be 

* Acts & Mon : pag. 1587. editi : 2. 


ruled by y e laws of Gods word, dispensed in those 
offices, & by those officers of Pastors, Teachers, & 
Elders, &c. according to y e Scripturs. The other par- 
tie, though under many colours & pretences, endev- 
ored to have y e episcopall dignitie (affter y e popish 
ruaner) with their large power & jurisdiction still re- 
tained; with all those courts, cannons, & ceremonies, 
togeather with all such livings, revenues, & subordi- 
nate officers, with other such means as formerly up- 
held their antichristian greatnes, and enabled them 
with lordly & tyranous power to persecute y e poore 
servants of God. This contention was so great, as 
neither y e honour of God, the cornmone persecution, 
nor y e mediation of Mr. Calvin & other worthies of 
y e Lord in those places, could prevaile with those 
thus episcopally minded, but they proceeded by all 
means to disturbe y e peace of this poor persecuted 
church, even so farr as to charge (very unjustly, & 
ungodlily, yet prelatelike) some of their cheefe op- 
posers, with rebellion & hightreason against y e Em- 
perour, & other such crimes. 

And this contetion dyed not with queene Mary, nor 
was left beyonde y e seas, but at her death these peo- 
ple returning into England under gracious queene 
Elizabeth, many of them being preferred to bish- 
opricks & other promotions , according to their aimes 
and desires, that inveterate hatered against y e holy 
discipline of Christ in his church hath continued to 


this day. In somuch that for fear [4] it should pre- 
veile, all plotts & devices have been used to keepe it 
out, incensing y e queene & state against it as dan- 
gerous for y e comon wealth; and that it was most 
needfull y* y e fundamentall poynts of Religion should 
be preached in those ignorante & superstitious times ; 
and to wine y e weake & ignorante, they might retaine 
diverse harmles ceremoneis ; and though it were to be 
wished y* diverse things were reformed, yet this was 
not a season for it. And many the like, to stop y e 
mouthes of y e more godly, to bring them over to 
yeeld to one ceremoney after another, and one cor- 
ruption after another; by these wyles begyleing some 
& corrupting others till at length they begane to per- 
secute all y e zealous professors in y e land (though 
they knew little what this discipline mente) both by 
word & deed, if they would not submitte to their 
ceremonies, & become slaves to them & their popish 
trash, which have no ground in y e word of God, but 
are relikes of y* man of sine. And the more y e light 
of y e gospell grew, y e more y ey urged their subscrip- 
tions to these corruptions. So as (notwithstanding all 
their former pretences & fair colures) they whose 
eyes God had not justly blinded might easily see 
wherto these things tended. And to cast contempte 
the more upon y e sincere servants of God, they oppro- 
briously & most injuriously gave unto, & imposed 
upon them, that name of Puritans, which [it] is said 


the Novatians out of prid did assume & take unto 
themselves.* And lamentable it is to see y e effects 
which have followed. Religion hath been disgraced, 
the godly greeved, afflicted, persecuted, and many 
exiled, sundrie have lost their lives in prisones & 
otherways. On the other hand, sin hath been coun- 
tenanced, ignorance, profannes, & atheisme increased, 
& the papists encouraged to hope againe for a day. 

This made that holy man Mr. Perkins f crie out in 
his exhortation to repentance, upon Zeph. 2. Religion 
(saith he) hath been amongst us this 35. years; but 
the more it is published, the more it is contemned & 
reproached of many, &c. Thus not prophanes nor 
wickednes, but Religion it selfe is a byword, a moking- 
stock, & a matter of reproach; so that in England at 
this day the man or woman y t begines to profes Religion, 
& to serve God, must resolve with him selfe to sustaine 
[5] mocks & injueries even as though he lived amongst 
y e enimies of Religion. And this comone experience 
hath confirmed & made too apparente. 

A late observation, as it were by the way, worthy to be 


Full litle did I thinke, y' the downfall of y e Bishops, with 
their courts, cannons, & ceremonies, &c. had been so neare, 
when I first begane these scribled writings (which was aboute 
y e year 1630, and so peeced up at times of leasure after- 

* Ens : lib : 6. Chap. 42. t Pag. 421. 

t A note of the author at this place, written subsequent to this portion of 
the narrative, on the reverse pages of his History. 


ward), or that I should have lived to have seene or heard 
of y e same ; but it is y e Lords doing, and ought to be 
marvelous in our eyes ! Every plante which mine heavenly 
father hath not planted (saith our Saviour) shall be rooted 
up. Mat: 15. 13.* I have snared the, and thou art taken, 
O Babell (Bishops), and thou wast not aware; thou art 
found, and also caught, because thou hast striven against 
the Lord. Jer. 50. 24. But will they needs strive against y e 
truth, against y e servants of God ; what, & against the Lord 
him selfe? Doe they provoke the Lord to anger? Are they 
stronger than he? 1. Cor: 10. 22. No, no, they have mete 
with their match. Behold, I come unto y e , O proud man, 
saith the Lord God of hosts ; for thy day is come, even the 
time that I will visite the. Jer: 50. 31. May not the 
people of God now say (and these pore people among y 
rest), The Lord hath brought forth our righteousnes ; come, 
let us declare in Sion the work of the Lord our God. Jer: 
51. 10. Let all flesh be still before the Lord; for he is 
raised up out of his holy place. Zach : 2. 13. 

In this case, these poore people may say (among y e 
thousands of Israll), When the Lord brougt againe the cap- 
tivite of Zion, we were like them that dreame. Psa: 126. 1. 
The Lord hath done greate things for us, wherof we rejoyce. 
v. 3. They that sow in teares, shall reap in joye. They 
wente weeping, and carried precious seede, but they shall 
returne with joye, and bring their sheaves, v. 5, 6. 

Doe you not now see y e fruits of your labours, O all yee 
servants of y e Lord that have suffered for his truth, and 
have been faithfull witneses of y e same, and yee litle hand- 
full amongst y e rest, y e least amongest y e thousands of Israll ? 
You have not only had a seede time, but many of you have 
seene y e joyefull harvest; should you not then rejoyse, yea, 

* All these and subsequent passages are quoted from the Geneva version 
of the Bible. 


and againe rejoyce, and say Hallelu-iah, salvation, and glorie, 
and honour, and power, be to y e Lord our God ; for true 
and righteous are his judgments. Rev. 19. 1, 2. 

But thou wilte aske what is y e mater? What is done? 
Why, art thou a stranger in Israll, that thou shouldest not 
know what is done? Are not those Jebusites overcome that 
have vexed the people of Israll so long, even holding Jeru- 
salem till Davids days, and been as thorns in their sids, so 
many ages ; and now begane to scorne that any David 
should meadle with them ; they begane to fortifie their tower, 
as that of the old Babelonians ; but those proud Anakimes 
are throwne downe, and their glory laid in y e dust. The 
tiranous bishops are ejected, their courts dissolved, their can- 
nons forceless, their servise casheired, their ceremonies uselese 
and despised ; their plots for popery prevented, and all their 
superstitions discarded & returned to Roome from whence 
they came, and y e monuments of idolatrie rooted out of y e laud. 
And the proud and profane suporters, and cruell defenders of 
these (as bloody papists & wicked athists, and their malignante 
consorts) rnarvelously over throwne. And are not these greate 
things? Who can deney it? 

But who hath done it? Who, even he that siteth on y e white 
horse, who is caled faithfull, & true, and judgeth and fighteth 
righteously, Rev: 19. 11. whose garments are dipte in blood, 
and his name was caled the word of God, v. 13. for he shall 
rule them with a rode of iron ; for it is he that treadeth the 
winepress of the feircenes and wrath of God almighty. And 
he hath upon his garmente, and upon his thigh, a name writen, 
The King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, v. 15, 16. 

Anno Dom: 1646. 

But that I may come more near my intendmente ; 
when as by the travell & diligence of some godly & 
zealous preachers, & Gods blessing on their labours, as 


in other places of y e land, so in y e North parts, many 
became inlightened by y e word of God, and had their 
ignorance & sins discovered unto them, and begane by 
his grace to reforme their lives, and make conscience 
of their wayes, the worke of God was no sooner mani- 
fest in them, but presently they were both scoffed and 
scorned by y e prophane multitude, and y e ministers 
urged with y e yoak of subscription, or els must be 
silenced ; and y e poore people were so vexed with 
apparators, & pursuants, & y e comissarie courts, as 
truly their affliction was not smale ; which, notwith- 
standing, they bore sundrie years with much patience, 
till they were occasioned (by y e continuance & encrease 
of these troubls, and other means which y e Lord raised 
up in those days) to see further into things by the 
light of y e word of God. How not only these base 
and beggerly ceremonies were unlawfull, but also that 
y e lordly & tiranous power of y e prelats ought not to 
be submitted unto ; which thus, contrary to the free- 
dome of the gospell, would load & burden mens con- 
sciences, and by their compulsive power make a prophane 
mixture of persons & things in y e worship of God. And 
that their offices & calings, courts & cannons, &c. were 
unlawfull and antichristian ; being such as have no war- 
rante in y e word of God ; but the same y* were used in 
poperie, & still retained. Of which a famous author 
thus writeth in his Dutch comtaries.* At y e coming of 

* Em : meter : lib : 25. col. 119. 

1602-1606?] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 13 

king James into England ; The new king (saith he) found 
their established y e reformed religion, according to y e re- 
formed religion of king Edward y e 6. Retaining, or 
keeping still y 6 spirituall state of y e Bishops, &c. after 
y 6 ould maner, much varying & differing from y e reformed 
churches in Scotland, France, & y e Netherlands, Embden, 
Geneva, &c. whose reformation is cut, or shapen much 
nerer y e first Christian churches, as it was used in y e 
A.postles times . * 

[6] So many therfore of these professors as saw y e 
evill of these things, in thes parts, and whose harts y e 
Lord had touched w th heavenly zeale for his trueth, they 
shooke of this yoake of antichristian bondage, and as 
y e Lords free people, joyned them selves (by a covenant 
of the Lord) into a church estate, in y e felowship of y e 
gospell, to walke in all his wayes, made known, or to 
be made known unto them, according to their best en- 
deavours, whatsoever it should cost them, the Lord assist- 
ing them. And that it cost them something this ensewing 
historic will declare. 

These people became 2. distincte bodys or churches, 
& in regarde of distance of place did congregate sev- 
erally ; for they were of sundrie townes & vilages, some 
in Notingamshire, some of Lincollinshire, and some of 
Yorkshire, wher they border nearest togeather. In one 

* The reformed churches shapen much neerer y e primitive patterne then 
England, for they cashered y e Bishops w ith al their courts, cannons, and cere- 
moneis, at the first ; and left them amongst y e popish tr. . to ch w ch they per- 
tained. (The last word in the note is uncertain in the MS.) 


of these churches (besids others of note) was Mr. John 
Smith, a man of able gifts, & a good preacher, who 
afterwards was chosen their pastor. But these after- 
wards falling into some errours in y e Low Countries, 
ther (for y e most part) buried them selves, & their 

But in this other church (w ch must be y e subjecte of 
our discourse) besids other worthy men, was M r . Richard 
Clifton, a grave & revered preacher, who by his paines 
and dilligens had done much good, and under God had 
ben a means of y e conversion of many. And also that 
famous and worthy man M r . John Robinson, who after- 
wards was their pastor for many years, till y e Lord 
tooke him away by death. Also M r . William Brewster 
a reverent man, who afterwards was chosen an elder 
of y e church and lived with them till old age. 

But after these things they could not long continue 
in any peaceable condition, but were hunted & perse- 
cuted on every side, so as their former afflictions were 
but as flea-bitings in comparison of these which now 
came upon them. For some were taken & clapt up in 
prison, others had their houses besett & watcht night 
and day, & hardly escaped their hands ; and y e most 
were faine to flie & leave their howses & habitations, 
and the means of their livelehood. Yet these & many 
other sharper things which affterward befell them, were 
no other then they looked for, and therfore were y e 
better prepared to bear them by y e assistance of Gods 


grace & spirite. Yet seeing them selves thus molested, 
[7] and that ther was no hope of their continuance ther, 
by a joynte consente they resolved to goe into y e Low- 
Countries, wher they heard was freedome of Religion 


for all men ; as also how sundrie from London, & other 
parts of y e land, had been exiled and persecuted for 
y e same cause, & were gone thither, and lived at Am- 
sterdam, & in other places of y e land. So affter they 
had continued togeither aboute a year, and kept their 
meetings every Saboth in one place or other, exercising 
the worship of God amongst them selves, notwithstand- 
ing all y e dilligence & malice of their adversaries, they 
seeing they could no longer continue in y* condition, 
they resolved to get over into Hollad as they could; 
which was in y e year 1607. & 1608. ; of which more at 
large in y e next chap. 

2. Chap. 

Of their departure into Holland and their troubls ther 
aboute, with some of y e many difficulties they found 
and mete withall. 

An . 1608. 

BEING thus constrained to leave their native soyle 
and countrie, their lands & livings, and all their 
freinds & famillier acquaintance, it was much, and 
thought marvelous by many. But to goe into a coun- 
trie they knew not (but by hearsay), wher they must 
learne a new language, and get their livings they 


knew not how, it being a dear place, & subjecte to 
y e misseries of warr, it was by many thought an ad- 
venture almost desperate, a case intolerable, & a mis- 
serie worse then death. Espetially seeing they were 
not aquainted with trads nor traffique, (by which y* 
countrie doth subsiste,) but had only been used to a 
plaine countrie life, & y e inocente trade of husbandrey. 
But these things did not dismay them (though they 
did some times trouble them) for their desires were 
sett on y e ways of God, & to injoye his ordinances ; 
but they rested on his providence, & knew whom they 
had beleeved. Yet [8] this was not all, for though 
they could not stay, yet were y e not suffered to goe, 
but y e ports & havens were shut against them, so as 
they were faine to seeke secrete means of conveance, 
& to bribe & fee y e mariners, & give exterordinarie 
rates for their passages. And yet were they often 
times betrayed (many of them), and both they & 
their goods intercepted & surprised, and therby put 
to great trouble & charge, of which I will give an in- 
stance or tow, & omitte the rest. 

Ther was a large companie of them purposed to get 
passage at Boston in Lincoln-shire, and for that end 
had hired a shipe wholy to them selves, & made 
agreement with the maister to be ready at a certaine 
day, and take them and their goods in, at a con- 
veniente place, wher they accordingly would all at- 
tende in readines. So after long waiting, & large 


expences, though he kepte not day with them, yet he 
came at length & tooke them in, in y e night. But 
when he had them & their goods abord, he betrayed 
them, haveing before hand complotted with y e serchers 
& other officers so to doe ; who tooke them, and put 
them into open boats, & ther rifled & ransaked them, 
searching them to their shirts for money, yea even y e 
women furder then became modestie ; and then caried 
them back into y e towne, & made them a spectackle 
& wonder to y e multitude, which came flocking on all 
sids to behould them. Being thus first, by the chatch- 
poule officers, rifled, & stripte of their money, books, 
and much other goods, they were presented to y e 
magestrates, and messengers sente to informe y e lords 
of y e Counsell of them ; and so they were comited to 
ward. Indeed y e magestrats used them courteously, 
and shewed them what favour they could ; but could 
not deliver them, till order came from y e Counsell- 
table. But y e issue was that after a months impris- 
onmente, y e greatest parte were dismiste, & sent to 
y e places from whence they came ; but 7 . of y e prin- 
cipall were still kept in prison, and bound over to 
y e Assises. 

The nexte spring after, ther was another attempte 
made by some of these & others, to get over at an 
other place. And it so fell out, that they light of a 
Dutchman at Hull, having a ship of his owne belong- 
ing to Zealand ; they made agreemente with him, and 


acquainted [9] him with their condition, hoping to 
find more faithfullnes in him, then in y e former of 
their owne nation. He bad them not fear, for he 
would doe well enough. He was by appointment to 
take them in betweene Grimsbe & Hull, wher was a 
large comone a good way distante from any towne. 
Now aganst the prefixed time, the women & children, 
with y e goods, were sent to y e place in a small barke, 
which they had hired for y 1 end ; and y e men were to 
meete them by land. But it so fell out, that they 
were ther a day before y e shipe came, & y e sea being 
rough, and y e women very sicke, prevailed with y e 
seamen to put into a creeke hardby, wher they lay on 
ground at lowwater. The nexte morning y c shipe 
came, but they were fast, & could not stir till aboute 
noone. In y e mean time, y e shipe maister, perceive- 
ing how y e matter was, sente his boate to be getting 
y e men abord whom he saw ready, walking aboute y e 
shore. But after y e first boat full was gott abord, & 
she was ready to goe for more, the m r espied a greate 
company, both horse & foote, with bills, & gunes, & 
other weapons ; for y e countrie was raised to take 
them. Y e Dutch-man seeing y% swore his countries 
oath, " sacremente," and having y e wind faire, waiged 
his Ancor, hoysed sayles, & away. But y e poore men 
which were gott abord, were in great distress for 
their wives and children, which they saw thus to be 
taken, and were left destitute of their helps ; and 


them selves also, not having a cloath to shifte them 
with, more then they had on their baks, & some 
scarce a peney aboute them, all they had being abord 
y e barke. It drew tears from their eyes, and any 
thing they had they would have given to have been 
a shore againe ; but all in vaine, ther was no remedy, 
they must thus sadly part. And afterward endured 
a fearfull storme at sea, being 14. days or more be- 
fore y ey arived at their porte, in 7. wherof they 
neither saw son, moone, nor stars, & were driven 
near y e coast of Norway ; the mariners them selves 
often despairing of life ; and once with shriks & cries 
gave over all, as if y e ship had been foundred in y e 
sea, & they sinking without recoverie. But when 
mans hope & helpe wholy failed, y e Lords power & 
mercie appeared in ther recoverie ; for y e ship rose 
againe, & gave y e mariners courage againe to manage 
her. And if modestie woud suffer me, I might de- 
clare with what fervente [10] prayres they cried unto 
y e Lord in this great distres, (espetialy some of 
them,) even without any great distraction, when y e 
water rane into their mouthes & ears ; & the mariners 

cried out, We sinke, we sinke ; they cried (if not 

with mirakelous, yet with a great hight or degree of 
devine faith), Yet Lord thou canst save, yet Lord 
thou canst save ; with shuch other expressions as I 
will forbeare. Upon which y e ship did not only re- 
cover, but shortly after y e violence of y e storme be- 

20 HISTORY or [CHAP. n. 

gane to abate, and y e Lord filed their afflicted minds 
with shuch comforts as every one canot understand, 
and in y e end brought them to their desired Haven, 
wher y e people came flockeing admiring their deliver- 
ance, the storme having ben so longe & sore, in 
which much hurt had been don, as y e masters freinds 
related unto him in their congrattulations. 

But to returne to y e others wher we left. The rest 
of y e men y* were in greatest danger, made shift to 
escape away before y e troope could surprise them ; 
those only staying y* best might, to be assistante unto 
y e women. But pitifull it was to see y e heavie case 
of these poore women in this distress ; what weeping 
& crying on every side, some for their husbands, that 
were caried away in y e ship as is before related ; 
others not knowing what should become of them, & 
their litle ones ; others againe melted in teares, see- 
ing their poore litle ones hanging aboute them, crying 
for feare, and quaking with could. Being thus apre- 
hended, they were hurried from one place to another, 
and from one justice to another, till in y e ende they 
knew not what to doe with them ; for to imprison so 
many women & innocent children for no other cause 
(many of them) but that they must goe with their hus- 
bands, semed to be unreasonable and all would crie 
out of them ; and to send them home againe was as 
difficult, for they aledged, as y e trueth was, they had 
no homes to goe to, for they had either sould, or other- 


wise disposed of their houses & livings. To be shorte, 
after they had been thus turmolyed a good while, and 
conveyed from one constable to another, they were glad 
to be ridd of them in y e end upon any termes ; for all 
were wearied & tired with them. Though in y e mean 
time they (poore soules) indured miserie enough ; and 
thus in y e end necessitie forste a way for them. 

But y* I be not tedious in these things, I will omitte 
y e rest, though I might relate many other notable pas- 
sages and troubles which they endured & underwente 
in these their wanderings & travells both at land & sea ; 
but I hast to [11] other things. Yet I may not omitte 
y e fruite that came hearby, for by these so publick 
troubls, in so many eminente places, their cause became 
famouss, & occasioned many to looke into y e same ; and 
their godly cariage & Christian behaviour was such as 
left a deep impression in the minds of many. And 
though some few shrunk at these first conflicts & sharp 
beginings, (as it was no marvell,) yet many more came 
on with fresh courage, & greatly animated others. And 
in y e end, notwithstanding all these stormes of oppossi- 
tion, they all gatt over at length, some at one time & 
some at an other, and some in one place & some in an 
other, and mette togeather againe according to their 
desires, with no small rejoycing. 

22 HISTORY or [CHAP. in. 

The 3. Chap. 

Of their selling in ffoland, & their maner of living, & 
entertainmente ther. 

BEING now come into y e Low Countries, they saw 
many goodly & fortified cities, strongly walled and 
garded with troopes of armed men. Also they heard 
a strange & uncouth language, and beheld y e differente 
maners & customes of y e people, with their strange 
fashons and attires ; all so farre differing from y* of 
their plaine countrie villages (wherin they were bred, 
& had so longe lived) as it seemed they were come into 
a new world. But these were not y e things they much 
looked on, or long tooke up their thoughts ; for they 
had other work in hand, & an other kind of warr 
to wage & maintaine. For though they saw faire & 
bewtifull cities, flowing with abundance of all sorts of 
welth & riches, yet it was not longe before they saw 
the grime & grisly face of povertie coming upon them 
like an armed man, with whom they must bukle & 
incounter, and from whom they could not flye ; but 
they were armed with faith & patience against him, and 
all his encounters ; and though they were sometimes 
foyled, yet by Gods assistance they prevailed and got 
y e victorie. 

Now when M r . Robinson, M r . Brewster, & other prin- 
cipall members were come over, (for they were of y e 


last, & stayed to help y e weakest over before them,) 
such things were [12] thought on as were necessarie 
for their setling and best ordering of y e church affairs. 
And when they had lived at Amsterdam aboute a year, 
M r . Robinson, their pastor, and some others of best 
discerning, seeing how M r . John Smith and his com- 
panie was allready fallen in to contention with y e church 
y* was ther before them, & no means they could use 
would doe any good to cure y e same, and also that 
y e flames of contention were like to breake out in y* 
anciente church it selfe (as affterwards lamentably 
came to pass) ; which things they prudently foresee- 
ing, thought it was best to remove, before they were 
any way engaged with y e same ; though they Well knew 
it would be much to y e prejudice of their outward 
estats, both at presente & in licklyhood in y e future ; 
as indeed it proved to be. 

Their remoovall to Ley den. 

For these & some other reasons they removed to Ley- 
den, a fair & bewtifull citie, and of a sweete situation, 
but made more famous by y e universitie wherwith it is 
adorned, in which of late had been so many learned 
men. But wanting that traffike by sea which Amster- 
dam injoyes, it was not so beneficiall for their outward 
means of living & estats. But being now hear pitchet 
they fell to such trads & imployments as they best 
could ; valewing peace & their spirituall comforte above 


any other riches whatsoever. And at lenght they came 
to raise a competente & comforteable living, but with 
hard and continuall labor. 

Being thus setled (after many difficulties) they con- 
tinued many years in a comfortable condition, injoying 
much sweete & delightefull societie & spirituall corn- 
forte togeather in y e wayes of God, under y e able minis- 
trie, and prudente governmente of M r . John Robinson, 
& M r . William Brewster, who was an assistante unto 
him in y e place of an Elder, unto which he was now 
called & chosen by the church. So as they grew in 
knowledge & other gifts & graces of y e spirite of God, 
& lived togeather in peace, & love, and holines ; and 
many came unto them from diverse parts of England, 
so as they grew a great congregation. And if at any 
time any differences arose, or offences broak [13] out 
(as it cannot be, but some time ther will, even amongst 
y e best of men) they were ever so mete with, and nipt 
in y e head betims, or otherwise so well composed, as 
still love, peace, and communion was continued ; or els 
y e church purged of those that were incurable & incor- 
rigible, when, after much patience used, no other means 
would serve, which seldom came to pass. Yea such 
was y e mutuall love, & reciprocall respecte that this 
worthy man had to his flocke, and his flocke to him, 
that it might be said of them as it once was of y* 
famouse Emperour Marcus Aurelious,* and y e people of 

* Goulden booke, &c. 

1609-1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 25 

Rome, that it was hard to judge wheather he delighted 
more in haveing shuch a people, or they in haveing 
such a pastor. His love was greate towards them, and 
his care was all ways bente for their best good, both 
for soule and body ; for besids his singuler abilities in 
devine things (wherin he excelled), he was also very 
able to give directions in civill affaires , and to foresee 
dangers & inconveniences ; by w ch means he was very 
helpfull to their outward estats, & so was every way 
as a commone father unto them. And none did more 
ofl'end him then those that were close and cleaving to 
them selves, and retired from y e commoe good ; as also 
such as would be stiffe & riged in matters of outward 
order, and invey against y e evills of others, and yet be 
remisse in them selves, and not so carefull to express 
a vertuous conversation. They in like maner had ever 
a reverente regard unto him, & had him in precious 
estimation, as his worth & wisdom did deserve ; and 
though they esteemed him highly whilst he lived & 
laboured amongst them, yet much more after his death, 
when they came to feele y e wante of his help, and saw 
(by woefull experience) what a treasure they had lost, 
to y e greefe of their harts, and wounding of their sowls ; 
yea such a loss as they saw could not be repaired ; for 
it was as hard for them to find such another leader 
and feeder in all respects, as for y e Taborits to find 
another Ziska'. And though they did not call them- 
selves orphans, as the other did, after his death, yet 


they had cause as much to lamente, in another regard, 
their present condition, and after usage. But to re- 
turne ; I know not but it may be spoken to y e honour 
of God, & without prejudice [14] to any, that such 
was y e true pietie, y e humble zeale, & fervent love, of 
this people (whilst they thus lived together) towards 
God and his waies, and y e single hartednes & sinceir 
affection one towards another, that they came as near 
y e primative pattern e of y e first churches, as any other 
church of these later times have done, according to 
their ranke & qualitie. 

But seeing it is not my purpose to treat of y e sev- 
erall passages that befell this people whilst they thus 
lived in y e Low Countries, (which might worthily re- 
quire a large treatise of it selfe,) but to make way to 
shew y e begining of this plantation, which is that I 
aime at ; yet because some of their adversaries did, 
upon y e rumore of their removall, cast out slanders 
against them, as if that state had been wearie of them, 
& had rather driven them out (as y e heathen histo- 
rians did faine of Moyses & y e Isralits when they 
went out of Egipte), then y l it was their owne free 
choyse & motion, I will therfore mention a perticuler 
or too to shew y e contrary, and y e good acceptation 
they had in y e place wher they lived. And first 
though many of them weer poore, yet ther was none 
so poore, but if they were known to be of y t con- 
gregation, the Dutch (either bakers or others) would 

1609-1620.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 27 

trust them in any reasonable matter when y ey wanted 
money. Because they had found by experience how 
carfull they were to keep their word, and saw them so 
painfull & dilligente in their callings ; yea, they would 
strive to gett their custome, and to imploy them above 
others, in their worke, for their honestie & diligence. 
Againe ; y e magistrats of y e citie, aboute y e time of 
their coming away, or a litle before, in y e publick 
place of justice, gave this comendable testemoney of 
them, in y e reproofe of the Wallons, who were of y e 
French church in y* citie. These English, said they, 
have lived amongst us now this 12. years, and yet we 
never had any sute or accusation came against any of 
them; but your strifs & quarels are continuall, &c. 
In these times allso were y e great troubls raised by 
y e Arminians, who, as they greatly mollested y e whole 
state, so this citie in particuler, in which was y e 
cheefe universitie ; so as ther were dayly & hote dis- 
puts in y e schooles ther aboute ; and as y e studients & 
other lerned were devided in their oppinions hearin, 
so were y e 2. proffessors or devinitie readers them 
selves ; the one daly teaching for it, y e other against 
it. Which grew to that pass, that few of the discipls 
of y e one would hear y e other teach. But M r . Kob- 
inson, though he taught thrise a weeke him selfe, & 
write sundrie books, besids his manyfould pains other- 
wise, yet he went constantly [15] to hear ther read- 
ings, and heard y e one as well as y e other; by which 


means he was so well grounded in y e controversie, 
and saw y e force of all their arguments, and knew y e 
shifts of y e adversarie, and being him selfe very able, 
none was fitter to buckle with them then him selfe, as 
appered by sundrie disputs ; so as he begane to be 
terrible to y e Arminians ; which made Episcopius (y e 
Arminian professor) to put forth his best stringth, and 
set forth sundrie Theses, which by publick dispute he 
would defend against all men. Now Poliander y e 
other professor, and y e cheefe preachers of y e citie, 
desired M r . Robinson to dispute against him ; but he 
was loath, being a stranger ; yet the other did impor- 
tune him,, and tould him y* such was y e abilitie and 
nimblnes of y e adversarie, that y e truth would suffer 
if he did not help them. So as he condescended, & 
prepared him selfe against the time ; and when y e day 
came, the Lord did so help him to defend y e truth & 
foyle this adversarie, as he put him to an apparent 
nonplus, in this great & publike audience. And y e 
like he did a 2. or 3. time, upon such like occasions. 
The which as it caused many to praise God y* the 
trueth had so famous victory, so it procured him 
much honour & respecte from those lerned men & 
others which loved y e trueth. Yea, so farr were they 
from being weary of him & his people, or desiring 
their absence, as it was said by some, of no mean 
note, that were it not for giveing offence to y e state 
of England, they would have preferd him otherwise if 


he would, and alowd them some publike favour. Yea 
when ther was speech of their remoovall into these 
parts, sundrie of note & eminencie of y 4 nation would 
have had them come under them, and for y* end made 
them large offers. Now though I might aledg many 
other perticulers & examples of y e like kinde, to shew 
y e untruth & unlicklyhode of this slander, yet these 
shall suffice, seeing it was beleeved of few, being only 
raised by y e malice of some, who laboured their 

The 4. Chap. 

/Showing y e reasons & causes of their remoovall. 
AFTER they had lived in this citie about some 11. 
or 12. years, (which is y e more observable being y e 
whole time of y* famose truce between that state & 
y e Spaniards,) and sundrie of them were taken away 
by death, & many others begane to be well striken in 
years, the grave mistris Experience haveing taught 
them many things, [16] those prudent governours with 
sundrie of y e sagest members begane both deeply to 
apprehend their present dangers, & wisely to foresee 
y e future, & thinke of timly remedy. In y e agitation 
of their thoughts, and much discours of things hear 
aboute, at length they began to incline to this conclu- 
sion, of remoovall to some other place. Not out of 
any newfanglednes, or other such like giddie humor, 
by which men are oftentimes transported to their 
great hurt & danger, but for sundrie weightie & solid 


reasons ; some of y e cheefe of which 1 will hear breefly 
touch. And first, they saw & found by experience the 
hardnes of y e place & countrie to be such, as few in 
comparison would come to them, and fewer that would 
bide it out, and continew with them. For many y* 
came to them, and many more y* desired to be with 
them, could not endure y* great labor and hard fare, 
with other inconveniences which they underwent & 
were contented with. But though they loved their 
persons, approved their cause, and honoured their suf- 
ferings, yet they left them as it weer weeping, as 
Orpah did her mother in law Naomie, or as those 
Romans did Cato in Utica, who desired to be excused 
& borne with, though they could not all be Catoes. 
For many, though they desired to injoye y e ordinances 
of God in their puritie, and y e libertie of the gospell 
with them, yet, alass, they admitted of bondage, with 
danger of conscience, rather then to indure these hard- 
ships ; yea, some preferred & chose y e prisons in Eng- 
land, rather then this libertie in Holland, with these 
afflictions. But it was thought that if a better and 
easier place of living could be had, it would draw many, 
& take away these discouragments. Yea, their pastor 
would often say, that many of those w both wrate & 
preached now against them, if they were in a place 
wher they might have libertie and live comfortably, 
they would then practise as they did. 

2 ly . They saw that though y e people generally bore 


all these difficulties very cherfully, & with a resolute 
courage, being in y e best & strength of their years, yet 
old age began to steale on many of them, (and their 
great & continuall labours, with other crosses and sor- 
rows, hastened it before y e time,) so as it was not only 
probably thought, but apparently seen, that within a 
few years more they would be in danger to scatter, by 
necessities pressing them, or sinke under their burdens, 
or both. And therfore according to y e devine proverb, 
y* a wise man seeth y e plague when it cometh, & hideth 
him selfe, Pro. 22. 3., so they like skillfull & beaten 
souldiers were fearfull either to be intrapped or sur- 
rounded by their enimies, so as they should neither be 
able to fight nor flie ; and therfor thought it better to 
dislodge betimes to some place of better advantage & 
less danger, if any such could be found. [16] Thirdly ; 
as necessitie was a taskmaster over them, so they were 
forced to be such, not only to their servants, but in a 
sorte, to their dearest chilldren ; the which as it did not 
a litle wound y e tender harts of many a loving father & 
mother, so it produced likwise sundrie sad & sorowful 
effects. For many of their children, that were of best 
dispositions and gracious inclinations, haveing lernde 
to bear y e 'yoake in their youth, and willing to bear 
parte of their parents burden, were, often times, so 
oppressed with their hevie labours, that though their 
minds were free and willing, yet their bodies bowed 
under y e weight of y e same, and became decreped in 

32 HISTORY or [CHAP. iv. 

their early youth ; the vigor of nature being consumed 
in y e very budd as it were. But that which was more 
lamentable, and of all sorowes most heavie to be borne, 
was that many of their children, by these occasions, 
and. y e great licentiousnes of youth in y* countrie, and 
y e manifold temptations of the place, were drawne away 
by evill examples into extra vagante & dangerous courses, 
getting y e raines off their neks, & departing from their 
parents. Some became souldiers, others tooke upon 
them farr viages by sea, and other some worse courses, 
tending to dissolutnes & the danger of their soules, to 
y e great greefe of their parents and dishonour of God. 
So that they saw their posteritie would be in danger 
to degenerate & be corrupted. 

Lastly, (and which was not least,) a great hope & 
inward zeall they had of laying some good foundation, 
or at least to make some way therunto, for y e propagat- 
ing & advancing y e gospell of y e kingdom of Christ in 
those remote parts of y e world ; yea, though they should 
be but even as stepping-stones unto others for y c per- 
forming of so great a work. 

These, & some other like reasons, moved them to 
undertake this resolution of their removall ; the which 
they afterward prosecuted with so great difficulties, as 
by the sequell will appeare. 

The place they had thoughts on was some of those 
vast & unpeopled countries of America, which are frut- 
full & fitt for habitation, being devoyd of all civill 


inhabitants, wher ther are only salvage & brutish men, 
which range up and downe, litle otherwise then y e wild 
beasts of the same. This proposition being made pub- 
like and coming to y e scaning of all, it raised many 
variable opinions amongst men, and caused many fears 
& doubts amongst them selves. Some, from their 
reasons & hops conceived, laboured to stirr up & in- 
courage the rest to undertake & prosecute y e same ; 
others, againe, out of their fears, objected against it, 
& sought to diverte from it, aledging many things, and 
those neither unreasonable nor unprobable ; as that it 
was a great designe, and subjecte to many unconceivable 
perills & dangers ; as, besids the casulties of y e seas 
(which none can be freed from) the length of y e vioage 
was such, as y e weake bodys of women and other 
persons worne out with age & traville (as many of 
them were) could never be able to endure. And yet 
if they should, the miseries of y e land which they 
should be [17] exposed unto, would be to hard to be 
borne ; and lickly, some or all of them togeither, to 
consume & utterly to ruinate them. For ther they 
should be liable to famine, and nakednes, & y e wante, 
in a maner, of all things. The chang of aire, diate, & 
drinking of water, would infecte their bodies with sore 
sickneses, and greevous diseases. And also those which 
should escape or overcome these difficulties, should yett 
be in continuall danger of y e salvage people, who are 
cruell, barbarous, & most trecherous, being most furious 

34 HISTORY or [CHAP. iv. 

in their rage, and merciles wher they overcome ; not 
being contente only to kill, & take away life, but delight 
to tormente men in y e most bloodie maner that may be ; 
fleaing some alive with y e shells of fishes, cutting of y e 
members & joynts of others by peesmeale, and broiling 
on y e coles, eate y e collops of their flesh in their sight 
whilst they live ; with other cruelties horrible to be 
related. And surely it could not be thought but y e 
very hearing of these things could not but move y e 
very bowels of men to grate within them, and make 
y e weake to quake & tremble. It was furder objected, 
that it would require greater sumes of money to furnish 
such a voiage, and to fitt them with necessaries, then 
their consumed estats would amounte too ; and yett 
they must as well looke to be seconded with supplies, 
as presently to be transported. Also many presidents 
of ill success, & lamentable misseries befalne others in 
the like designes, were easie to be found, and not for- 
gotten to be aledged ; besids their owne experience, 
in their former troubles & hardships in their removall 
into Holand, and how hard a thing it was for them to 
live in that strange place, though it was a neighbour 
countrie, & a civill and rich comone wealth. 

It was answered, that all great & honourable actions 
are accompanied with great difficulties, and must be 
both enterprised and overcome with answerable cour- 
ages. It was granted y e dangers were great, but not 
desperate ; the difficulties were many, but not invincible. 


For though their were many of them likly, yet they 
were not cartaine ; it might be sundrie of y e things 
feared might never befale ; others by providente care 
& y e use of good means, might in a great measure be 
prevented ; and all of them, through y e help of God, 
by fortitude and patience, might either be borne, or 
overcome. True it was, that such atempts were not 
to be made and undertaken without good ground & 
reason ; not rashly or lightly as many have done for 
curiositie or hope of gaine, &c. But their condition 
was not ordinarie ; their ends were good & honourable ; 
their calling lawfull, & urgente ; and therfore they might 
expecte y e blessing of God in their preceding. Yea, 
though they should loose their lives in this action, yet 
might they have comforte in the same, and their en- 
deavors would be honourable. They lived hear but 
as men in exile, & in a poore condition ; and as great 
miseries might possibly befale them in this place, for 
y e 12. years of truce were now out, & ther was nothing 
but beating of drumes, and preparing for warr, the 
events wherof are all way uncertaine. Y e Spaniard 
might prove as cruell as [18] the salvages of America, 
and y e famine and pestelence as sore hear as ther, & 
their libertie less to looke out for remedie. After 
many other perticuler things answered & aledged on 
both sids, it was fully concluded by y e major parte, 
to put this designe in execution, and to prosecute it 
by the best means they could. 

36 HISTORY or [CHAP. v. 

The 5. Chap. 

Shewing what means they used for preparation to this 

waightie vioag. 

AND first after thir humble praiers unto God for his 
direction & assistance, & a generall conferrence held 
hear aboute, they consulted what perticuler place to 
pitch upon, & prepare for. Some (& none of y e 
meanest) had thoughts & were ernest for Guiana, or 
some of those fertill places in those hott climats ; 
others were for some parts of Virginia, wher y e 
English had all ready made enterance, & begining. 
Those for Guiana aledged y 4 the cuntrie was rich, 
fruitfull, & blessed with a perpetuall spring, and a 
florishing greenes ; where vigorous nature brought 
forth all things in abundance & plentie without any 
great labour or art of man. So as it must needs 
make y e inhabitants rich, seing less provisions of cloth- 
ing and other things would serve, then in more coulder 
& less frutfull countries must be had. As also y* the 
Spaniards (having much more then they could possess) 
had not yet planted there, nor any where very near 
y e same. But to this it was answered, that out of 
question y e countrie was both frutfull and pleasante, 
and might yeeld riches & maintenance to y e possessors, 
more easily then y e other; yet, other things con- 
sidered, it would not be so fitt for them. And first, 


y* such hott countries are subject to greevuos diseases, 
and many noysome impediments, which other more 
temperate places are freer from, and would not so 
well agree with our English bodys. Againe, if they 
should ther live, & doe well, the jealous Spaniard 
would never suffer them long, but would displante 
or overthrow them, as he did y e French in Florida, 
who were seated furder from his richest countries ; 
and the sooner because they should have none to 
protect them, & their owne strength would be too 
smale to resiste so potent an enemie, & so neare a 

On y e other hand, for Virginia it was objected, that 
if they lived among y e English w ch wear ther planted, 
or so near them as to be under their goverment, they 
should be in as great danger to be troubled and per- 
secuted for the cause of religion, as if they lived in 
England, and it might be worse. And if they lived 
too farr of, they should neither have succour, nor de- 
fence from them. 

But at length y e conclusion was, to live as a dis- 
tincte body by them selves, under y e generall Gover- 
ment of Virginia ; and by their freinds to sue to his 
majestie that he would be pleased to grant them free- 
dome of Religion ; and y* this might be obtained, they 
wear putt in good hope by some great persons, of 
good ranke & qualitie, that were made their freinds. 
Whereupon 2. were chosen [19] & sent in to England 

38 HISTORY or [CHAP. v. 

(at y e charge of y e rest) to sollicite this matter, who 
found the Virginia Company very desirous to have 
them goe thither, and willing to grante them a patent, 
with as ample priviliges as they had, or could grant 
to any, and to give them the best furderance they 
could. And some of y e cheefe of y* company douted 
not to obtaine their suite of y e king for liberty in Re- 
ligion, and to have it confirmed under y kings broad 
seale, according to their desires. But it prooved a 
harder peece of worke then they tooke it for; for 
though many means were used to bring it aboute, yet 
it could not be effected ; for ther were diverse of 
good worth laboured with the king to obtaine it, 
(amongst whom was one of his cheefe secretaries,*) 
and some other wrought with y e archbishop to give 
way therunto ; but it proved all in vaine. Yet thus 
farr they prevailed, in sounding his majesties mind, 
that he would connive at them, & not molest them, 
provided they carried them selves peacably. But to 
allow or tolerate them by his publick authoritie, under 
his seale, they found it would not be. And this was 
all the cheefe of y c Virginia companie or any other of 
their best freinds could doe in y e case. Yet they per- 
s waded them to goe on, for they presumed they 
should not be troubled. And with this answer y mes- 
sengers returned, and signified what diligence had bene 
used, and to what issue things were come. 

* S r Robert Nanton. 


But this made a dampe in y busines, and caused 
some distraction, for many were afraid that if they 
should unsetle them selves, & put of their estates, 
and goe upon these hopes, it might prove dangerous, 
and but a sandie foundation. Yea, it was thought 
they might better have presumed hear upon without 
makeing any suite at all, then, haveing made it, to be 
thus rejected. But some of y cheefest thought other 
wise, and y* they might well proceede hereupon, & 
that y e kings majestie was willing enough to suffer 
them without molestation, though for other reasons he 
would not confirme it by any publick acte. And fur- 
dermore, if ther was no securitie in this promise inti- 
mated, ther would be no great certainty in a furder 
confirmation of y e same ; for if after wards ther should 
be a purpose or desire to wrong them, though they 
had a seale as broad as y c house flore, it would not 
serve y turne ; for ther would be means enew found 
to recall or reverse it. Seeing therfore the course 
was probable, they must rest herein on Gods provi- 
dence, as they had done in other things. 

Upon this resolution, other messengers were dis- 
patched, to end with y c Virginia Company as well as 
they could. And to procure [20] a patent with as 
good and ample conditions as they might by any good 
means obtaine. As also to treate and conclude with 
such merchants and other freinds as had manifested 
their forwardnes to provoke too and adventure in this 


vioage. For which end they had instructions given 
them upon what conditions they should proceed with 
them, or els to conclude nothing without further ad- 
vice. And here it will be requisite to inserte a letter 
or too that may give light to these proceedings. 

A coppie of leter from S r : Edwin Sands, directed to M r . John 
Robinson & M r . William Brewster. 

After niy hartie salutations. The agents of your congre- 
gation, Robert Cushman & John Carver, have been in 
comunication with diverse selecte gentlemen of his Majesties 
Counsell for Virginia ; and by y e writing of 7. Articles sub- 
scribed with your names, have given them y l good degree of 
satisfaction, which hath caried them on with a resolution to 
sett forward your desire in y e best sorte y l may be, for your 
owne & the publick good. Divers perticulers wherof we leave 
to their faithfull reporte ; having carried them selves heere with 
that good discretion, as is both to their owne and their credite 
from whence they came. And wheras being to treate for a 
multitude of people, they have requested further time to con- 
ferr with them that are to be interessed in this action, aboute 
y e severall particularities which in y e prosecution therof will 
fall out considerable, it hath been very willingly assented too. 
And so they doe now returne unto you. If therfore it may 
please God so to clirecte your desires as that on your parts 
ther fall out no just impediments, I trust by y e same direction 
it shall likewise appear, that on our parte, all forwardnes to 
set you forward shall be found in y e best sorte which with 
reason may be expected. And so I betake you with this 
designe (w ch I hope verily is y e worke of God), to the gracious 
protection and blessing of y e Highest. 

London, Novb r : 12. Your very loving freind 

An : 1617. EDWIN SANDYS. 


TJieir answer was as foloweth. 

Righte Wor pl : 

Our humble duties remembred, in our owne, our messengers, 
and our churches name, with all thankfull acknowledgmente 
of your singuler love, expressing [21] itselfe, as otherwise, so 
more spetially in your great care and earnest endeavor of our 
good in this weightie bussines aboute Virginia, which y e less 
able we are to requite, we shall thinke our selves the more 
bound to cornend in our prayers unto God for recompence ; 
whom, as for y e presente you rightly behould in our indeavors, 
so shall we not be wanting on our parts (the same God assist- 
ing us) to returne all answerable fruite, and respecte unto y e 
labour of your love bestowed upon us. We have with y e best 
speed and consideration withall that we could, sett downe our 
requests in writing, subscribed, as you willed, w th the hands of 
y e greatest parte of our congregation, and have sente y e same 
unto y e Counsell by our agente, & a deacon of our church, 
John Carver, unto whom we have also requested a gentleman 
of our company to adyone him selfe ; to the care & discretion 
of which two, we doe referr y e prosecuting of y e bussines. 
Now we perswade our selves Right Wor pp : that we need not 
provoke your godly & loving minde to any further or more 
tender care of us, since you have pleased so farr to interest us 
in your selfe, that, under God, above all persons and things 
in the world, we relye upon you, expecting the care of your 
love, counsell of your wisdome, & the help & countenance of 
your authority. Notwithstanding, for your encouragmente in 
y e worke, so farr as probabilities may leade, we will not for- 
beare to mention these instances of indusmente. 

1. We veryly beleeve & trust y e Lord is with us, unto whom 
& whose service we have given our selves in many trialls ; and 
that he will graciously prosper our indeavours according to y e 
simplicitie of our harts therin. 

42 HISTORY or [CHAP. v. 

2 Iy . We are well weaned from y e delicate milke of our mother 
countrie, and enured to y e difficulties of a strange and hard 
land, which yet in a great parte we have by patience overcome. 

3 ly . The people are for the body of them, industrious, & 
frugall, we thinke we may safly say, as any company of people 
in the world. 

4 ly . We are knite togeather as a body in a most stricte & 
sacred bond and covenante of the Lord, of the violation * 
wherof we make great conscience, and by vertue wherof we 
doe hould our selves straitly tied to all care of each others 
good, and of y e whole by every one and so mutually. 

5. Lastly, it is not with us as with other men, whom small 
things can discourage, or small discontentments cause to wish 
them selves at home againe. We knowe our entertainmente in 
England, and in Holand ; we shall much prejudice both our 
arts & means by removall ; who, if we should be driven to 
returne, we should not hope to recover our present helps and 
comforts, neither indeed looke ever, for our selves, to attaine 
unto y e like in any other place during our lives, w ch are now 
drawing towards their periods. 

[22] These motives we have been bould to tender unto you, 

* NOTE. sacred bond, whilst inviollably preserved! how sweete and 
precious were the fruits that flowed from y e same, but when this fidelity de- 
cayed, then their ruine approached. that these anciente members had not 
dyed, or been dissipated, (if it had been the will of God) or els that this holy 
care and constante faithfullnes had still lived, and remained with those that 
survived, and were in times afterwards added unto them. But (alass) that sub- 
till serpente hath slylie wound in himselfe under faire pretences of necessitie 
and y e like, to untwiste these sacred bonds and tyes, and as it were insensibly 
by degrees to dissolve, or in a great measure to weaken, y e same. I have been 
happy, in my first times, to see, and with much comforte to injoye, the blessed 
fruits of this sweete communion, but it is now a parte of my miserie in old age, 
to find and feele y e decay and wante therof (in a great measure), and with 
greefe and sorrow of hart to lamente & bewaile y e same. And for others warn- 
ing and admonnition, and my owne humiliation, doe I hear note y e same. 

[The above reflections of the author were penned at a later period, on the 
reverse pages of his History, at this place.] 


which you in your wisdome may also imparte to any other our 
wor pp : freinds of y e Counsell with you ; of all whose godly dis- 
possition and loving towards our despised persons, we are most 
glad, & shall not faile by all good means to continue & in- 
crease y e same. "We will not be further troublesome, but doe, 
with y c renewed remembrance of our humble duties to your 
Wor pp : and (so farr as in modestie we may be bould) to any 
other of our wellwillers of the Counsell with you, we take our 
leaves, comiting your persons and counsels to y e guidance and 
direction of the Almighty. 

Yours much bounden in all duty, 
Leyden, Desem : 15. JOHN ROBINSON, 


For further light in these proceedings see some other 
letters & notes as followeth. 

The coppy of a letter sent to S r . John Wbrssenham. 

Right Wor p11 : with due acknowledgmente of our thankfullnse 
for your singular care & pains in the bussines of Virginia, for 
our, &, we hope, the comone good, we doe remember our 
humble dutys unto you, and have sent inclosed, as is required, 
a further explanation of our judgments in the 3. points specified 
by some of his majesties Hon bl Privie Counsell ; and though it 
be greevious unto us that such unjust insinuations are made 
against us, yet we are most glad of y occasion of making our 
just purgation unto so honourable personages. The declara- 
tions we have sent inclosed, the one more breefe & generall, 
which we thinke y e fitter to be presented ; the other something 
more large, and in which we express some smale accidentall 
differances, which if it seeme good unto you and other of our 
wor pl freinds, you may send in stead of y e former. Our prayers 
unto God is, y* your Wor pp may see the frute of your worthy 

44 HISTORY or [CHAP. v. 

endeaours, which on our parts we shall not faile to furder by 
all good means in us. And so praing y l you would please with 
y e convenientest speed y l may be, to give us knowledge of y e 
success of y e bussines with his majesties Privie Counsell, and 
accordingly what your further pleasure is, either for our direc- 
tion or furtherance in y e same, so we rest 

Your Wor pp in all duty, 

Leyden, Jan : 27. JOHN ROBINSON, 

An : 1617. old stile. WILLIAM BREWSTER. 

TJie first breefe note was this. 

Touching y e Ecclesiasticall ministrie, namly of pastores for 
teaching, elders for ruling, & deacons for distributing y e 
churches contribution, as allso for y e too Sacrements, bap- 
tisme, and y e Lords supper, we doe wholy and in all points 
agree [23] with y e French reformed churches, according to 
their publick confession of faith. 

The oath of Supremacie we shall willingly take if it be 
required of us, and that conveniente satisfaction be not given 

by our taking y e oath of Alleagence. 



T e 2. was this. 

Touching y e Ecclesiasticall ministrie, &c. as in y e former, 
we agree in all things with the French reformed churches, 
according to their publick confession of faith ; though some 
small differences be to be found in our practises, not at all 
in y e substance of the things, but only in some accidentall 
circumstances . 

1. As first, their ministers doe pray with their heads cov- 
ered ; ours uncovered. 

2. We chose none for Governing Elders but such as are 
able to teach ; which abilitie they doe not require. 


3. Their elders & deacons are anuall, or at most for 2. or 
3. years ; ours perpetuall. 

4. Our elders doe administer their office in admonitions & 
excommunications for publick scandals, publickly & before 
y e congregation ; theirs more privately, & in their consistories. 

5. We doe administer baptisme only to such infants as 
wherof y e one parente, at y e least, is of some church, which 
some of ther churches doe not observe ; though in it our prac- 
tice accords with their publick confession and y e judgmente of 
y e most larned amongst them. 

Other differences, worthy mentioning, we know none in these 
points. Then aboute y e oath, as in y e former. 

Subscribed, JOHN R. 

W. B. 

Part of another letter from him that delivered these. 

London. Feb : 14. 


Your letter to S r . John Worstenholme I delivered allmost 
as soone as I had it, to his owne hands, and staid with him 
y e opening & reading. Ther were 2. papers inclosed, he read 
them to him selfe, as also y e letter, and in y e reading he spake 
to me & said, Who shall make them? viz. y e ministers; I 
answered his Wor pp that y e power of making was in y e church, 
to be ordained by y e imposition of hands, by y e fittest instru- 
ments they had. It must either be in y e church or from y e 
pope, & y e pope is Antichrist. Ho ! said S r . John, what y e 
pope houlds good, (as in y e Trinitie,) that we doe well to 
assente too ; but, said he, we will not enter into dispute now. 
And as for your letters he would not show them at any hand, 
least he should spoyle all. He expected you should have been 
of y e archbp minde for y e calling of ministers, but it seems you 
differed. I could have wished to have known y e contents of 
your tow inclosed, at w ch he stuck so much, espetially y e larger. 


I asked his Wor p what good news he had for me to write to 
morrow. He tould me very good news, for both the kings 
majestie and y e bishops have consented. He said he would 
goe to M r . Chancelor, S r . Fulk Grivell, as this day, & nexte 
weeke I should know more. I mett S r . Edw : Sands on Wedens- 
day night ; he wished me to be at the Virginia Courte y e nexte 
Wedensday, wher I purpose to be. Thus loath to be troubl- 
some at present, I hope to have somewhate nexte week of 
certentie concerning you. I comitte you to y e Lord. Yours, 

S. B. 

[24] These things being long in agitation, & mes- 
sengers passing too and againe aboute them, after all 
their hopes they were long delayed by many rubs that 
fell in y e way; for at y e returne of these messengers 
into England they found things farr otherwise then 
they expected. For y e Virginia Counsell was now so 
disturbed with factions and quarrels amongst them 
selves, as no bussines could well goe forward. The 
which may the better appear in one of ye messengers 
letters as followeth. 

To his loving freinds, &c. 

I had thought long since to have write unto you, but could 
not effecte y* which I aimed at, neither can yet sett things as 
I wished ; yet, notwithstanding, I doubt not but M r . B. hath 
writen to M r . Robinson. But I thinke my selfe bound also 
to doe something, least I be thought to neglecte you. The 
maine hinderance of our proseedings in y e Virginia bussines, 
is y e dissentions and factions, as they terme it, amongs y e 
Counsell & Company of Virginia ; which are such, as that 


ever since we came up no busines could by them be dis- 
patched. The occasion of this trouble amongst them is, for 
that a while since S r . Thomas Smith, repining at his many 
offices & troubls, wished y e Company of Virginia to ease him 
of his office in being Treasurer & Gover r . of y e Virginia Com- 
pany. Wereupon y e Company tooke occasion to dismisse him, 
and chose S r . Edwin Sands Treasure 1 " & Gover* of y e Company. 
He having 60. voyces, S r . John Worstenholme 16. voices, and 
Alderman Johnsone 24. But S r . Thomas Smith, when he saw 
some parte of his honour lost, was very angrie, & raised a 
faction to cavill & contend aboute y e election, and sought to 
taxe S r . Edwin with many things that might both disgrace him, 
and allso put him by his office of Governour. In which con- 
tentions they yet stick, and are not fit nor readie to intermedle 
in any bussines ; and what issue things will come to we are 
not yet certaine. It is most like S r . Edwin will carrie it away, 
and if he doe, things will goe well in Virginia ; if otherwise, 
they will goe ill enough all ways. We hope in some 2. or 3. 
Court days things will setle. Mean space I thinke to goe 
downe into Kente, & come up againe aboute 14. days, or 3. 
weeks hence ; except either by these afforesaid contentions, 
or by y e ille tidings from Virginia, we be wholy discouraged, 
of which tidings I am now to speake. 

Captaine Argoll is come home this weeke (he upon notice 
of y e intente of y e Counsell, came away before S r . Georg 
Yeardley came ther, and so ther is no small dissention). But 
fris tidings are ill, though his person be wellcome. He saith 
M r . Blackwells shipe came not ther till March, but going 
towards winter, they had still norwest winds, which carried 
them to the southward beyond their course. And y e m r of 
y e ship & some 6. of y e mariners dicing, it seemed they could 
not find y e bay, till after long seeking & beating aboute. M r . 
Blackwell is dead, & M r . Maggner, y e Captain; yea, ther are 
dead, he saith, 130. persons, one & other in y l ship ; it is said 


ther was in all an 180. persons in y e ship, so as they were 
packed togeather like herings. They had amongst them y e 
fluxe, and allso wante of fresh water ; so as it is hear rather 
wondred at y* so many are alive, then that so many are dead. 
The marchants hear say it was M r . Blackwells faulte to pack 
so many in y e ship ; yea, & ther were great mutterings & repiu- 
ings amongst them, and upbraiding of M r . Blackwell, for his 
dealing and dispossing of them, when they saw how he had 
dispossed of them, & how he insulted over them. Yea, y e 
streets at Gravsend runge of their extreame quarrelings, cry- 
ing out one of another, Thou hast brought me to this, and, I 
may thanke the for this. Heavie newes it is, and I would be 
glad to heare how farr it will discourage. I see none hear dis- 
couraged much, [25] but rather desire to larne to beware by 
other mens harmes, and to amend that wherin they have failed. 
As we desire to serve one another in love, so take heed of 
being inthraled by any imperious persone, espetially if they be 
discerned to have an eye to them selves. It doth often trouble 
me to thinke that in this bussines we are all to learne and none 
to teach ; but better so, then to depend upon such teachers as 
M r . Blackwell was. Such a strategeme he once made for M r . 
Johnson & his people at Emden, w ch was their subversion. But 
though he ther clenlily (yet unhonstly) plucked his neck out 
of y e collar, yet at last his foote is caught. Hear are no 
letters come, y e ship captain Argole came in is yet in y e west 
parts ; all y* we hear is but his report ; it seemeth he came 
away secretly. The ship y 1 M r . Blackwell went in will be hear 
shortly. It is as M r . Robinson once said ; he thought we should 
hear no good of them. 

M r . B. is not well at this time ; whether he will come back 
to you or goe into y e north, I yet know not. For my selfe, 
I hope to see an end of this bussines ere I come, though I am 
sorie to be thus from you ; if things had gone roundly forward, 
I should have been with you within these 14. days. I pray 


God directe us, and give us that spirite which is fitting for 
such a bussines. Thus having sumarily pointed at things w ch 
M r . Brewster (I thinke) hath more largly write of to M r . Robin- 
son, I leave you to the Lords protection. 

Yours in all readines, &c. London, May 8. 


A word or tow by way of digression touching this 
M r . Blackwell ; he was an elder of y e church at Am- 
sterdam, a man well known of most of them. He 
declined from y e trueth w th M r . Johnson & y e rest, 
and went with him when y ey parted assunder in y* 
wofull maner, w ch brought so great dishonour to God, 
scandall to y e trueth, & outward ruine to them selves 
in this world. But I hope, notwithstanding, through 
y c mercies of y e Lord, their souls are now at rest with 
him in y e heavens, and y t they are arrived in y e Haven 
of hapines ; though some of their bodies were thus 
buried in y e terrable seas, and others sunke under y e 
burthen of bitter afflictions. He with some others had 
prepared for to goe to Virginia. And he, with sundrie 
godly citizens, being at a private meeing (I take itf a 
fast) in London, being discovered, many of them were 
apprehended, wherof M r . Blackwell was one ; but he 
so glosed w th y e bps,* and either dissembled or flatly 
denyed y e trueth which formerly he had maintained; 
and not only so, but very unworthily betrayed and 
accused another godly man who had escaped, that so 

* Bishops. 


he might slip his own neck out of y e collar, & to 
obtaine his owne freedome brought others into bonds. 
Wherupon he so wone y e bps favour (but lost y e Lord's) 
as he was not only dismiste, but in open courte y e arch- 
bishop gave him great applause and his sollemne bless- 
ing to proseed in his vioage. But if such events follow 
y e bps blessing, happie are they y l misse y e same ; it 
is much better to keepe a good conscience and have 
y e Lords blessing, whether in life or death. 

But see how y e man thus apprehended by M r . Black- 
wells means, writs to a freind of his. 

Right dear freind & Christian brother, M r . Carver, I salute 
you & yours in y e Lord, &c. As for my owne presente con- 
dition, I doubt not but you well understand it ere this by our 
brother Maistersone, who should have tasted of y e same cupp, 
had his place of residence & his person been as well knowne 
as my selfe. Some what I have written to M r . Cushman how 
y e matter stitt continues. I have petitioned twise to M r . Sherives, 
and once to my Lord Cooke, and have used such reasons to 
move them to pittie, that if they were not overruled by some 
others, I suppose I should soone gaine my libertie ; as that I 
was a yonge man living by my [26] credite, indebted to diverse 
in our citie, living at more then ordinarie charges in a close & 
tedious prison ; besids great rents abroad, all my bussines lying 
still, my only servante lying lame in y e countrie, my wife being 
also great with child. And yet no answer till y e lords of his 
majesties Counsell gave consente. Howbeit, M r . Blackwell, a 
man as deepe in this action as I, was delivered at a cheaper 
rate, with a great deale less adoe ; yea, with an addition of 
y e Archp: blessing. I am sorie for M r . Blackwels weaknes, I 
wish it may prove no worse. But yet he & some others of 


them, before their going, were not sorie, but thought it was for 
y e best that I was nominated, not because y e Lord sanctifies evill 
to good, but that y e action was good, yea for y e best. One 
reason I well remember he used was, because this trouble 
would encrease y e Virginia plantation, in that now people be- 
gane to be more generally inclined to goe ; and if he had not 
nomminated some such as I, he had not bene free, being it was 
knowne that diverse citizens besids them selves were ther. 
I expecte an answer shortly what they intende conscerning 
me ; I purpose to write to some others of you, by whom you 
shall know the certaintie. Thus not haveing further at present 
to acquaint you withall, contending myselfe to your prairs, I 
cease, & coinitte you and us all to y e Lord. 

From my chamber in Wodstreete Compter. 

Your freind, & brother in bonds, 


Sept r : 4. An : 1618. 

But thus much by y e way, which may be of instruc- 
tion & good use. 

But at last, after all these things, and their long 
attendance, they had a patent granted them, and con- 
firmed under y e Companies seale ; but these devissions 
and distractions had shaken of many of ther pretended 
freinds, and disappointed them of much of their hoped 
for & proffered means. By the advise of some freinds 
this pattente was not taken in y e name of any of their 
owne, but in y e name of M r . John Wincob (a religious 
gentleman then belonging to y e Countess of Lincoline), 
who intended to goe with them. But God so disposed 
as he never went, nor they ever made use of this patente, 


which had cost them so much labour and charge, as by 
y e sequell will appeare. This patente being sente over 
for them to veiw & consider, as also the passages aboute 
y e propossitions between them & such marchants &, 
freinds as should either goe or adventure with them, 
and espetially with those * on whom y ey did cheefly de- 
pend for shipping and means, whose proffers had been 
large, they were requested to fitt and prepare them 
selves with all speed. A right emblime, it may be, 
of y e uncertine things of this world ; y* when men have 
toy Id them selves for them, they vanish into smoke. 

The 6, Chap. 

Conscerning y e agreements and artickles between them, 
and such marchants & others as adventured moneys ; 
with other things falling out aboute making their 

UPON y e receite of these things by one of their mes- 
sengers, they had a sollemne meeting and a day of 
humilliation to seeke y e Lord for his direction ; and 
their pastor tooke this texte, 1 Sam. 23. 3, 4. And 
David's men said unto him, see, we be afraid hear in 
Judah, how much more if we come to Keilah against 
y e host of the Phillistines? Then David asked counsell 
of y* Lord againe, &c. From which texte he taught 
many things very aptly, and befitting ther present 

* M r . Tho : Weston, &c. 


occasion and condition, strengthing them against their 
fears and perplexities, and incouraging them in their 
resolutions. [27] After which they concluded both 
what number and what persons should prepare them 
selves to goe with y e first ; for all y t were willing to 
have gone could not gett ready for their other affairs 
in so shorte a time ; neither if all could have been 
ready, had ther been means to have transported them 
alltogeather. Those that staied being y e greater num- 
ber required y e pastor to stay with them ; and indeede 
for other reasons he could not then well goe, and so 
it was y e more easilie yeelded unto. The other then 
desired y e elder, M r . Brewster, to goe with them, which 
was also condescended unto. It was also agreed on 
by mutuall consente and covenante, that those that 
went should be an absolute church of them selves, 
as well as those y* staid ; seing in such a dangrous 
vioage, and a removall to such a distance, it might 
come to pass they should (for y e body of them) never 
meete againe in this world ; yet with this proviso, that 
as any of y e rest came over to them, or of y e other 
returned upon occasion, they should be reputed as mem- 
bers without any further, dismission or testimoniall. 
It was allso promised to those y* wente first, by y e 
body of y e rest, that if y e Lord gave them life, & meas, 
& opportunitie, they would come to them as soone as 
they could. 

Aboute this time, whilst they were perplexed with 

54 HISTORY or [CHAP. vi. 

y e proseedings of y e Virginia Company, & y e ill news 
from thence aboute M r . Blackwell & his company, and 
making inquirey about y e hiring & buying of sniping 
for their vioage, some Dutchmen made them faire offers 
aboute goeing with them. Also one M r . Thomas Weston, 
a m r chant of London, came to Leyden aboute y e same 
time, (who was well aquainted with some of them, and 
a furtherer of them in their former proseedings,) have- 
ing much conferance w th M r . Robinson & other of y e 
cheefe of them, perswaded them to goe on (as it seems) 
& not to medle with y e Dutch, or too much to depend 
on y e Virginia Company ; for if that failed, if they came 
to resolution, he and such marchants as were his freinds 
(togeather with their owne means) would sett them 
forth; and they should make ready, and neither feare 
wante of shipping nor money ; for what they wanted 
should be provided. And, not so much for him selfe 
as for y e satisfing of such frends as he should procure 
to adventure in this bussines, they were to draw such 
articls of agreemente, and make such propossitions, as 
might y e better induce his freinds to venture. Upon 
which (after y e formere conclusion) articles were drawne 
& agreed unto, and were showne unto him, and approved 
by him ; and afterwards by their messenger (M r . John 
Carver) sent into England, who, togeather with Robart 
Cushman, were to receive y e moneys & make provissione 
both for shiping & other things for y e vioage ; with this 
charge, not to exseede their comission, but to proseed 


according to y e former articles. Also some were chossen 
to doe y e like for such things as were to be prepared 
there; so those that weare to goe, prepared them selves 
with all speed, and sould of their estats and (such as 
were able) put in their moneys into y e commone stock, 
which was disposed by those appointed, for y e making 
of generall provissions. Aboute this time also they 
had heard, both by M r . Weston and others, y* sundrie 
Hon bl : Lords had obtained a large grante from y e king, 
for y e more northerly parts of that countrie, derived 
out of y e Virginia patente, and wholy secluded from 
their Govermente, and to be called by another name, 
viz. New-England. Unto which M r . Weston, and y e 
cheefe of them, begane to incline it was [28] best for 
them to goe, as for other reasons, so cheefly for y e hope 
of present profite to be made by y e fishing that was 
found in y i countrie. 

But as in all bussineses y e acting parte is most diffi- 
culte, espetially wher y e worke of many agents must 
concurr, so it was found in this ; for some of those 
y* should have gone in England, fell of & would not 
goe ; other marchants & freinds y* had offered to ad- 
venture their moneys withdrew, and pretended many 
excuses. Some disliking they wente not to Guiana ; 
others againe would adventure nothing excepte they 
wente to Virginia. Some againe (and those that were 
most relied on) fell in utter dislike with Virginia, and 
would doe nothing if they wente thither. In y e midds 

56 HISTORY or [CHAP. vi. 

of these distractions, they of Ley den, who had put of 
their estats, and laid out their moneys, were brought 
into a greate streight, fearing what issue these things 
would come too ; but at length y e generalitie was swaid 
to this latter opinion. 

But now another difficultie arose, for M r . Weston 
and some other that were for this course, either for 
their better advantage or rather for y e drawing on of 
others, as they pretended, would have some of those 
conditions altered y* were first agreed on at Ley den. 
To which y e 2. agents sent from Ley den (or at least 
one of them who is most charged with it) did con- 
sente; seeing els y* all was like to be dashte, & 
y e opportunitie lost, and y 1 they which had put of 
their estats and paid in their moneys were in hazard 
to be undon. They presumed to conclude with y e 
marchants on those termes, in some things contrary 
to their order & comission, and without giving them 
notice of y e same ; yea, it was conceled least it should 
make any furder delay ; which was y e cause afterward 
of much trouble & contention. 

It will be meete I here inserte these conditions, 
which are as foloweth. 

An : 1620. July 1. 

1. The adventurers & planters doe agree, that every person 
that goeth being aged 16. years & upward, be rated at 10 li ., 
and ten pounds to be accounted a single share. 


2. That he that goeth in person, and furnisheth him selfe 
out with 10 li . either in money or other provissions, be accounted 
as haveing 20 U . in stock, and in y e devission shall receive a 
double share. 

3. The persons transported & y e adventurers shall continue 
their joynt stock & partnership togeather, y e space of 7. years, 
(excepte some unexpected impedimente doe cause y e whole 
company to agree otherwise,) during which time, all profits & 
benifits that are gott by trade, traffick, trucking, working, fish- 
ing, or any other means of any person or persons, remaine still 
in y e comone stock untill y e division. 

4. That at their coming ther, they chose out such a number 
of fitt persons, as may furnish their ships and boats for fishing 
upon y e sea ; imploying the rest in their severall faculties upon 
y e land ; as building houses, tilling, and planting y e ground, 
& makeing shuch comodities as shall be most usefull for y e 

5. That at y e end of y e 7. years, y e capitall & profits, viz. 
the houses, lands, goods and chatles, be equally devided be- 
twixte y e adventurers, and planters ; w ch done, every man 
shall be free from other of them of any debt or detrimente 
concerning this adventure. 

[29] 6. Whosoever cometh to y e colonie herafter, or putteth 
any into y e stock, shall at the ende of y e 7. years be alowed 
proportionably to y e time of his so doing. 

7. He that shall carie his wife & children, or servants, shall 
be alowed for everie person now aged 16. years & upward, a 
single share in y e devision, or if he provid them necessaries, 
a duble share, or if they be between 10. year- old and 16., then 
2. of them to be reconed for a person, both in trasportation 
and devision. 

8. That such children as now goe, & are under y e age of 
ten years, have noe other shar in y e devision, but 50. acers of 
unmanured land. 


9. That such persons as die before y e 7. years be expired, 
their executors- to have their parte or sharr at y e devision, pro- 
portionably to y e time of their life in y e collonie. 

10. That all such persons as are of this collonie, are to have 
their meate, drink, apparell, and all provissions out of y e comon 
stock & goods of y e said collonie. 

The cheefe & principal! differences betwene these & 
the former conditions, stood in those 2. points ; that 
y e houses, & lands improved, espetialy gardens & home 
lotts should remaine undevided wholy to y e planters 
at y e 7. years end. 2 ly , y* they should have had 2. 
days in a weeke for their owne private imploymente, 
for y e more comforte of them selves and their families, 
espetialy such as had families. But because letters 
are by some wise men cbunted y e best parte of histories, 
I shall shew their greevances hereaboute by their owne 
letters, in which y e passages of things will be more 
truly discerned. 

A letter of M r . Robinsons to John Carver. 

June 14. 1620. N. Stile. 

My dear freind & brother, whom with yours I alwaise re- 
member in my best affection, and whose wellfare I shall never 
cease to comend to God by my best & most earnest praires. 
You doe throwly understand by our generall letters y e estate 
of things hear, which indeed is very pitif ull ; espetialy by wante 
of -sniping, and not seeing means lickly, much less certaine, of 
having it provided ; though withall ther be great want of money 
& means to doe needfull things. M r . Pickering, you know 
before this, will not defray a peny hear ; though Robart Gush- 


man presumed of I know not how many 100 li . from him, & 
I know not whom. Yet it seems strange y* we should be put 
to him to receive both his & his partners adventer, and yet 
M r . Weston write unto him, y* in regard of it, he hath drawne 
upon him a 100 U . more. But ther is in this some misterie, 
as indeed it seems ther is in y e whole course. Besids, wheras 
diverse are to pay in some parts of their moneys yet behinde, 
they refuse to doe it, till they see shiping provided, or a course 
taken for it. Neither doe I thinke is ther a man hear would 
pay any thing, if he had againe his money in his purse. You 
know right well we depended on M r . Weston alone, and upon 
such means as he would procure for this commone bussines ; 
and when we had in hand another course with y e Dutchmen, 
broke it of at his motion, and upon y e conditions by him shortly 
after propounded. He did this in his love I know, but things 
appeare not answerable from him hitherto. That he should 
have first have put in his moneys, is thought by many to have 
been but fitt, but y* I can well excuse, he being a marchante 
and haveing use of it to his benefite ; wheras others, if it had 
been in their hands, would have consumed it. [30] But y l he 
should not but have had either shipping ready before this time, 
or at least certaine means, and course, and y e same knowne to 
us for it, or have taken other order otherwise, cannot in my 
conscience be excused. I have heard y* when he hath been 
moved in the bussines, he hath put it of from him selfe, and 
referred it to y e others ; * and would come to Georg Morton, 
& enquire news of him aboute things, as if he had scarce been 
some accessarie unto it. Wether he hath failed of some helps 
from others which he expected, and so be not well able to goe 
through with things, or whether he hath feared least you should 
be ready too soone & so encrease y e charge of shiping above 
y* is meete, or whether he have thought by withhoulding to put 

* Towthers in the manuscript, an illegibly written word, doubtless intended 
for "y e others." 


us upon straits, thinking y l therby M r . Brewer and M r . Picker- 
ing would be drawne by importunitie to doe more, or what 
other misterie is in it, we know not ; but sure we are y* things 
are not answerable to such an occasion. M r . Weston maks 
himselfe mery with our endeavors about buying a ship, but 
we have done nothing in this but with good reason, as I am 
perswaded, nor yet that I know in any thing els, save in those 
tow ; y e one, that we imployed Robart Cushman, who is known 
(though a good man, & of spetiall abilities in his kind, yet) 
most unfitt to deale for other men, by reason of his singularitie, 
and too great indifferancie for any conditions, and for (to speak 
truly) that * we have had nothing from him but termes & pre- 
sumptions. The other, y l we have so much relyed, by implicite 
faith as it were, upon generalities, without seeing y e perticuler 
course & means for so waghtie an affaire set down unto us. 
For shiping, M r . Weston, it should seeme, is set upon hireing, 
which yet I wish he may presently effecte ; but I see litle hope 
of help from hence if so it be. Of M r . Brewer you know what 
to expecte. I doe not thinke M r . Pickering will ingage, ex- 
cepte in y e course of buying, in former letters specified. Aboute 
y e conditions, you have our reasons for our judgments of what is 
agreed. And let this spetially be borne in minde, y l the greatest 
parte of y e Collonie is like to be imployed constantly, not upon 
dressing ther perticuler land & building houses, but upon fish- 
ing, trading, &c. So as y e land & house will be but a trifell 
for advantage to y e adventurers, and yet the devission of it 
a great discouragmente to y e planters, who would with singuler 
care make it comfortable with borowed houres from their sleep. 
The same consideration of comone imploymente constantly by 
the most is a good reason not to have y e 2. daies in a weeke 
denyed y e few planters for private use, which yet is subordinate 
to comone good. Consider also how much unfite that you & 
your liks must serve a new prentishipe of 7. years, and not a 

* This word is enclosed in brackets in the manuscript. 


dales freedome from taske. Send me word what persons are 
to goe, who of usefull faculties, & how many, & perticulerly 
of every thing. I know you wante not a minde. I am sorie 
you have not been at London all this while, but y e provissions 
could not wante you. Time will suffer me to write no more ; 
fare you & yours well all ways in y e Lord, in whom I rest. 
Yours to use, 


An other letter from sundrie of them at y e same time. 

[31] To their loving freinds John Carver and Robart Gush- 
man, these, &c. 

Good bretheren, after salutations, &c. We received diverse 
letters at y e coming of M r . Nash & our pilott, which is a great 
incouragmente unto us, and for whom we hop after times will 
minister occasion of praising God ; and indeed had you not 
sente him, many would have been ready to fainte and goe 
backe. Partly in respecte of y e new conditions which have bene 
taken up by you, which all men are against, and partly in 
regard of our owne inabillitie to doe any one of those many 
waightie bussineses you re f err to us here. For y e former 
wherof, wheras Robart Cushmau desirs reasons for our dislike, 
promising therupou to alter y e same, or els saing we should 
thinke he hath no brains, we desire him to exercise them 
therin, refering him to our pastors former reasons, and them 
to y e censure of y e godly wise. But our desires are that you 
will not entangle your selvs and us in any such unreasonable 
courses as those are, viz. y 4 the marchants should have y e halfe 
of mens houses and lands at y e dividente ; and that persons 
should be deprived of y e 2. days in a weeke agreed upon, yea 
every momente of time for their owne perticuler; by reason 
wherof we cannot conceive why any should carie servants for 
their own help and comfort ; for that we can require no more 
of them then all men one of another. This we have only by 

62 HISTORY OF . [CHAP. vi. 

relation from M r . Nash, & not from any writing of your owne, 
& therfore hope you have not proceeded farr in so great a 
thing without us. But requiring you not to exseed the bounds 
of your comission, which was to proceed upon y e things or con- 
ditions agred upon and expressed in writing (at your going 
over about it), we leave it, not without marveling, that you r 
selfe, as you write, knowing how smale a thing troubleth our 
consultations, and how few, as you fear, understands the 
busnes aright, should trouble us with such matters as these 
are, &c. 

Salute M r . Weston from us, in whom we hope we are not 
deceived ; we pray you make known our estate unto him, and 
if you thinke good shew him our letters, at least tell him (y* 
under God) we much relie upon him & put our confidence in 
him ; and, as your selves well know, that if he had not been 
an adventurer with us, we had not taken it in hand ; presuming 
that if he had not seene means to accomplish it, he would not 
have begune it ; so we hope in our extremitie he will so farr 
help us as our expectation be no way made frustrate concern- 
ing him. Since therfore, good brethren, we have plainly 
opened y e state of things with us in this matter, you will, &c. 
Thus beseeching y e Allmightie, who is allsufflciente to raise 
us out of this depth of dificulties, to assiste us herein ; raising 
such means by his providence and fatherly care for us, his pore 
children & servants, as we may with comforte behould y e hand 
of our God for good towards us in this our bussines, which we 
undertake in his name & fear, we take leave & remaine 
Your perplexed, yet hopfull 

June 10. New Stille, bretheren, 

An : 1620. S. F. E. W. W. B. J. A.* 

* In Governor Bradford's Collection of Letters, these subscribers are thus 
ED. WINSLOW. Prince. 


A letter of Robart Cushmans to them. 

Brethern, I understand by letters & passagess y* have come 
to me, that ther are great discontents, & dislike of my proceed- 
ings amongst you. Sorie I am to hear it, yet contente to beare 
it, as not doubting but y* partly by writing, and more princi- 
pally by word when we shall come togeather, I shall satisfie 
any reasonable man. I have been perswaded [32] by some, 
espetialy this bearer, to come and clear things unto you ; but 
as things now stand I canot be absente one day, excepte I 
should hazard all y e viage. Neither conceive I any great good 
would come of it. Take then, brethern, this as a step to give 
you contente. First, for your dislike of y e alteration of one 
clause in y e conditions, if you conceive it right, ther can be no 
blame lye on me at all. For y e articles first brought over by 
John Carver were never scene of any of y e adventurers hear, 
excepte M r . Weston, neither did any of them like them because 
of that clause ; nor M r . Weston him selfe, after he had well 
considered it. But as at y e first ther was 500 li . withdrawne by 
S r . Georg Farrer and his brother upon that dislike, so all y e 
rest would have withdrawne (M r . Weston excepted) if we had 
not altered y l clause. Now whilst we at Leyden conclude upon 
points, as we did, we reckoned without our host, which was 
not my falte. Besids, I shewed you by a letter y e equitie of 
y* condition, & our inconveniences, which might be sett against 
all M r . Rob: inconveniences, that without y e alteration of y 4 
clause, we could neither have means to gett thither, nor supplie 
wherby to subsiste when we were ther. Yet notwithstanding 
all those reasons, which were not mine, but other mens wiser 
then my selfe, without answer to any one of them, here cometh 
over many quirimonies, and complaints against me, of lording 
it over my brethern, and making conditions fitter for theeves 
& bondslaves then honest men, and that of my owne head I 
did what I list. And at last a paper of reasons, framed against 


y* clause in y e conditions, which as y ey were delivered ine open, 
so my answer is open to you all. And first, as they are no 
other but inconveniences, such as a man might frame 20. as 
great on y e other side, and yet prove nor disprove nothing by 
them, so they misse & mistake both y e very ground of y e article 
and nature of y e project. For, first, it is said, that if ther had 
been no divission of houses & lands, it had been better for y e 
poore. True, and y e showeth y e inequalitie of y e condition ; we 
should more respecte him y 1 ventureth both his money and his 
person, then him y 4 ventureth but his person only. 

2. Consider wheraboute we are, not giveing almes, but 
furnishing a store house ; no one shall be porer then another 
for 7. years, and if any be rich, none can be pore. At y e least, 
we must not in such bussines crie, Pore, pore, mercie, mercie. 
Charitie hath it life in wraks, not in venture ; you are by this 
most in a hopefull pitie of makeing, therfore complaine not be- 
fore you have need. 

3. This will hinder y e building of good and faire houses, 
contrarie to y e advise of pollitiks. A. So we would have it ; 
our purpose is to build for y e presente such houses as, if need 
be, we may with litle greefe set a fire, and rune away by the 
lighte ; our riches shall not be in pompe, but in strenght ; if 
God send us riches, we will imploye them to provid more men, 
ships, munition, &c. You may see it amongst the best pollitiks, 
that a comonwele is readier to ebe then to flow, when once fine 
houses and gay cloaths come up. 

4. The Gove 1 may prevente excess in building. A. But if 
it be on all men beforehand resolved on, to build mean houses, 
y e Gove r laboure is spared. 

5. All men are not of one condition. A. If by condition 
you mean wealth, you are mistaken ; if you mean by condi- 
tion, qualities, then I say he that is not contente his neighbour 
shall have as good a house, fare, means, &c. as him selfe, is 
not of a good qualitie. 2 ly . Such retired persons, as have an 


eie only to them selves, are fitter to come wher catching is, 
then closing ; and are fitter to live alone, then in any societie, 
either civill or religious. 

6. It will be of litle value, scarce worth o u . A. True, it 
may be not worth halfe 5 li . [33] If then so smale a thing 
will content them, why strive we thus aboute it, and give 
them occasion to suspecte us to be worldly & covetous? I 
will not say what I have heard since these complaints came 
first over. 

7. Our freinds with us y* adventure mind not their owne 
profite, as did y e old adventurers. A. Then they are better 
then we, who for a litle matter of profite are readie to draw 
back, and it is more apparente brethern looke too it, that make 
profite your maine end ; repente of this, els goe not least you 
be like Jonas to Tarshis. 2 ly . Though some of them mind 
not their profite, yet others doe mind it; and why not as well 
as we? venturs are made by all sorts of men, and we must 
labour to give them all contente, if we can. 

8. It will break y e course of comunitie, as may be showed 
by many reasons. A. That is but said, and I say againe, it 
will best foster comunion, as may be showed by many reasons. 

9. Great profite is like to be made by trucking, fishing, &c. 
A. As it is better for them, so for us ; for halfe is ours, besids 
our living still upon it, and if such profite in y l way come, our 
labour shall be y e less on y e land, and our houses and lands 
must & will be of less value. 

10. Our hazard is greater then theirs. A. True, but doe 
they put us upon it ? doe they urge or egg us ? hath not 
y e motion & resolution been always in our selves? doe they 
any more then in seeing us resolute if we had means, help us 
to means upon equall terrnes & conditions? If we will not 
goe, they are content to keep their moneys. Thus I have 
pointed at a way to loose those knots, which I hope you will 
consider seriously, and let me have no more stirre about them. 

66 HISTORY or [CHAP. vi. 

Now furder, I hear a noise of slavish conditions by me made ; 
but surly this is all that I have altered, and reasons I have sent 
you. If you mean it of y e 2. days in a week for perticuler, as 
some insinuate, you are deceived ; you may have 3. days in a 
week for me if you will. And when I have spoken to y e ad- 
venturers of times of working, they have said they hope we are 
men of discretion & conscience, and so fitte to be trusted our 
selves with that. But indeed y e ground of our proceedings at 
Leyden was mistaken, and so here is nothing but tottering 
every day, &c. 

As for them of Amsterdam I had thought they would as 
soone have gone to Rome as t with us ; for our libertie is to 
them as ratts bane, and their riggour as bad to us as y e Spanish 
Inquision. If any practise of mine discourage them, let them 
yet draw back ; I will undertake they shall have their money 
againe presently paid hear. Or if the company thinke me to 
be y e Jonas, let them cast me of before we goe ; I shall be con- 
tent to stay with good will, having but y e cloaths on my back ; 
only let us have quietnes, and no more of these clamors ; full 
litle did I expecte these things which are now come to pass, &c. 

Yours, R. COSHMAN. 

But whether this letter of his ever came to their 
hands at Leyden I well know not ; I rather thinke it 
was staied by M r . Carver & kept by him, forgiving 
offence. But this which follows was ther received ; 
both which I thought pertenent to recite. 

Another of his to y e aforesaid, June 11. 1620.* 
Salutations, &c. I received your ler. yesterday, by John 
Turner, with another y e same day from Amsterdam by M r . 

* June 11. O. S. is Lord's day, and therefore 't is likely the date of this 
letter should be June 10, the same with the date of the letter following. Prince. 


W. savouring of y e place whenc it came. And indeed the 
many discouragements I find her, togeather with y e demurrs 
and retirings ther, had made me to say, I would give up my 
accounts to John Carver, & at his comeing aquainte him fully 
with all courses, and so leave it quite, with only y e pore cloaths 
on my back. But gathering up my selfe by further considera- 
tion, [34] I resolved yet to make one triall more, and to 
aquainte M r . Weston with y e fainted state of our bussines ; and 
though he hath been much discontented at some thing amongst 
us of late, which* hath made him often say, that save for his 
promise, he would not meadle at all with y e bussines any more, 
yet considering how farr we were plunged into maters, & how 
it stood both on our credits & undoing, at y e last he gathered 
up him selfe a litle more, & coming to me 2. hours after, he 
tould me he would not yet leave it. And so advising togeather 
we resolved to hire a ship, and have tooke liking of one till 
Monday, about 60. laste, for a greater we cannot gett, excepte 
it be tow great ; but a fine ship it is. And seeing our neer 
freinds ther are so streite lased, we hope to assure her without 
troubling them any further ; and if y e ship fale too small, it 
fitteth well y 4 such as stumble at strawes allready, may rest 
them ther a while, least worse blocks come in y e way ere 7. 
years be ended. If you had beaten this bussines so throuly 
a month agoe, and write to us as now you doe, we could thus 
have done much more conveniently. But it is as it is ; I hope 
our freinds ther, if they be quitted of y e ship hire, will be in- 
dusced to venture y e more. All y l I now require is y* salt and 
netts may ther be boughte, and for all y e rest we will here pro- 
vid it ; yet if that will not be, let them but stand for it a month 
or tow, and we will take order to pay it all. Let M r . Reinholds 
tarie ther, and bring y e ship to Southampton. We have hired 
another pilote here, one M r . Clarke, who went last year to 
Virginia with a ship of kine. 

You shall here distinctly by John Turner, who I thinke shall 

68 HISTORY or [CHAP. vi. 

come hence on Tewsday night. I had thought to have come 
with him, to have answerd to my complaints ; but I shal lerne 
to pass litle for their censurs ; and if I had more minde to goe 
& dispute & expostulate with them, then I have care of this 
waightie bussines, I were like them who live by clamours & 
jangling. But neither my mind nor my body is at libertie to 
doe much, for I am fettered with bussines, and had rather study 
to be quiet, then to make answer to their exceptions. If men 
be set on it, let them beat y e eair ; I hope such as are my sin- 
ceire freinds will not thinke but I can give some reason of my 
actions. But of your mistaking aboute y e mater, & other 
things tending to this bussines, I shall nexte informe you 
more distinctly. Mean space entreate our freinds not to be 
too bussie in answering matters, before they know them. If 
I doe such things as I caiiot give reasons for, it is like you 
have sett a foole aboute your bussines, and so turne y e reproofe 
to your selves, & send an other, and let me come againe to my 
Combes. But setting a side my naturall infirmities, I refuse 
not to have my cause judged, both of God, & all indifferent 
men ; and when we come togeather I shall give accounte of 
my actions hear. The Lord, who judgeth justly without 
respect of persons, see into y e equitie of my cause, and give 
us quiet, peacable, and patient minds, in all these turmoiles, 
and sanctifie unto us all crosses whatsoever. And so I take 
my leave of you all, in all love & affection. 

I hope we shall gett all hear ready in 14. days. 

Your pore brother, 

June 11. 1620. ROBART CUSHMAN. 

Besids these things, ther fell out a differance amongs 
those 3. that received [35] the moneys & made y e pro- 
vissions in England ; for besids these tow formerly men- 
tioned sent from Ley den for this end, viz. M r . Carver 


& Eobart Cushman, ther was one chosen in England 
to be joyned with them, to make y e provisions for 
y e vioage ; his name was M r . Martin, he came from 
Billirike in Essexe, from which parts came sundrie 
others to goe with them, as also from London & other 
places ; and therfore it was thought meete & conveniente 
by them in Holand that these strangers that were to 
goe with them, should apointe one thus to be joyned 
with them, not so much for any great need of their 
help, as to avoyd all susspition, or jelosie of any 
partiallitie. And indeed their care for giving offence, 
both in this & other things afterward, turned to great 
inconvenience unto them, as in y e sequell will apeare ; 
but however it shewed their equall & honest minds. 
The provissions were for y e most parte made at South- 
hamton, contrarie to M r . Westons & Kobert Cushmas 
mind (whose counsells did most concure in all things). 
A touch of which things I shall give in a letter of his 
to M r . Carver, and more will appear afterward. 

To his loving freind M r . John Carver, these, &c. 

Loving freind, I have received from you some letters, full 
of affection & complaints, and what it is you would have of 
me I know not ; for your crieing out, Negligence, negligence, 
negligence, I marvell why so negligente a man was used in 
y e bussines. Yet know you y* all that I have power to doe 
hear, shall not be one hower behind, I warent you. You have 
reference to M r . Weston to help us with money, more then his 
adventure ; wher he protesteth but for his promise, he would 
not have done any thing. He saith we take a heady course, 


and is offended y 4 our provissions are made so farr of ; as also 
that he was not made aquainted with our quautitie of things ; 
and saith y 4 in now being in 3. places, so farr remote, we will, 
with going up & downe, and wrangling & expostulating, pass 
over y e somer before we will goe. And to speake y e trueth, 
ther is fallen already amongst us a flatt schisme ; and we are 
redier to goe to dispute, then to sett forwarde a voiage. I 
have received from Leyden since you wente 3. or 4. letters 
directed to you, though they only conscerne me. I will not 
trouble you with them. I always feared y e event of y e Amster- 
damers striking in with us. I trow you must excomunicate 
me, or els you must goe without their companie, or we shall 
wante no quareling ; but let them pass. "We have reckoned, 
it should seeme, without our host; and, counting upon a 150. 
persons, ther cannot be founde above 1200 li . & odd moneys 
of all y e venturs you can reckone, besids some cloath, stock- 
ings, & shoes, which are not counted ; so we shall come shorte 
at least 3. or 400 U . I would have had some thing shortened 
at first of beare & other provissions in hope of other adventurs, 
& now we could have, both in Amsterd: & Kente, beere inough 
to serve our turne, but now we cannot accept it without preju- 
dice. You fear we have begune to build & shall not be able 
to make an end ; indeed, our courses were never established by 
counsell, we may therfore justly fear their standing. Yea, ther 
was a [36] schisme amongst us 3. at y e first. You wrote to 
M r . Martin, to prevente y e making of y e provissions in Kente, 
which he did, and sett downe his resolution how much he would 
have of every thing, without respecte to any counsell or excep- 
tion. Surely he y 4 is in a societie & yet regards not counsell, 
may better be a king then a consorte. To be short, if ther 
be not some other dispossition setled unto then yet is, we y 4 
should be partners of humilitie and peace, shall be examples 
of jangling & insulting. Yet your money which you ther must 
have, we will get provided for you instantly. 500 li . you say 


will serve ; for y e rest which hear & in Holand is to be used, 
we may goe scratch for it. For M r .* Crabe, of whom you write, 
he hath promised to goe with us, yet I tell you I shall not be 
without feare till I see him shipped, for he is much opposed, 
yet I hope he will not faile. Thinke y e best of all, and bear 
with patience what is wanting, and y e Lord guid us all. 

Your loving freind, 

London, June 10. ROB ART CUSHMAN. 

An : 1620. 

I have bene y e larger in these things, and so shall 
crave leave in some like passages following, (thoug 
in other things I shal labour to be more contracte,) 
that their children may see with what difficulties their 
fathers wrastled in going throug these things in their 
first beginings, and how God brought them along not- 
withstanding all their weaknesses & infirmities. As 
allso that some use may be made hereof in after times 
by others in such like waightie imployments ; and here- 
with I will end this chapter. 

The 7. Chap. 

Of their departure from Ley den, and other things ther 
dboute, with their arivall at South hamton, were they 
all mete togeather, and tooke in ther provissions. 

AT length, after much travell and these debats, all 
things were got ready and provided. A smale ship f 
was bought, & fitted in Holand, which was intended as 

* He was a minister. f Of some 60 tune. 

72 HISTORY or [CHAP. vn. 

to serve to help to transport them, so to stay in y e 
cuntrie and atend upon fishing and shuch other affairs 
as might be for y e good & benefite of y e colonie when 
they came ther. Another was hired at London, of 
burden about 9. score; and all other things gott in 
readines. 4 So being ready to departe, they had a day 
of solleme humiliation, their pastor taking his texte 
from Ezra 8. 21. And ther at y e river, by Ahava, 1 
proclaimed a fast, that we might humble ourselves before 
our God, and seeke of him a right way for us, and 
for our children, and for all our substance. Upon which 
he spente a good parte of y e day very profitably, and 
suitable to their presente occasion. The rest of the 
time was spente in powering out prairs to y e Lord with 
great fervencie, mixed with abundance of tears. And 
y e time being come that they must departe, they were 
accompanied with most of their brethren out of y e 
citie, unto a towne sundrie miles of called Delfes-Haven, 
wher the ship lay ready to receive them. So they lefte 
y 1 goodly & pleasante citie, which had been ther resting 
place near 12. years ; but they knew they were pil- 
grimes,* & looked not much on those things, but lift 
up their eyes to y e heavens, their dearest cuntrie, and 
quieted their spirits, y' When they [37] came to y e 
place they found y e ship and all things ready; and 
shuch of their freinds as could not come with them 
followed after them, and sundrie also came from Am- 

* Heb. 11. 


sterdame to see them shipte and to take their leave 
of them. That night was spent with litle sleepe by 
y e most, but with freindly entertainmente & Christian 
discourse and other reall expressions of true Christian 
love. The next day, the wind being faire, they wente 
aborde, and their freinds with them, where truly dolfull 
was y e sight of that sade and mournfull parting ; to see 
what sighs and sobbs and praires did sound amongst 
them, what tears did gush from every eye, & pithy 
speeches peirst each harte; that sundry of y e Dutch 
strangers y* stood on y e key as spectators, could not 
refraine from tears. Yet comfortable & sweete it was 
to see shuch lively and true expressions of dear & un- 
fained love. But y e tide (which stays for no man) 
caling them away y i were thus loath to departe, their 
Reve d : pastor falling downe on his knees, (and they 
all with him,) with watrie cheeks comended them with 
most fervente praiers to the Lord and his blessing. 
And then with mutuall imbrases and many tears, they 
tooke their leaves one of an other ; which proved to 
be y e last leave to many of them. 

Thus hoy sing saile,* with a prosperus winde they 
came in short time to Southhamton, wher they found 
the bigger ship come from London, lying ready, w th 
all the rest of their company. After a joy full well- 
come, and mutuall congratulations, with othe r frendly 
entertainements, they fell to parley aboute their bussi- 

* This was about 22. of July. 


nes, how to dispatch with y e best expedition ; as allso 
with their agents, aboute y e alteration of y e conditions. 
M r . Carver pleaded he was imployed hear at Hamton, 
and knew not well what y e other had don at London. 
M r . Cushman answered, he had done nothing but what 
he was urged too, partly by y e grounds of equity, and 
more espetialy by necessitie, other wise all had bene 
dasht and many undon. And in y e begining he 
aquainted his felow agents here with, who consented 
unto him, and left it to him to execute, and to receive 
y e money at London and send it downe to them at 
Hamton, wher they made y e provissions ; the which he 
accordingly did, though it was against his minde, & 
some of y e marchants, y* they were their made. And 
for giveing them notise at Ley den of this change, he 
could not well in regarde of y e shortnes of y e time ; 
againe, he knew it would trouble them and hinder 
y e bussines, which was already delayed overlong in 
regard of y e season of y e year, which he feared they 
would find to their cost. But these things gave not 
contente at presente. M r . Weston, likwise, came up 
from London to see them dispatcht and to have y e 
conditions confirmed; but they refused, and answered 
him, that he knew right well that these were not 
according to y e first agreemente, neither could they 
yeeld to them without y e consente of the rest that 
were behind. And indeed they had spetiall charge 
when they came away, from the cheefe of those that 


were behind, not to doe it. At which he was much 
offended, and tould them, they must then looke to 
stand on their owne leggs. So he returned in dis- 
pleasure, and this was y e first ground of discontent 
betweene them. And wheras ther wanted well near 
100". to clear things at their going away, he would 
not take order to disburse a penie, but let them shift 
as they could. [38] So they were forst to selle of 
some of their provissions to stop this gape, which 
was some 3. or 4. score firkins of butter, which com- 
oditie they might best spare, haveing provided too 
large a quantitie of y l kind. Then they write a leter 
to y e marchants & adventures aboute y e diferances 
concerning y e conditions, as foloweth. 

Aug. 3. An : 1620. 

Beloved freinds, sory we are that ther should be occasion 
of writing at all unto you, partly because we ever expected 
to see y e most of you hear, but espetially because ther should 
any differance at all be conceived betweene us. But seing 
it faleth out that we cannot conferr togeather, we thinke it 
meete (though brefly) to show you y e just cause & reason of 
our differing from those articles last made by Robart Cushman, 
without our comission or knowledg. And though he might 
propound good ends to himselfe, yet it no way justifies his 
doing it. Our maine diference is in y e 5. & 9. article, con- 
cerning y e deviding or holding of house and lands ; the injoy- 
ing wherof some of your selves well know, was one spetiall 
motive, amongst many other, to provoke us to goe. This 
was thought so reasonable, y* when y e greatest of you in 
adventure (whom we have much cause to respecte), when he 


propounded conditions to us freely of his owne accorde, he 
set this downe for one ; a coppy wherof we have sent unto 
you, with some additions then added by us ; which being 
liked on both sids, and' a day set for y e paiinente of moneys, 
those of Holland paid in theirs. After y 1 , Robart Cushman, 
M r . Peirce, & M r . Martine, brought them into a better forme, 
& write them in a booke now extante ; and upon Robarts 
shewing them and delivering M r . Mullins a coppy therof under 
his hand (which we have), he payd in his money. And we 
of Holland had never seen other before our coming to Hamton, 
but only as one got for him selfe a private coppy of them ; 
upon sight wherof we manyfested uter dislike, but had put 
of our estats & were ready to come, and therfore was too late 
to rejecte y e vioage. Judge therfore we beseech you indifer- 
ently of things, and if a faulte have bene comited, lay it wher 
it is, & not upon us, who have more cause to stand for y e one, 
then you have for y e other. We never gave Robart Cushman 
comission to make any one article for us, but only sent him 
to receive moneys upon articles before agreed on, and to 
further y e provissions till John Carver came, and to assiste 
him in it. Yet since you conceive your selves wronged as 
well as we, we thought meete to add a branch to y e end of 
our 9. article, as will allmost heale that wound of it selfe, 
which you conceive to be in it. But that it may appeare to 
all men y* we are not lovers of our selves only, but desire 
also y e good & inriching of our freinds who have adventured 
your moneys with our persons, we have added our last article 
to y e rest, promising you againe by leters in y e behalfe of the 
whole company, that if large profits should not arise within 
y e 7. years, y* we will continue togeather longer with you, if 
y e Lord give a blessing.* This we hope is sufficente to satisfie 
any in this case, espetialy freinds, since we are asured y* if 
the whole charge was devided into 4. parts, 3. of them will 

* It was well for them y' this was not accepted. 


not stand upon it, nether doe regarde it, &c. We are in 
shuch a streate at presente, as we are forced to sell away 60* 1 . 
worth of our provissions to cleare y e Haven, & withall put our 
selves upon great extremities, scarce haveing any butter, no 
oyle, not a sole to mend a shoe, [39] nor every man a sword 
to his side, wanting many muskets, much armoure, &c. And 
yet we are willing to expose our selves to shuch eminente 
dangers as are like to insue, & trust to y e good providence 
of God, rather then his name & truth should be evill spoken 
of for us. Thus saluting all of you in love, and beseeching 
y e Lord to give a blesing to our endeavore, and keepe all our 
harts in y e bonds of peace & love, we take leave & rest, 

Yours, &c. 
Aug. 3. 1620. 

It was subscribed with many names of y e cheefest 
of y e company. 

At their parting M r . Robinson write a leter to y e 
whole company, which though it hath already bene 
printed, yet I thought good here likwise to inserte 
it; as also a breefe leter writ at y e same time to M r . 
Carver, in which y e tender love & godly care of a true 
pastor appears. 

My dear Brother, I received inclosed in your last leter 
y e note of information, w ch I shall carefuly keepe & make use 
of as ther shall be occasion. I have a true feeling of your 
perplexitie of mind & toyle of body, but I hope that you who 
have allways been able so plentifully to administer com forte 
unto others in their trials, are so well furnished for your selfe 
as that farr greater difficulties then you have yet undergone 
(though I conceive them to have been great enough) cannot 


oppresse you, though they press you, as y e Aspostle speaks. 
The spirite of a man (sustained by y e spirite of God) will sus- 
taine his infirmitie, I dout not so will yours. And y e beter 
much when you shall injoye y e presence & help of so many 
godly & wise bretheren, for y e bearing of part of your burthen, 
who also will not admitte into their harts y e least thought of 
suspition of any y e least negligence, at least presumption, to 
have been in you, what so ever they thiiike in others. Now 
what shall I say or write unto you & your goodwif e my loving 
sister? even only this, I desire (& allways shall) unto you 
from y e Lord, as unto my owne soule ; and assure your selfe 
y* my harte is with you, and that I will not forslowe my bodily 
coming at y e first oppertunitie. I have writen a large leter to 
y e whole, and am sorie I shall not rather speak then write to 
them ; & the more, considering y e wante of a preacher, which 
I shall also make sume spurr to my hastening after you. I 
doe ever comend my best affection unto you, which if I thought 
you made any doubte of, I would express in more, & y e same 
more ample & full words. And y e Lord in whom you trust & 
whom you serve ever in this bussines & journey, guid you with 
his hand, protecte you with his winge, and shew you & us his 
salvation in y e end, & bring us in y e mean while togeather in 
y e place desired, if shuch be his good will, for his Christs sake. 
Amen. Yours, &c. 

July 27. 1620. Jo: R. 

This was y e last letter y* M r . Carver lived to see 
from him. The other follows. 

* Lovinge Christian friends, I doe hartily & in y e Lord salute 
you all, as being they with whom I am presente in my best 

* This letter is omitted in Governor Bradford's Collection of Letters. 


affection, and most ernest longings after you, though I be 
constrained for a while to be bodily absente from you. I say 
constrained, God knowing how willingly, & much rather then 
otherwise, I would have borne my part with you in this first 
brunt, were I not by strong necessitie held back for y e present. 
Make accounte of me in y e mean while, as of a man devided in 
my selfe with great paine, and as (naturall bonds set a side) 
having my beter parte with [40] you. And though I doubt 
not but in your godly wisdoms, you both foresee & resolve 
upon y* which concerneth your presente state & condition, 
both severally & joyntly, yet have I thought it but my duty 
to add some furder spurr of provocation unto them, who rune 
allready, if not because you need it, yet because I owe it in 
love & dutie. And first, as we are daly to renew our repent- 
ance with our God, espetially for our sines known, and gener- 
ally for our unknowne trespasses, so doth y e Lord call us in 
a singuler maner upon occasions of shuch difficultie & danger 
as lieth upon you, to a both more narrow search & carefull 
reformation of your ways in his sight; least he, calling to 
remembrance our sines forgotten by us or unrepented of, take 
advantage against us, & in judgmente leave us for y e same 
to be swalowed up in one danger or other ; wheras, on the 
contrary, sine being taken away by ernest repentance & y e 
pardon therof from y e Lord sealed up unto a mans conscience 
by his spirite, great shall be his securitie and peace in all 
dangers, sweete his comforts in all distresses, with hapie 
deliverance from all evill, whether in life or in death. 

Now next after this heavenly peace with God & our owne 
consciences, we are carefully to provide for peace with all men 
what in us lieth, espetially with our associats, & for y l watch- 
fullnes must be had, that we neither at all in our selves doe 
give, no nor easily take offence being given by others. Woe 
be unto y e world for offences, for though it be necessarie (con- 
sidering y e malice of Satan & mans corruption) that offences 


come, yet woe unto y e man or woman either by whom y e offence 
cometh, saith Christ, Mat. 18. 7. And if offences in y e un- 
seasonable use of things in them selves indifferent, be more 
to be feared then death itself e, as y e Apostle teacheth, 1. Cor. 
9. 15. how much more in things simply evill, in which neither 
honour of God nor love of man is thought worthy to be re- 
garded. Neither yet is it sufflciente y e we keepe our selves 
by y e grace of God from giveing offence, exepte withall we be 
armed against y e taking of them when they be given by others. 
For how unperfect & lame is y e work of grace in y* person, 
who wants charritie to cover a multitude of offences, as y e 
scriptures speake. Neither are you to be exhorted to this 
grace only upon y e coinone grounds of Christianitie, which 
are, that persons ready to take offence, either wante charitie, 
to cover offences, of wisdome duly to waigh humane frailtie ; 
or lastly, are grosse, though close hipocrites, as Christ our 
Lord teacheth, Mat. 7. 1, 2, 3, as indeed in my owne expe- 
rience, few or none have bene found which sooner give offence, 
then shuch as easily take it; neither have they ever proved 
sound & profitable members in societies, which have nurished 
this touchey humor. But besids these, ther are diverse motives 
provoking you above others to great care & conscience this 
way : As first, you are many of you strangers, as to y e per- 
sons, so to y e infirmities one of another, & so stand in neede 
of more watchfullnes this way, least when shuch things fall 
out in men & women as you suspected not, you be inordinatly 
affected with them; which doth require at your hands much 
wisdome & charitie for y e covering & preventing of incident 
offences that way. And lastly, your intended course of civill 
comunitie will minister continuall occasion of offence, & will 
be as fuell for that fire, excepte you dilligently quench it with 
brotherly forbearance. And if taking of offence causlesly or 
easilie at mens doings be so carefuly to be avoyded, how much 
more heed is to be taken y* we take not offence at God him 


selfe, which yet we certainly doe so ofte as we doe murmure 
at his providence in our crosses, or beare impatiently shuch 
afflictions as wherwith he pleaseth to visite us. Store up 
therfore patience against y e evill day, without which we take 
offence at y e Lord him selfe in his holy & just works. 

A 4. thing ther is carfully to be provided for, to witte, that 
with your comone imployments you joyne comone affections 
truly bente upon y e generall good, avoyding as a deadly 
[41] plague of your both comone & spetiall comfort all re- 
tirednes of minde for proper advantage, and all singularly 
affected any maner of way ; let every man represe in him 
selfe & y e whol body in each person, as so many rebels 
against y e comone good, all private respects of mens selves, 
not sorting with y e generall conveniencie. And as men are 
carfull not to have a new house shaken with any violence 
before it be well setled & y e parts firmly knite, so be you, 
I beseech you, brethren, much more carfull, y l the house of 
God which you are, and are to be, be not shaken with un- 
necessarie novelties or other oppositions at y e first setling 

Lastly, wheras you are become a body politik, using amongst 
your selves civill govermente, and are not furnished with any 
persons of spetiall eminencie above y e rest, to be chosen by you 
into office of goverment, let your wisdome & godlines appeare, 
not only in chusiug shuch persons as doe entirely love and will 
promote y e comone good, but also in yeelding unto them all 
due honour & obedience in their lawfull administrations ; not 
behoulding in them y e ordinarinesse of their persons, but Gods 
ordinance for your good, not being like y e foolish multitud 
who more honour y e gay coate, then either y e vertuous minde 
of y e man, or glorious ordinance of y e Lord. But you know 
better things, & that y e image of y e Lords power & authoritie 
which y e magistrate beareth, is honourable, in how meane per- 
sons soever. And this dutie you both may y e more willingly 

82 HISTORY or [CHAP. vn. 

and ought y e more conscionably to performe, because you are 
at least for y e present to have only them for your ordinarie 
governours, which your selves shall make choyse of for that 

Sundrie other things of importance I could put you in minde 
of, and of those before mentioned, in more words, but I will 
not so fair wrong your godly minds as to thinke you heedless 
of these things, ther being also diverce among you so well able 
to admonish both them selves & others of what concerneth 
them. These few things therfore, & y e same in few words, 
I doe ernestly coinend unto your care & conscience, joyning 
therwith my daily incessante prayers unto y e Lord, y* he who 
hath made y e heavens & y e earth, y e sea and all rivers of 
waters, and whose providence is over all his workes, espetially 
over all his dear children for good, would so guide & gard 
you in your wayes, as inwardly by his Spirite, so outwardly 
by y e hand of his power, as y' both you & we also, for & with 
you, may have after matter of praising his name all y e days 
of your and our lives. Fare you well in him in whom you 
trust, and in whom I rest. 

An unf ained wellwiller of your hapie 
success in this hopefull voyage, 


This letter, though large, yet being so frutfull in 
it selfe, and suitable to their occation, I thought meete 
to inserte in this place. 

All things being now ready, & every bussines dis- 
patched, the company was caled togeather, and this 
letter read amongst them, which had good acceptation 
with all, and after fruit with many. Then they ordered 
& distributed their company for either shipe, as they 


conceived for y e best. And chose a Gov r & 2. or 3. 
assistants for each shipe, to order y e people by y e way, 
and see to y e dispossing of there provissions, and shuch 
like affairs. All which was not only with y e liking 
of y e maisters of y e ships, but according to their 
desires. Which being done, they sett sayle from 
thence aboute y e 5. of August; but what befell them 
further upon y e coast of England will appeare in y e 
nexte chapter. 

The 8. Chap. 

Off the troubls that befell them on the coaste, and at sea 
being forced, after much trouble, to leave one of ther 
ships & some of their companie behind them. 
[42] BEING thus put to sea they had not gone farr, 
but M r . Remolds y e m r . of y e leser ship complained 
that he found his ship so leak as he durst not put 
further to sea till she was mended. So y e m r . of y e 
biger ship (caled M r . Jonas) being consulted with, they 
both resolved to put into Dartmouth & have her ther 
searched & mended, which accordingly was done, to 
their great charg & losse of time and a faire winde. 
She was hear thorowly searcht from steme to sterne, 
some leaks were found & mended, and now it was 
conceived by the workmen & all, that she was suffi- 
ciente, & they might proceede without either fear or 
danger. So with good hopes from hence, they put 
to sea againe, conceiving they should goe comfortably 


on, not looking for any more lets of this kind; but 
it fell out otherwise, for after they were gone to sea 
againe above 100. leagues without the Lands End, 
houlding company togeather all this while, the m r . of 
y e small ship complained his ship was so leake as he 
must beare up or sinke at sea, for they could scarce 
free her with much pumping. So they came to con- 
sultation againe, and resolved both ships to bear up 
backe againe & put into Plimoth, which accordingly 
was done. But no spetiall leake could be founde, but 
it was judged to be y e generall weaknes of y e shipe, 
and that shee would not prove sufficiente for the voiage. 
Upon which it was resolved to dismise her & parte of 
y e companie, and proceede with y e other shipe. The 
which (though it was greevous, & caused great dis- 
couragmente) was put in execution. So after they 
had tooke out such provission as y e other ship could 
well stow, and concluded both what number and what 
persons to send bak, they made another sad parting, 
y e one ship going backe for London, and y e other was 
to proceede on her viage. Those that went bak were 
for the most parte such as were willing so to doe, 
either out of some discontente, or feare they conceived 
of y e ill success of y e vioage, seeing so many croses 
befale, & the year time so farr spente ; but others, in 
regarde of their owne weaknes, and charge of many 
yonge children, were thought least usefull, and most 
unfite to bear y e brunte of this hard adventure ; unto 


which worke of God, and judgmente of their brethern, 
they were contented to submite. And thus, like Gedions 
armie, this small number was devided, as if y e Lord by 
this worke of his providence thought these few to many 
for y e great worke he had to doe. But here by the way 
let me show, how afterward it was found y* the leaknes 
of this ship was partly by being over masted, and too 
much pressed with sayles ; for after she was sould & 
put into her old trime, she made many viages & per- 
formed her service very sufficiently, to y e great profite 
of her owners. But more espetially, by the cuning & 
deceite of y e m r . & his company, who were hired to 
stay a whole year in y e cuntrie, and now fancying dis- 
like & fearing wante of victeles, they ploted this strate- 
gem to free them selves ; as afterwards was knowne, & 
by some of them confessed. For they apprehended 
y* the greater ship, being of force, & in whom most 
of y e provissions were stowed, she would retayne 
enough for her selfe, what soever became of them or 
y e passengers ; & indeed shuch speeches had bene cast 
out by some of them ; and yet, besids other incourag- 
ments, y e cheefe of them that came from Ley den wente 
in this shipe to give y e m r . content e. But so strong 
was self love & his fears, as he forgott all duty and 
[43] former kindnesses, & delt thus falsly with them, 
though he pretended otherwise. Amongest those that 
returned was M r . Cushman & his familie, whose hart 
& courage was gone from them before, as it seems, 

86 HISTORY or [CHAP. vm. 

though his body was with them till now he departed ; 
as may appear by a passionate letter he write to a 
freind in London from Dartmouth, whilst y e ship lay 
ther a mending ; the which, besids y e expressions of his 
owne fears, it shows much of y e providence of God work- 
ing for their good beyonde man's expectation, & other 
things concerning their condition in these streats. I will 
hear relate it. And though it discover some infirmities 
in him (as who under temtation is free), yet after this he 
continued to be a spetiall instrumente for their good, and 
to doe y e offices of a loving freind & faithfull brother 
unto them, and pertaker of much comforte with them. 
The letter is as followth. 

To his loving friend Ed: S.* at Henige House in y e Duks Place, 

these, &c. 

Dartmouth, Aug. 17. 

Loving friend, my most kind remembrance to you & your 
wife, with loving E. M. &c. whom in this world I never looke 
to see againe. For besids y e eminente dangers of this viage, 
which are no less then deadly, an infirmitie of body hath ceased 
me, which will not in all lic e lyhoode leave me till death. What 
to call it I know not, but it is a bundle of lead, as it were, 
crushing my harte more & more these 14. days, as that ail- 
though I doe y e acctions of a liveing man, yet I am but as 
dead ; but y e will of God be done. Our pinass will not cease 
leaking, els I thinke we had been halfe way at Virginia, 
our viage hither hath been as full of crosses, as our selves 
have been of crokednes. We put in hear to trime her, & I 

* In Governor Bradford' s Collection of Letters, this is Edward Southworth. 


thinke, as others also, if we had stayed at sea but 3. or 4. 
howers more, shee would have sunke right downe. And 
though she was twise trimed at Hamton, yet now shee is 
open and leakie as a seive ; and ther was a borde, a man 
might have puld of with his fingers, 2 foote longe, wher 
y e water came in as at a mole hole. We lay at Hamton 7. 
days, in fair weather, waiting for her, and now we lye hear 
waiting for her in as faire a wind as can blowe, and so have 
done these 4. days, and are like to lye 4. more, and by y* 
time y e wind will happily turne as it did at Hampton. Our 
victualls will be halfe eaten up, I thinke, before we goe from 
the coaste of England, and if our viage last longe, we shall 
not have a months victialls when we come in y e countrie. 
Neare 700 li . hath bene bestowed at Hampton, upon what I 
know not. M r . Martin saith he neither can nor will give 
any accounte of it, and if he be called upon for accounts 
he crieth out of unthankfullnes for his paines & care, that 
we are susspitious of him, and flings away, & will end noth- 
ing. Also he so insulteh over our poore people, with shuch 
scorne & contempte, as if they were not good enough to wipe 
his shoes. It would break your hart to see his dealing,* and 
y e mourning of our people. They complaine to me, & alass ! 
I can doe nothing for them ; if I speake to him, he flies 
in my face, as mutinous, and saith no complaints shall be 
heard or received but by him selfe, and saith they are for- 
warde, & waspish, discontented people, & I doe ill to hear 
them. Ther are others y' would lose all they have put in, 
or make satisfaction for what they have had, that they might 
departe ; but he will not hear them, nor suffer them to goe 
ashore, least they should rune away. The sailors also are 
so offended at his ignorante bouldnes, in medling & con- 
trouling in things he knows not what belongs too, as y* some 
threaten to misscheefe him, others say they will leave y e shipe 

* He was governour in y e biger ship, & M r . Cushman assistants. 


& goe their way. But at y e best this cometh of it, y 4 he maks 
him selfe a scorne & laughing stock unto them. As for M r . 
Weston, excepte grace doe greatly swaye with him, he will 
hate us ten times more then ever he loved us, for not con- 
firming y e conditions. But now, since some pinches have 
taken them, they begine to reveile y e trueth, & say M r . Robin- 
son was in y e falte who charged them never to consente to 
those conditions, nor chuse me into office, but indeede apointed 
them to chose them they did chose.* But he & they will rue 
too late, they may [44] now see, & all be ashamed when it 
is too late, that they were so ignorante, yea, & so inordinate 
in their courses. I am sure as they were resolved not to seale 
those conditions, I was not so resolute at Hampton to have left 
y e whole bussines, excepte they would seale them, & better y e 
vioage to have bene broken of then, then to have brought such 
miserie to our selves, dishonour to God, & detrimente to our 
loving freinds, as now it is like to doe. 4. or 5. of y e cheefe 
of them which came from Leyden, came resolved never to goe 
on those conditions. And M r . Martine, he said he never re- 
ceived no money on those conditions, he was not beholden to 
y e marchants for a pine, they were bloudsuckers, & I know not 
what. Simple man, he indeed never made any conditions w th 
the marchants, nor ever spake with them. But did all that 
money flie to Hampton, or was it his owne? Who will goe & 
lay out money so rashly & lavishly as he did, and never know 
how he comes by it, or on what conditions ? 2 ly . I tould him 
of y e alteration longe agoe, & he was contente ; but now he 
dominires, & said I had betrayed them into y e hands of slaves ; 
he is not beholden to them, he can set out 2. ships him selfe 
to a viage. When, good man? He hath but 50 li . in, & if he 
should give up his accounts he would not have a penie left 
him, as I am persuaded,! &c. Freind, if ever we make a 

* I thinke he was deceived in these things, 
t This was found true afterward. 


plantation, God works a mirakle ; especially considering how 
scante we shall be of victualls, and most of all ununited 
amongst our selves, & devoyd of good tutors & regimente. 
Violence will break all. Wher is y e meek & humble spirite 
of Moyses? & of Nehemiah who reedified y e wals of Jerusa- 
lem, & y e state of Israeli? Is not y e sound of Rehoboams 
braggs daly hear amongst us ? Have not y e philosophers and 
all wise men observed y*, even in setled comone welths, vio- 
lente governours bring either them selves, or people, or boath, 
to ruine ; how much more in y e raising of comone wealths, 
when y e morter is yet scarce tempered y' should bind y e 
wales. If I should write to you of all things which pro- 
miscuously fore rune our ruine, I should over charge my weake 
head and greeve your tender hart ; only this, I pray you pre- 
pare for evill tidings of us every day. But pray for us in- 
stantly, it may be y e Lord will be yet entreated one way or 
other to make for us. I see not in reason how we shall 
escape even y e gasping of hunger starved persons ; but God 
can doe much, & his will be done. It is better for me to 
dye, then now for me to bear it, which I doe daly, & ex- 
pecte it howerly ; haveing received y e sentance of death, 
both within me & without me. Poore William King & my 
selfe doe strive * who shall be meate first for y e fishes ; but 
we looke for a glorious resurrection, knowing Christ Jesus 
after y e flesh no more, but looking unto y e joye y 4 is before 
us, we will endure all these things and accounte them light 
in comparison of y 4 joye we hope for. Remember me in all 
love to our freinds as if I named them, whose praiers I 
desire ernestly, & wish againe to see, but not till I can with 
more comforte looke them in y e face. The Lord give us 
that true comforte which none can take from us. I had a 
desire to make a breefe relation of our estate to some freind. 

* In the manuscript it is " strive dayly," but a pen has been drawn through 
the latter word. 


I doubte not but your wisdome will teach you seasonably to 
utter things as here after you shall be called to it. That 
which I have writen is treue, & many things more which I 
have forborne. I write it as upon my life, and last confes- 
sion in England. What is of use to be spoken [45] of 
presently, you may speake of it, and what is fitt to conceile, 
conceall. Pass by my weake maner, for my head is weake, 
& my body feeble, y e Lord make me strong in him, & keepe 

both you & yours. 

Your loving freind, 


Dartmouth, Aug. 17. 1620. 

These being his conceptions & fears at Dartmouth, 
they must needs be much stronger now at Plimoth. 

The 9. Chap. 

Of their vioage, & how they passed y 6 sea, and of their 
safe arrivall at Cape Codd. 

SEPT R : 6. These troubls being blowne over, and now 
all being compacte togeather in one shipe,* they put 
to sea againe with a prosperus winde, which continued 
diverce days togeather, which was some incourag- 
mente unto them ; yet according to y* usuall maner 
many were afflicted with sea-sicknes. And I may not 
omite hear a spetiall worke of Gods providence. Ther 
was a proud & very profane yonge man, one of y e 
sea-men, of a lustie, able body, which made him the 

* For Governor Bradford's list of passengers in the Mayflower, see Appendix, 
No. I. 


more hauty; he would allway be contemning y e poore 
people in their sicknes, & cursing them dayly with 
greeous execrations, and did not let to tell them, that 
he hoped to help to cast halfe of them over board 
before they came to their jurneys end, and to make 
mery with what they had ; and if he were by any 
gently reproved, he would curse and swear most 
bitterly. But it plased God before they came halfe 
seas over, to smite this yong man with a greeveous 
disease, of which he dyed in a desperate maner, and 
so was him selfe y e first y 1 was throwne overbord. 
Thus his curses light on his owne head; and it was 
an astonishmente to all his fellows, for they noted it 
to be y e just hand of God upon him. 

After they had injoyed faire winds and weather for 
a season, they were incountred many times with crosse 
winds, and mette with many feirce stormes, with which 
y e shipe was shroudly shaken, and her upper works 
made very leakie ; and one of the maine beames in 
y e midd ships was bowed & craked, which put them 
in some fear that y e shipe could not be able to per- 
forme y e vioage. So some of y e cheefe of y e com- 
pany, perceiveing y e mariners to feare y e suffisiencie 
of y e shipe, as appeared by their mutterings, they 
entred into serious consulltation with y e m r . & other 
officers of y e ship, to consider in time of y e danger; 
and rather to returne then to cast them selves into a 
desperate & inevitable perill. And truly ther was 


great distraction & differance of opinion amongst y e 
mariners them selves ; faine would they doe what 
could be done for their wages sake, (being now halfe 
the seas over,) and on y e other hand they were loath 
to hazard their lives too desperatly. But in examen- 
ing of all opinions, the m r . & others affirmed they 
knew y e ship to be stronge & firme under water ; and 
for the buckling of y e maine beame, ther was a great 
iron scrue y e passengers brought out of Holland, which 
would raise y e beame into his place ; y e which being 
done, the carpenter & m r . affirmed that with a post 
put under it, set firme in y e lower deck, & otherways 
bounde, he would make it sufficiente. And as for y e 
decks & uper workes they would calke them as well 
as they could, and though with y e workeing of y e ship 
they [46] would not longe keepe stanch, yet ther 
would otherwise be no great danger, if they did not 
overpress her with sails. So they comited them selves 
to y e will of God, & resolved to proseede. In sundrie 
of these stormes the winds were so feirce, & y e seas 
so high, as they could not beare a knote of saile, but 
were forced to hull, for diverce days togither. And 
in one of them, as they thus lay at hull, in a mighty 
storme, a lustie yonge man (called John Howland) 
coming upon some occasion above y e grattings, was, 
with a seele of y e shipe throwne into [y e ] sea; but 
it pleased God y* he caught hould of y e top-saile 
halliards, which hunge over board, & rane out at 


length; yet he held his hould (though he was sundrie 
fadomes under water) till he was hald up by y e same 
rope to y e brime of y e water, and then with a boat 
hooke & other means got into y e shipe againe, & his 
life saved ; and though he was something ill with it, 
yet he lived many years after, and became a profitable 
member both in church & comone wealthe. In all this 
viage ther died but one of y e passengers, which was 
William Butten, a youth, servant to Samuell Fuller, 
when they drew near y e coast. But to omite other 
things, (that I may be breefe,) after longe beating at 
sea they fell with that land which is called Cape Cod ; 
the which being made & certainly knowne to be it, 
they were not a litle joy full. After some deliberation 
had amongst them selves & with y e m r . of y e ship, they 
tacked aboute and resolved to stande for y e southward 
(y e wind & weather being faire) to finde some place 
aboute Hudsons river for their habitation. But after 
they had sailed y* course aboute halfe y e day, they 
fell amongst deangerous shoulds and roring breakers, 
and they were so farr intangled ther with as they 
conceived them selves in great danger ; & y e wind 
shrinking upon them withall, they resolved to bear 
up againe for the Cape, and thought them selves hapy 
to gett out of those dangers before night overtooke 
them, as by Gods providence they did. And y e next 
day they gott into y e Cape-harbor wher they ridd in 
saffcie. A word or too by y e way of this cape ; it was 


thus first named by Capten Gosnole & his company,* 
An : 1602, and after by Capten Smith was caled Cape 
James ; but it retains y e former name amongst sea- 
men. Also y i pointe which first shewed those danger- 
ous shoulds unto them, they called Pointe Care, & 
Tuckers Terrour; but y e French & Dutch to this day 
call it Malabarr, by reason of those perilous shoulds, 
and y e losses they have suffered their. 
/ Being thus arived in a good harbor and brought safe 
to land, they fell upon their knees & blessed y e God 
of heaven, who had brought them over y e vast & 
furious ocean, and delivered them from all y e periles 
& miseries therof, againe to set their feete on y e firme 
and stable earth, their proper elemente. And no mar- 
veil if they were thus joyefull, seeing wise Seneca 
was so affected with sailing a few miles on y e coast 
of his owne Italy; as he affirmed, f that he had rather 
remaine twentie years on his way by land, then pass 
by sea to any place in a short time ; so tedious & 
dreadfull was y e same unto him. 

But hear I cannot but stay and make a pause, and 
stand half amased at this poore peoples presente con- 
dition; and so I thinke will the reader too, when he 
well considers [47 J y e same. Being thus passed y e 
vast ocean, and a sea of troubles before in their prep- 
aration (as may be remembred by y* which wente 
before), they had now no freinds to wellcome them, 

Because y 6 ? tooke much of y l fishe ther. f Epist : 53. 


nor inns to entertaine or refresh their weatherbeaten 
bodys, no houses or much less townes to repaire too, 
to seeke for succoure. It is recorded in scripture * 
as a mercie to y e apostle & his shipwraked company, 
y* the barbarians shewed them no smale kindnes in 
refreshing them, but these savage barbarians, when 
they mette with them (as after will appeare) were 
readier to fill their sids full of arrows then other- 
wise. And for y e season it was winter, and they 
that know y e winters of y* cuntrie know them to be 
sharp & violent, & subjecte to cruell & feirce stormes, 
deangerous to travill to known places, much more to 
serch an unknown coast. Besids, what could they see 
but a hidious & desolate wildernes, full of wild beasts 
& willd men? and what multituds ther might be of 
them they knew not. Nether could they, as it were, 
goe up to y e tope of Pisgah, to vew from this willder- 
nes a more goodly cuntrie to feed their hops ; for 
which way soever they turnd their eys (save up- 
ward to y e heavens) they could have litle solace or 
content in respecte of any outward objects. For 
sumer being done, all things stand upon them with 
a wetherbeaten face ; and y e whole countrie, full of 
woods & thickets, represented a wild & savage heiw. 
If they looked behind them, ther was y e mighty 
ocean which they had passed, and was now as a 
maine barr & goulfe to seperate them from all y e 

Act. 28. 


civill parts of y e world. If it be said they had a 
ship to sucour them, it is trew; but what heard 
they daly from y e m r . & company? but y t with 
speede they should looke out a place with their 
shallop, wher they would be at some near distance ; 
for y e season was shuch as he would not stirr from 
thence till a safe harbor was discovered by them 
wher they would be, and he might goe without 
danger; and that victells consumed apace, but he 
must & would keepe sufficient for them selves & 
their returne. Yea, it was muttered by some, that 
if they gott not a place in time, they would turne 
them & their goods ashore & leave them. Let it 
also be considred what weake hopes of supply & 
succoure they left behinde them, y* might bear up 
their minds in this sade condition and trialls they 
were under ; and they could not but be very smale. 
It is true, indeed, y e affections & love of their 
brethren at Leyden was cordiall & entire towards 
them, but they had litle power to help them, or 
them selves ; and how y e case stode betweene them 
& y e marchants at their coming away, hath allready 
been declared. What could now sustaine them but 
y e spirite of God & his grace? May not & ought 
not the children of these fathers rightly say : Our 
faithers were Englishmen which came over this great 
ocean, and were ready to perish in this willdernes;* 

* Deu : 26. 5, 7. 


but they cried unto y e Lord, and he heard their voyce, 
and looked on their adversitie, &c. Let them therfore 
praise y e Lord, because he is good, & his mercies en- 
dure for ever.* Yea, let them which have been redeemed 
of y 6 Lord, shew how he hath delivered them from y e 
hand of y e oppressour. When they wandered in y e 
deserte willdernes out of y e way, and found no citie 
to dwell in, both hungrie, & thirstie, their sowle ivas 
overwhelmed in them. Let them confess before y e Lord 
his loving kindnes, and his wonderfidl works before y e 
sons of men. 

The 10. Chap. 

Showing how they sought out a place of habitation, and 
what befell them theraboule. 

[48] BEING thus arrived at Cap-Cod y e 11. of 
November, and necessitie calling them to looke out 
a place for habitation, (as well as the maisters & 
mariners importunitie,) they having brought a large 
shalop with them out of England, stowed in quarters 
in y c ship, they now gott her out & sett their carpenters 
to worke to trime her up ; but being much brused & 
shatered in y e shipe w th foule weather, they saw she 
would be longe in mending. Wherupon a few of 
them tendered them selves to goe by land and dis- 
covere those nearest places, whilst y e shallop was in 
mending; and y e rather because as they wente into 

* 107 Psa : v. 1, 2, 4, 5, 8. 


y* harbor ther seemed to be an opening some 2. or 
3 leagues of, which y e maister judged to be a river. 
It was conceived ther might be some danger in y e 
attempte, yet seeing them resolute, they were per- 
mited to goe, being 16. of them well armed, under 
y e conduct of Captain Standish, having shuch instruc- 
tions given them as was thought meete. They sett 
forth y e 15. of Nove br : and when they had marched 
aboute y e space of a mile by y e sea side, they espied 
5. or 6. persons with a dogg coming towards them, 
who were salvages ; but they fled from them, & rane 
up into y e woods, and y e English followed them, 
partly to see if they could speake with them, and 
partly to discover if ther might not be more of them 
lying in ambush. But y e Indeans seeing them selves 
thus followed, they againe forsooke the woods, & rane 
away on y e sands as hard as they could, so as they 
could not come near them, but followed them by y e 
tracte of their feet sundrie miles, and saw that they 
had come the same way. So, night coming on, they 
made their randevous & set out their sentinels, and 
rested in quiete y* night, and the next morning fol- 
lowed their tracte till they had headed a great creake, 
& so left the sands, & turned an other way into y e 
woods. But they still followed them by geuss, hope- 
ing to find their dwellings ; but they soone lost both 
them & them selves, falling into shuch thickets as 
were ready to tear their cloaths & armore in peeces, 


but were most distresed for wante of drinke. But 
at length they found water & refreshed them selves, 
being y e first New-England water they drunke of, and 
was now in thir great thirste as pleasante unto them 
as wine or bear had been in for-times. Afterwards 
they directed their course to come to y e other [49] 
shore, for they knew it was a necke of land they 
were to crosse over, and so at length gott to y e 
sea-side, and marched to this supposed river, & by 
y e way found a pond of clear fresh water, and shortly 
after a good quantitie of clear ground wher y e Indeans 
had formerly set corne, and some of their graves. 
And proceeding furder they saw new-stuble wher 
corne had been set y e same year, also they found 
wher latly a house had been, wher some planks and 
a great ketle was remaining, and heaps of sand newly 
padled with their hands, which they, digging up, found 
in them diverce faire Indean baskets filled with corne, 
and some in eares, faire and good, of diverce collours, 
which seemed to them a very goodly sight, (haveing 
never seen any shuch before). This was near y c place 
of that supposed river they came to seeck ; unto which 
they wente and found it to open it selfe into 2. armes 
with a high cliffe of sand in y e enterance, but more 
like to be crikes of salte water then any fresh, for 
ought they saw ; and that ther was good harborige 
for their shalope ; leaving it further to be discovered 
by their shalop when she was ready. So their time 


limeted them being expired, they returned to y e ship, 
least they should be in fear of their saftie ; and tooke 
with them parte of y e corne, and buried up y e rest, 
and so like y e men from Eshcoll carried with them 
of y e fruits of y e land, & showed their breethren ; of 
which, & their returne, they were marvelusly glad, and 
their harts incouraged. 

After this, y e shalop being got ready, they set out 
againe for y e better discovery of this place, & y e m r . 
of y e ship desired to goe him selfe, so ther went 
some 30. men, but found it to be no harbor for 
ships but only for boats; ther was allso found 2. 
of their houses covered with matts, & sundrie of 
their implements in them, but y e people were rune 
away & could not be seen ; also ther was found 
more of their corne, & of their beans of various 
collours. The corne & beans they brought away, 
purposing to give them full satisfaction when they 
should meete with any of them (as about some 6. 
months afterward they did, to their good contente). 
And here is to be noted a spetiall providence of 
God, and a great mercie to this poore people, that 
hear they gott seed to plant them corne y e next 
year, or els they might have starved, for they had 
none, nor any liklyhood to get any [50] till y e season 
had beene past (as y e sequell did manyfest). Neither 
is it lickly they had had this, if y e first viage had 
not been made, for the ground was now all covered 


with snow, & hard frozen. But the Lord is never 
wanting unto his in their greatest needs ; let his holy 
name have all y e praise. 

The month of November being spente in these affairs, 
& much foule weather falling in, the 6. of Desem r : they 
sente out their shallop againe with 10. of their prin- 
cipall men, & some sea men, upon further discovery, 
intending to circulate that deepe bay of Cap-codd. 
The weather was very could, & it frose so hard as 
y e sprea of y e sea lighting on their coats, they were 
as if they had been glased ; yet that night betimes 
they gott downe into y c botome of y e bay, and as 
they drue nere y e shore they saw some 10. or 12. 
Indeans very busie aboute some thing. They landed 
aboute a league or 2. from them, and had much a 
doe to put a shore any wher, it lay so full of flats. 
Being landed, it grew late, and they made them selves 
a barricade with loggs & bowes as well as they could 
in y e time, & set out their sentenill & betooke them 
to rest, and saw y e smoake of y e fire y e savages made 
y 1 night. When morning was come they devided their 
company, some to coaste along y e shore in y e boate, 
and the rest marched throw y c woods to see y e land, 
if any fit place might be for their dwelling. They 
came allso to y c place wher they saw the Indans y e 
night before, & found they had been cuting up a great 
fish like a grampus, being some 2. inches thike of 
fate like a hogg, some peeces wher of they had left 


by y e way; and y e shallop found 2. more of these 
fishes dead on y e sands, a thing usuall after storms 
in y 1 place, by reason of y e great flats of sand that 
lye of. So they ranged up and doune all y* day, 
but found no people, nor any place they liked. When 
y e sune grae low, they hasted out of y e woods to meete 
with their shallop, to whom they made signes to come 
to them into a creeJce hardby, the which they did at 
highwater; of which they were very glad, for they had 
not seen each other all y fc day, since y e morning. So 
they made them a barricade (as usually they did every 
night) with loggs, staks, & thike pine bowes, y e height 
of a man, leaving it open to leeward, partly to shelter 
them from y e could & wind (making their fire in y e 
midle, & lying round aboute it), and partly to defend 
them from any sudden assaults of y e savags, if they 
should surround them. So being very weary, they 
betooke them to rest. But aboute midnight, [51] they 
heard a hideous & great crie, and their sentinell caled, 
"Anne, arme"; so they bestired them & stood to their 
armes, & shote of a cupple of moskets, and then the 
noys seased. They concluded it was a companie of 
wolves, or such like willd beasts ; for one of y e sea 
men tould them he had often heard shuch a noyse in 
New-found land. So they rested till about 5. of y e 
clock in the morning,' for y e tide, & ther purposs to 
goe from thence, made them be stiring betimes. So 
after praier they prepared for breakfast, and it being 


day dawning, it was thought best to be earring things 
downe to y e boate. But some said it was not best 
to carrie y e armes downe, others said they would be 
the readier, for they had laped them up in their coats 
from y e dew. But some 3. or 4. would not cary 
theirs till they wente them selves, yet as it fell out, 
y e water being not high enough, they layed them 
downe on y e banke side, & came up to breakfast. 
But presently, all on y c sudain, they heard a great 
& strange crie, which they knew to be the same 
voyces they heard in y e night, though they varied 
their notes, & one of their company being abroad 
came runing in, & cried, "Men, Indeans, Indeans"; 
and w th all, their arowes came flying amongst them. 
Their men rane with all speed to recover their armes, 
as by y e good providence of God they did. In y e 
mean time, of those that were ther ready, tow muskets 
were discharged at them, & 2. more stood ready in 
y e ente ranee of ther randevoue, but were cornanded 
not to shoote till they could take full aime at them ; 
& y e other 2. charged againe with all speed, for ther 
were only 4. had armes ther, & defended y e baricado 
which was first assalted. The crie of y e Indeans was 
dreadfull, espetially when they saw ther men rune out 
of y e randevoue towourds y e shallop, to recover their 
armes, the Indeans wheeling aboute upon them. But 
some runing out with coats of malle on, & cutlasses 
in their hands, they soone got their armes, & let flye 


amongs them, and quickly stopped their violence. Yet 
ther was a lustie man, and no less valiante, stood be- 
hind a tree within halfe a musket shot, and let his 
arrows flie at them. He was seen shoot 3. arrowes, 
which were all avoyded. He stood 3. shot of a 
musket, till one taking full aime at him, and made 
y c barke or splinters of y e tree fly about his ears, 
after which he gave an extraordinary shrike, and away 
they wente all of them. They left some to keep y e 
shalop, and followed them aboute a quarter of a mille, 
and shouted once or twise, and shot of 2. or 3. peces, 
& so returned. This they did, that they might con- 
ceive that they were not [52] affrade of them or any 
way discouraged. Thus it pleased God to vanquish 
their enimies, and give them deliverance ; and by 
his spetiall providence so to dispose that not any one 
of them were either hurte, or hitt, though their 
arrows came close by them, & on every side them, 
and sundry of their coats, which hunge up in y e 
barricado, were shot throw & throw. Aterwards they 
gave God sollamne thanks & praise for their deliver- 
ance, & gathered up a bundle of their arrows, & 
sente them into England afterward by y e m r . of y e 
ship, and called that place y e first encounter. From 
hence they departed, & costed all along, but discerned 
no place likly for harbor; & therfore hasted to a 
place that their pillote, (one M r . Coppin who had 
bine in y e cuntrie before) did assure them was a good 


harbor, which he had been in, and they might fetch 
it before night; of which they were glad, for it be- 
gane to be foule weather. After some houres sailing, 
it begane to snow & raine, & about y c midle of y e 
afternoone, y e wind increased, & y e sea became very 
rough, and they broake their rudder, & it was as much 
as 2. men could doe to steere her with a cupple of 
oares. But their pillott bad them be of good cheere, 
for he saw y e harbor ; but y e storme increasing, & 
night drawing on, they bore what saile they could to 
gett in, while they could see. But her with they 
broake their mast in 3. peeces, & their saill fell over 
bord, in a very grown sea, so as they had like to 
have been cast away ; yet by Gods mercie they re- 
covered them selves, & having y e floud with them, 
struck into y e harbore. But when it came too, y e 
pillott was deceived in y e place, and said, y e Lord 
be mercifull unto them, for his eys never saw y 4 
place before ; & he & the m r . mate would have rune 
her ashore, in a cove full of breakers, before y e winde. 
But a lusty seaman which steered, bad those which 
rowed, if they were men, about with her, or ells they 
were all cast away ; the which they did with speed. 
So he bid them be of good cheere & row Justly, for 
ther was a faire sound before them, & he doubted not 
but they should find one place or other wher they 
might ride in saftie. And though it was very darke, 
and rained sore, yet in y e end they gott under y e lee 


of a smalle iland, and remained ther all y* night in 
saftie. But they knew not this to be an iland till 
morning, but were devided in their minds ; some would 
keepe y e boate for fear they might be amongst y e 
Indians ; others were so weake and could, they could 
not endure, but got a shore, & with much adoe got 
fire, (all things being so wett,) and y e rest were glad 
to come to them ; for after midnight y e wind shifted 
to the [53] north-west, & it frose hard. But though 
this had been a day & night of much trouble & 
danger unto them, yet God gave them a morning of 
comforte & refreshing (as usually he doth to his chil- 
dren), for y e next day was a faire sunshinig day, and 
they found them sellvs to be on an iland secure from 
y e Indeans, wher they might drie their stufe, fixe their 
peeces, & rest them selves, and gave God thanks for 
his mercies, in their manifould deliverances. And this 
being the last day of y e weelce, they prepared ther to 
keepe y e Sdbalh. On Munday they sounded y e harbor, 
and founde it fitt for shipping ; and marched into y e 
land, & found diverse cornfeilds, & litle runing brooks, 
a place (as they supposed) fitt for situation; at least 
it was y e best they could find, and y e season, & their 
presente necessitie, made them glad to accepte of it. 
So they returned to their shipp againe with this news 
to y e rest of their people, which did much comforte 
their harts. 


On y e 15. of Desem r : they wayed anchor to goe to 
y e place they had discovered, & came within 2. leagues 
of it, but were faine to bear up again e ; but y e 16. 
day y e winde came faire, and they arrived safe in this 
harbor. And after wards tooke better view of y e 
place, and resolved wher to pitch their dwelling; 
and y e 25. day begane to erecte y e first house for 
comone use to receive them and their goods. 

The 2. Booke. 

THE rest of this History (if God give me life, & 
opportunitie) I shall, for brevitis sake, handle by way 
of annalls, noteing only the heads of principall things, 
and passages as they fell in order of time, and may 
seeme to be profitable to know, or to make use of. 
And this may be as y e 2. Booke. 

The remainder of An : 1620. 

I SHALL a litle returne backe and begine with a 
combination made by them before they came ashore, 
being y e first foundation of their govermente in this 
place ; occasioned partly by y e discontented & mutinous 
speeches that some of the strangers amongst them had 
let fall from them in y e ship That when they came 
a shore they would use their owne libertie ; for none 
had power to comand them, the patente they had 
being for Virginia, and not for New-england, which 
belonged to an other Goverment, with which y e Vir- 
ginia Company had nothing to doe. And partly that 
shuch an [54] acte by them done (this their condi- 
tion considered) might be as firme as any patent, and 
in some respects more sure. 

The forme was as followeth. 


Iii y e name of God, Amen. We whose names are under- 
writen, the loyall subjects of our dread soveraigne Lord, King 
James, by y e grace of God, of Great Britaine, Franc, & Ireland 
king, defender of y e faith, &c., haveing undertaken, for y e glorie 
of God, and advancemente of y e Christian faith, and honour of 
our king & countrie, a voyage to plant y e first colonie in y e 
Northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these presents solemnly & 
mutualy in y e presence of God, and one of another, covenant 
& combine our selves togeather into a civill body politick, for 
our better ordering & preservation & furtherance of y e ends 
aforesaid ; and by vertue hearof to enacte, constitute, and 
frame such just & equall lawes, ordinances, acts, constitu- 
tions, & offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most 
meete & convenient for y e generall good of y e Colonie, unto 
which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witnes 
wherof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cap-Codd 
y e 11. of November, in y e year of y e raigne of our soveraigue 
lord, King James, of England, France, & Ireland y e eighteenth, 
and of Scotland y e fiftie fourth. An : Dom. 1620. 

After this they chose, or rather confirmed, M r . John 
Carver (a man godly & well approved amongst them) 
their Governour for that year. And after they had 
provided a place for their goods, or comone store, 
(which were long in unlading for want of boats, 
foulnes of winter weather, and sicknes of diverce,) 
and begune some small cottages for their habitation, 
as time would admitte, they mette and consulted of 
lawes & orders, both for their civill & military Gov- 
ermente, as y e necessitie of their condition did re- 
quire, still adding therunto as urgent occasion in 
severall times, and as cases did require. 










In these hard & difficulte beginings they found some 
discontents & murmurings arise amongst some, and 
mutinous speeches & carriags in other; but they were 
soone quelled & overcome by y e wisdome, patience, 
and just & equall carrage of things by y e Gov r and 
better part, w ch clave faithfully togeather in y e maine. 
But that which was most sadd & lamentable was, 
that in 2. or 3. moneths time halfe of their com- 
pany dyed, espetialy in Jan: & February, being y e 
depth of winter, and wanting houses & other com- 
forts ; being infected with y e scurvie & [55] other 
diseases, which this long vioage & their inacomodate 
condition had brought upon them; so as ther dyed 
some times 2. or 3. of a day, in y e foresaid time ; 
that of 100. & odd persons, scarce 50. remained. And 
of these in y e time of most distres, ther was but 6. 
or 7. sound persons, who, to their great comendations 
be it spoken, spared no pains, night nor day, but 
with abundance of toyle and hazard of their owne 
health, fetched them woode, made them fires, drest 
them meat, made their beads, washed their lothsome 
cloaths, cloathed & uncioathed them; in a word, did 
all y e homly & necessarie offices for them w ch dainty 
& quesie stomacks cannot endure to hear named ; and 
all this willingly & cherfully, without any grudging 
in y e least, shewing herein their true love unto their 
freinds & bretheren. A rare example & worthy to 
be remembred. Tow of these 7. were M r . William 


Brewster, ther reverend Elder, & Myles Standish, ther 
Captein & military comander, unto whom my selfe, 
& many others, were much beholden in our low & 
sicke condition. And yet the Lord so upheld these 
persons, as in this generall calamity they were not at 
all infected either with sicknes, or lamnes. And what 
I have said of these, I may say of many others who 
dyed in this generall vissitation, & others yet living, 
that whilst they had health, yea, or any strength con- 
tinuing,- they were not wanting to any that had need 
of them. And I doute not but their recompence is 
with y e Lord. 

But I may not hear pass by an other remarkable 
passage not to be forgotten. As this calainitie fell 
among y e passengers that were to be left here to 
plant, and were hasted a shore and made to drinke 
water, that y e sea-men might have y e more bear, and 
one * in his sicknes desiring but a small cann of 
beere, it was answered, that if he were their owne 
father he should have none ; the disease begane to 
fail amongst them also, so as allmost halfe of their 
company dyed before they went away, and many of 
their officers and lustyest men, as y e boatson, gunner, 
3. quarter-maisters, the cooke, & others. At w ch y e 
m r . was something strucken and sent to y e sick a 
shore and tould y e Gro^ r he should send for beer for 
them that had need of it, though he drunke water 

* Which was this author him selfe. 


horn ward bound. But now amongst his company [56] 
ther was farr another kind of carriage in this miserie 
then amongst y e passengers ; for they that before had 
been boone companions in drinking & joyllity in y e 
time of their health & wellfare, begane now to deserte 
one another in this calamitie, saing they would not 
hasard ther lives for them, they should be infected 
by coming to help them in their cabins, and so, after 
they came to dye by it, would doe litle or nothing 
for them, but if they dyed let them dye. But shuch 
of y e passengers as were yet abord shewed them what 
mercy they could, w ch made some of their harts re- 
lente, as y e boatson (& some others), who was a 
prowd yonge man, and would often curse & scofe at 
y e passengers ; but when he grew weak, they had 
compassion on him and helped him ; then he con- 
fessed he did not deserve it at their hands, he had 
abused them in word & deed. O ! saith he, you, I 
now see, shew your love like Christians indeed one 
to another, but we let one another lye & dye like 
doggs. Another lay cursing his wife, saing if it had 
not ben for her he had never come this unlucky viage, 
and anone cursing his felows, saing he had done this 
& that, for some of them, he had spente so much, 
& so much, amongst them, and they were now weary 
of him, and did not help him, having need. Another 
gave his companion all he had, if he died, to help 
him in his weaknes; he went and got a litle spise 


& made him a mess of meat once or twise, and be- 
cause he dyed not so soone as he expected, he went 
amongst his fellows, & swore y e rogue would cousen 
him, he would see him choaked before he made him 
any more meate ; and yet y e pore fellow dyed before 

All this while y e Indians came skulking about them, 
and would sometimes show them selves aloofe of, but 
when any aproached near them, they would rune away. 
And once they stoale away their tools wher they had 
been at worke, & were gone to diner. But about y e 
16. of March a certaine Indian came bouldly amongst 
them, and spoke to them in broken English, which 
they could well understand, but marvelled at it. At 
length they understood by discourse with him, that he 
was not of these parts, but belonged to y e eastrene 
parts, wher some English-ships came to fhish, with 
whom he was aquainted, & could name sundrie of 
them by their names, amongst whom he had gott 
his language. He became proftable to them [57J in 
aquainting them with many things concerning y e state 
of y e cuntry in y e east-parts wher he lived, which was 
afterwards profitable unto them ; as also of y e people 
hear, of their names, number, & strength ; of their 
situation & distance from this place, and who was 
cheefe amongst them. His name was Samasel; he 
tould them also of another Indian whos name was 
$quanio, a native of this place, who had been in Eng- 


land & could speake better English then him selfe. 
Being, after some time of entertaininente & gifts, dis- 
mist, a while after he came againe, & 5. more with 
him, & they brought againe all y e tooles that were 
stolen away before, and made way for y e coming of 
their great Sachem, called Massasoyl; who, about 4. 
or 5. days after, came with the cheefe of his freinds. 
& other attendance, with the aforesaid Squanto. With 
whom, after frendly entertainment, & some gifts given 
him, they made a peace with him (which hath now 
continued this 24. years) in these terms. 

1. That neither he nor any of his, should injurie 
or doe hurte to any of their peopl. 

2. That if any of his did any hurte to any of 
theirs, he should send y e offender, that they might 
punish him. 

3. That if any thing were taken away from any of 
theirs, he should cause it to be restored ; and they 
should doe y e like to his. 

4. If any did unjustly warr against him, they would 
aide him ; if any did w r arr against them, he should 
aide them. 

5. He should send to his neighbours confederats, 
to certifie them of this, that they might not wrong 
them, but might be likewise comprised in y e condi- 
tions of peace. 

6. That when ther men came to them, they should 
leave their bows & arrows behind them. 


After these things he returned to his place caled 
/Sowams, some 40. mile from this place, but Squanto 
contiued with them, and was their interpreter, and 
was a spetiall instrument sent of God for their good 
beyond their expectation. He directed them how to 
set their corne, wher to take fish, and to procure other 
comodities, and was also their pilott to bring them to 
unknowne places for their profitt, and never left them 
till he dyed. He was a native [58] of this place, & 
scarce any left alive besids him selfe. He was caried 
away with diverce others by one Hunt, a m r . of a 
ship, who thought to sell them for slaves in Spaine ; 
but he got away for England, and was entertained by 
a marchante in London, & imployed to New-found- 
land & other parts, & lastly brought hither into these 
parts by one M r . Dermer, a gentle-man imployed by 
S r . Ferdinando Gorges & others, for discovery, & other 
designes in these parts. Of whom I shall say some 
thing, because it is mentioned in a booke set forth 
An : 1622. by y e Presidente & Counsel! for New-Eng- 
land,* that he made y e peace betweene y e salvages 
of these parts & y e English; of which this planta- 
tion, as it is intimated, had y e benefite. But what a 
peace it was, may apeare by what befell him & his 

This M r . Dermer was hear the same year that these 
people came, as apears by a relation written by him, 

* Page 17. 


& given me by a freind, bearing date June 30. An : 
1620. And they came in Novemb r : following, so ther 
was but 4. months differance. In which relation to 
his honored freind, he hath these passages of this very 

I will first begine (saith he) w th that place from whence 
Squanto, or Tisquantem, was taken away ; w ch in Cap: Smiths 
mape is called Plimoth : and I would that Plimoth had y e like 
comoclities. I would that the first plantation might hear be 
seated, if ther come to the number of 50. persons, or upward. 
Otherwise at Charlton, because ther y e savages are lese to be 
feared. The Pocanawkits, which live to y e west of Plimoth, 
bear an inveterate malice to y e English, and are of more 
streingth then all y e savags from thence to Penobscote. Their 
desire of revenge was occasioned by an English man, who hav- 
ing many of them on bord, made a great slaughter with their 
murderers & smale shot, when as (they say) they offered no 
injurie on their parts. Whether they were English or no, it 
may be douted ; yet they beleeve they were, for y e Frenche 
have so possest them ; for which cause Squanto canot deney 
but they would have kiled me when I was at Namasket, had 
he not entreated hard for me. The soyle of y e borders of 
[59] this great bay, may be compared to most of y e planta- 
tions which I have seene in Virginia. The land is of diverce 
sorts ; for Patuxite is a hardy but strong soyle, Nawsel & 
Saughtuglitett are for y e most part a blakish & deep mould, 
much like that wher groweth y e best Tobaco in Virginia. 
In y e botume of y* great bay is store of Codd & basse, or 
mulett, &c. 

But above all he comends Pacanawkite for y e richest 
soyle, and much open ground fitt for English graine, &c. 

118 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Massachussets is about 9. leagues from PUmoth, & situate 
in y e mids betweene both, is full of Hands & peninsules very 
fertill for y e most parte. 

With sundrie shuch relations which I forbear to tran- 
scribe, being now better knowne then they were to him. 

He was taken prisoner by y e Indeans at Manamoiak 
(a place not farr from hence, now well knowne). He 
gave them what they demanded for his liberty, but 
when they had gott what they desired, they kept him 
still & indevored to kill his men ; but he was freed 
by seasing on some of them, and kept them bound 
till they gave him a cannows load of corne. Of 
which, see Purch: lib. 9. fol. 1778. But this was 
An : 1619. 

After y e writing of y e former relation he came to 
y e He of Capawack (which lyes south of this place 
in y e way to Virginia), and y e foresaid Squanto w th 
him, wher he going a shore amongst y e In dans to 
trad, as he used to doe, was betrayed & assaulted by 
them, & all his men slaine, but one that kept the boat; 
but him selfe gott abord very sore wounded, & they 
had cut of his head upon y e cudy of his boat, had 
not y e man reskued him with a sword. And so they 
got away, & made shift to gett into Virginia, wher 
he dyed; whether of his wounds or y e diseases of 
y e cuntrie, or both togeather, is uncertaine. [60] By 
all which it may appeare how farr these people were 
from peace, and with what danger this plantation was 


begune, save as y e powerful! hand of the Lord did 
protect them. These things * were partly the reason 
why they kept aloofe & were so long before they 
oame to the English. An other reason (as after them 
selvs made know) was how aboute 3. years before, a 
French-ship was cast away at Cap-Codd, but y e men 
gott ashore, & saved their lives, and much of their 
victails, & other goods ; but after y e Indeans heard 
of it, they geathered togeather from these parts, -and 
never* left watching & dogging them till they got 
advantage, and kild them all but 3. or 4. which they 
kept, & sent from one Sachem to another, to make 
sporte with, and used them worse then slaves ; (of 
which y e foresaid M r . Dermer redeemed 2. of them ;) 
and they conceived this ship was now come to re- 
venge it. 

Also, (as after was made knowne,) before they came 
to y e English to make freindship, they gott all the 
Powachs of y e cuntrie, for 3. days togeather, in a 
horid and divellish maner to curse & execrate them 
with their cunjurations, which asembly & service they 
held in a darke & dismale swampe. 

But to returne. The spring now approaching, it 
pleased God the mortalitie begane to cease amongst 
them, and y e sick and lame recovered apace, which 
put as it were new life into them; though they had 
borne their sadd affliction with much patience & con- 

* Thing in the manuscript. 


tentednes, as I thinke any people could doe. But it 
was y e Lord which upheld them, and had beforehand 
prepared them ; many having long borne y e yoake, yea 
from their youth. Many other smaler maters I ornite, 
sundrie of them having been allready published in a 
Jurnall made by one of y e company ; and some other 
passages of jurneys and relations allredy published, to 
which I referr those that are willing to know them 
more perticulerly. And being now come to y e 25. 
of March I shall begine y e year 1621. 

[61] Anno. 1621. 

THEY now begane to dispatch y e ship away which 
brought them over, which lay tille aboute this time, 
or y e begining of Aprill. The reason on their parts 
why she stayed so long, was y e necessitie and danger 
that lay upon them, for it was well towards y e ende 
of Desember before she could land any thing hear, or 
they able to receive any thing ashore. Afterwards, 
y e 14. of Jan: the house which they had made for a 
generall randevoze by casulty fell afire, and some were 
faine to retire abord for shilter. Then the sicknes 
begane to fall sore amongst them, and y e weather so 
bad as they could not make much sooner any dispatch. 
Againe, the Gov 1 ' & cheefe of them, seeing so many 
dye, and fall downe sick dayly, thought it no wisdom 
to send away the ship, their condition considered, and 
y e danger they stood in from y e Indeans, till they 


could procure some shelter; and therfore thought it 
better to draw some more charge upon them selves 
& freinds, then hazard all. The m r . and sea-men like- 
wise, though before they hasted y e passengers a shore 
to be goone, now many of their men being dead, & 
of y e ablest of them, (as is before noted,) and of 
y e rest many lay sick & weake, y e m r . durst not put 
to sea, till he saw his men begine to recover, and y e 
hart of winter over. 

Afterwards they (as many as were able) began to 
plant ther corne, in which servise Squanto stood them 
in great stead, showing them both y e maner how to 
set it, and after how to dress & tend it. Also he 
tould them excepte they gott fish & set with it (in 
these old grounds) it would come to nothing, and he 
showed them y* in y e midle of Aprill they should have 
store enough come up y e brooke, by which they be- 
gane to build, and taught them how to take it, and 
wher to get other provissions necessary for them ; all 
which they found true by triall & experience. Some 
English seed they sew, as wheat & pease, but it came 
not to good, eather by y e badnes of y e seed, or latenes 
of y e season, or both, or some other defecte. 

[62] In this month of Aprill whilst they were bussie 
about their seed, their Gov r (M r . John Carver) came 
out of y e feild very sick, it being a hott day ; he 
complained greatly of his head, and lay downe, and 
within a few howers his sences failed, so as he never 

122 HISTORY or [BOOK u. 

spake more till he dyed, which was within a few days 
after. Whoss death was much lamented, and caused 
great heavines amongst them, as ther was cause. He 
was buried in y e best maner they could, with some 
vollies of shott by all that bore armes ; and his wife, 
being a weak woman, dyed within 5. or 6. weeks after 

Shortly after William Bradford was chosen Gove r in 
his stead, and being not yet recoverd of his ilnes, 
in which he had been near y e point of death, Isaak 
Allerton was chosen to be an Asistante unto him, 
who, by renewed election every year, continued sundry 
years togeather, which I hear note once for all. 

May 12. was y e first mariage in this place, which, 
according to y e laudable custome of y e Low-Cuntries, 
in which they had lived, was thought most requisite 
to be performed by the magistrate, as being a civill 
thing, upon which many questions aboute inheritances 
doe depende, with other things most proper to their 
cognizans, and most consonante to y e scripturs, Ruth 
4. and no wher found in y e gospell to be layed on 
y e ministers as a part of their office. "This decree 
or law about mariage was published by y e Stats of 
y e Low-Cuntries An : 1590. That those of any re- 
ligion, after lawful 1 and open publication, coming before 
y e magistrats, in y e Town or Stat-house, were to be 
orderly (by them) maried one to another." Petets 
Hist, fol: 1029. And this practiss hath continued 


amongst, not only them, but hath been followed by 
all y e famous churches of Christ in these parts to 
this time, An : 1646. 

Haveing in some sorte ordered their bussines at 
home, it was thought meete to send some abroad to 
see their new freind Massasoyet, and to bestow upon 
him some gratuitie to bind him y e faster unto them; 
as also that hearby they might veiw y e countrie, and 
see in what maner he lived, what strength he had 
aboute him, and how y e ways were to his place, if 
at any time they should have occasion. So y e 2. of 
July they sente M r . Edward Winslow & M r . Hopkins, 
with y e foresaid Squanto for ther guid, who gave him 
a suite of cloaths, and a horsemans coate, with some 
other small things, which were kindly accepted ; but 
they found but short comons, and came both weary 
& hungrie home. For y e In deans used then to have 
nothing [63] so much corne as they have since y e 
English have stored them with their hows, and seene 
their industrie in breaking up new grounds therwith. 
They found his place to be 40. miles from hence, y e 
soyle good, & y e people not many, being dead & 
abundantly wasted in y e late great mortalitie which 
fell in all these parts aboute three years before y e 
coming of y e English, wherin thousands of them dyed, 
they not being able to burie one another; ther sculs 
and bones were found in many places lying still above 
ground, where their houses & dwellings had been ; a 


very sad spectackle to behould. But they brought 
word that y e Narighansets lived but on y e other side 
of that great bay, & were a strong people, & many 
in number, living compacte togeather, & had not been 
at all touched with this wasting plague. 

Aboute y e later end of this month, one John Billing- 
ton lost him selfe in y e woods, & wandered up & 
downe some 5. days, living on beries & what he could 
find. At length he light on an Indean plantation, 20. 
mils south of this place, called Manamet, they conveid 
him furder of, to JVawsett, among those peopl that had 
before set upon y e English when they were costing, 
whilest y e ship lay at y e Cape, as is before noted. 
But y e Gove r caused him to be enquired for among 
y e Indeans, and at length Massassoyt sent word wher 
he was, and y e Gove r sent a shalop for him, & had 
him delivered. Those people also came and made their 
peace ; and they gave full satisfaction to those whose 
corne they had found & taken when they were at Cap- 

Thus ther peace & aquaintance was prety well estab- 
lisht w th the natives aboute them ; and ther was an 
other Indean called Hobamack come to live amongst 
them, a proper lustie man, and a man of accounte 
for his vallour & parts amongst y e Indeans, and con- 
tinued very faithfull and constant to y e English till 
he dyed. He & Squanto being gone upon bussines 
amonge y e Indeans, at their returne (whether it was 


out of envie to them or malice to the English) ther 
was a Sachem called Corbitant, alyed to Massassoyte, 
but never any good freind to y e English to this day, 
mett with them at an Indean towne caled Namassakett 
14. miles to y e west of this place, and begane to 
quarell w th [64] them, and offered to stabe Hobamack; 
but being a lusty man, he cleared him selfe of him, 
and came runing away all sweating and tould y e Gov r 
what had befalne him, and he feared they had killed 
Squanto, for they threatened them both, and for no 
other cause but because they were freinds to y e Eng- 
lish, and servisable unto them. Upon this y e Gove r 
taking counsell, it was conceivd not fitt to be borne ; 
for if they should suffer their freinds & messengers 
thus to be wronged, they should have none would 
cleave unto them, or give them any inteligence, or 
doe them serviss afterwards ; but nexte they would 
fall upon them selves. Whereupon it was resolved to 
send y e Captaine & 14. men well armed, and to goe 
& fall upon them in y e night; and if they found that 
Squanto was kild, to cut of Corbitants head, but not 
to hurt any but those that had a hand in it. Hoba- 
mack was asked if he would goe & be their guid, 
& bring them ther before day. He said he would, & 
bring them to y e house wher the man lay, and show 
them which was he. So they set forth y e 14. of 
August, and beset y e house round; the Captin giving 
charg to let none pass out, entred y e house to search 


for him. But he was goone away that day, so they 
mist him ; but understood y* Squanto was alive, & 
that he had only threatened to kill him, & made an 
offer to stabe him but did not. So they withheld 
and did no more hurte, & y e people came trembling, 
& brought them the best provissions they had, after 
they were aquainted by Hobamack what was only in- 
tended. Ther was 3. sore wounded which broak out 
of y e house, and asaid to pass through y c garde. 
These they brought home with them, & they had 
their wounds drest & cured, and sente home. After 
this they had many gratulations from diverce sachims, 
and much firmer peace; yea, those of y e lies of Capa- 
wack sent to make frendship ; and this Corbitant him 
selfe used y e mediation of Massassoyte to make his 
peace, but was shie to come neare them a longe while 

After this, y e 18. of Sepemb r : they sente out ther 
shalop to the Massachusets, with 10. men, and Squanto 
for their guid and [65] interpreter, to discover and 
veiw that bay, and trade with y c natives ; the which 
they performed, and found kind entertainement. The 
people were much affraid of y e Tarentins, a people to 
y e eastward which used to come in harvest time and 
take away their corne, & many times kill their persons. 
They returned in saftie, and brought home a good 
quanty of beaver, and made reporte of y e place, wish- 
ing they had been ther seated; (but it seems y e Lord, 


who assignes to all men y e bounds of their habitations, 
had apoynted it for an other use). And thus they 
found y e Lord to be with them in all their ways, and 
to blesse their outgoings & incomings, for which let 
his holy name have y e praise for ever, to all posteritie. 

They begane now to gather in y e small harvest they 
had, and to fitte up their houses and dwellings against 
winter, being all well recovered in health & strenght, 
and had all things in good plenty; for as some were 
thus imployed in affairs abroad, others were excersised 
in fishing, aboute codd, & bass, & other fish, of which 
y ey tooke good store, of which every family had their 
portion. All y e somer ther was no wante. And now 
begane to come in store of foule, as winter aproached, 
of which this place did abound when they came first 
(but afterward decreased by degrees). And besids 
water foule, ther was great store of wild Turkies, of 
which they tooke many, besids venison, &c. Besids 
they had aboute a peck a meale a weeke to a person, 
or now since harvest, Indean corne to y* proportion. 
Which made many afterwards write so largly of their 
plenty hear to their freinds in England, which were 
not fained, but true reports. 

In Novemb r , about y 1 time twelfe month that them 
selves came, ther came in a small ship to them unex- 
pected or loked for,* in which came M r . Cushman (so 
much spoken of before) and with him 35. persons to 

* She came y e 9. to y e Cap. 


remaine & live in y e plantation ; which did not a litle 
rejoyce them. And they when they came a shore and 
found all well, and saw plenty of vitails in every 
house, were no less glade. For most of them were 
lusty yonge men, and many of them wild enough, 
who litle considered whither or aboute what they 
wente, till they came into y e harbore at Cap-Codd, 
and ther saw nothing but a naked and barren place. 
They then begane to thinke what should become of 
them, if the people here were dead or cut of by y e 
Indeans. They begane to consulte (upon some speeches 
that some of y e sea-men had cast out) to take y e sayls 
from y e yeard least y e ship [66] should gett away and 
leave them ther. But y e m r . hereing of it, gave them 
good words, and tould them if any thing but well 
should have befallne y e people hear, he hoped he had 
vitails enough to cary them to Virginia, and whilst he 
had a bitt they should have their parte ; which gave 
them good satisfaction. So they were all landed ; but 
ther was not so much as bisket-cake or any other 
victialls* for them, neither had they any beding, but 
some sory things they had in their cabins, nor pot, 
nor pan, to drese any meate in; nor overmany cloaths, 
for many of them had brusht away their coats & cloaks 
at Plimoth as they came. But ther was sent over some 
burching-lane suits in y e ship, out of which they were 
supplied. The plantation was glad of this addition 

* Nay, they were faine to spare y e shipe some to carry her home. 


of strenght, but could have wished that many of them 
had been of beter condition, and all of them beter 
furnished with provissions ; but y* could not now be 

In this ship M r . Weston sent a large leter to M r . 
Carver, y e late Grove 1 ", now deseased, full of complaints 
& expostulations aboute former passagess at Hampton ; 
and y e keeping y e shipe so long in y e country, and 
returning her without lading, &c., which for brevitie 
I omite. The rest is as folio weth. 

Part of Mr. Westons letter. 

I durst never aquainte y e adventurers with y e alteration of 
y e conditions first agreed on betweene us, which I have since 
been very glad of, for I am well assured had they knowne as 
much as I doe, they would not have adventured a halfe-peny 
of what was necesary for this ship. That you sent no lading 
in the ship is wonderfull, and worthily distasted. I know you r 
weaknes was the cause of it, and I beleeve more weaknes of 
judgmente, then weaknes of hands. A quarter of y e time you 
spente in discoursing, arguing, & consulting, would have done 
much more ; but that is past, &c. If you mean, bona fide, to 
performe the conditions agreed upon, doe us y e favore to coppy 
them out faire, and subscribe them with y e principall of your 
names. And likwise give us accounte as perticulerly as you 
can how our moneys were laid out. And then I shall be able 
to give them some satisfaction, whom I am now forsed with 
good words to shift of. And consider that y e life of the bussi- 
nes depends on y e lading of this ship, which, if you doe to any 
good purpose, that I may be freed from y e great sums I have 
disbursed for y e former, and must doe for the later, I promise 


you I will never quit y e bussines, though all the other adventurers 

[67] We have procured you a Charter, the best we could, 
which is beter then your former, and with less limitation. For 
any thing y* is els worth writting, M r . Cushman can informe 
you. I pray write instantly for M r . Robinson to come to you. 
And so praying God to blesse you with all graces nessessary 
both for this life & that to come, I rest 

Your very loving frend, 

London, July 6. 1621. 

This ship (caled y e Fortune) was speedily dispatcht 
away, being laden with good clapbord as full as she 
could stowe, and 2. hoggsheads of beaver and otter 
skins, which they gott with a few trifling comodities 
brought witb them at first, being alltogeather unpro- 
vided for trade ; neither was ther any amongst them 
that ever saw a beaver skin till they came hear, and 
were informed by Squanto. The fraight was estimated 
to be worth near 500 11 . M r . Cushman returned backe 
also with this ship, for so Mr. Weston & y e rest had 
apoynted him, for their better information. And he 
doubted not, nor them selves neither, but they should 
have a speedy supply ; considering allso how by M r . 
Cushmans perswation, and letters received from Ley- 
den, wherin they willed them so to doe, they yeelded * 
to y e afforesaid conditions, and subscribed them with 
their hands. But it proved other wise, for M r . Wes- 

* Teeled in the manuscript. 


ton, who had made y* large promise in his leter, (as- 
is before noted,) that if all y e rest should fall of, yet 
he would never quit y e bussines, but stick to them, 
if they yeelded to y e conditions, and sente some lad- 
ing in y e ship ; and of this M r . Cushman was confi- 
dent, and confirmed y e same from his mouth, & serious 
protestations to him selfe before he came. But alL 
proved but wind, for he was y e first and only man 
that forsooke them, and that before he so much as 
heard of y returne of this ship, or knew what was 
done; (so vaine is y e confidence in man.) But of this 
more in its place. 

A leter in answer to his write to M r . Carver, was 
sente to him from y e Gov r , of which so much as is 
pertenente to y e thing in hand I shall hear inserte. 

S r : Your large letter writen to M r . Carver, and dated y e 6. 
of July, 1621, I have received y e 10. of Novemb r , wherin 
(after y e apologie made for your selfe) you lay many heavie 
imputations upon him and us all. Touching him, he is de- 
parted this life, and now is at rest [68] in y e Lord from all 
those troubls and incoumbrances with which we are yet to 
strive. He needs not my appologie ; for his care and pains 
was so great for y e commone good, both ours and yours, as 
that therwith (it is thought) he oppressed him selfe and short- 
ened his days ; of whose loss we cannot sufficiently complaine. 
At great charges in this adventure, I confess you have beeue, 
and many losses may sustaine ; but y e loss of his and many 
other honest and industrious mens lives, cannot be vallewed 
at any prise. Of y e one, ther may be hope of recovery, but 
y e other no recompence can make good. But I will not in- 


siste in generalls, but come more perticulerly to y e things them 
selves. You greatly blame us for keping y e ship so long in 
y e countrie, and then to send her away emptie. She lay 5. 
weks at Cap-Codd, whilst with many a weary step (after a 
long journey) and the indurance of many a hard brunte, we 
sought out in the foule winter a place of habitation. Then 
we went in so tedious a time to make provission to sheelter 
us and our goods, aboute w ch labour, many of our armes & 
leggs can tell us to this day we were not necligent. But it 
pleased God to vissite us then, with death dayly, and with 
so generall a disease, that the living were scarce able to burie 
the dead ; and y e well not in any measure sufficiente to tend 
y e sick. And now to be so greatly blamed, for not fraighting 
y e ship, doth indeed goe near us, and much discourage us. But 
you say you know we will pretend weakues ; and doe you think 
we had not cause? Yes, you tell us you beleeve it, but it was 
more weaknes of judgmente, then of hands. Our weaknes herin 
is great we confess, therfore we will bear this check patiently 
amongst y e rest, till God send us wiser men. But they which 
tould you we spent so much time in discoursing & consulting, 
&c., their harts can tell their toungs, they lye. They cared 
not, so they might salve their owne sores, how they wounded 
others. Indeed, it is our callamitie that we are (beyound ex- 
pectation) yoked with some ill conditioned people, who will 
never doe good, but corrupte and abuse others, &c. 

The rest of y e letter declared how they had sub- 
scribed those conditions according to his desire, and 
sente him y e former accounts very perticulerly ; also 
how y e ship was laden, and in what condition their 
affairs stood; that y e coming of these [69] people 
would bring famine upon them unavoydably, if they 
had not supply in time (as M r . Cushman could more 


fully informe him & y e rest of y e adventurers). Also 
that seeing he was now satisfied in all his demands, 
that offences would be forgoten, and he remember his 
promise, &c. 

After y e departure of this ship, (which stayed not 
above 14. days,) the Gove r & his assistante haveing 
disposed these late comers into severall families, as 
y ey best could, tooke an exacte accounte of all their 
provissions in store, and proportioned y e same to y e 
number of persons, and found that it would not hould 
out above 6. months at halfe alowance, and hardly that. 
And they could not well give less this winter time till 
fish came in againe. So they were presently put to 
half alowance, one as well as an other, which begane 
to be hard, but they bore it patiently under hope of 

- Sone after this ships departure, y e great people of 
y e Narigansets, in a braving maner, sente a messenger 
unto them with a bundl of arrows tyed aboute with 
a great sneak-skine ; which their interpretours tould 
them was a threatening & a chaleng. Upon which 
y e Gov r , with y e advice of others, sente them a round 
answere, that if they had rather have warre then peace, 
they might begine when they would ; they had done 
them no wrong, neither did y cy fear them, or should 
they find them unprovided. And by another messenger 
sente y c sneake-skine back with bulits in it; but they 
would not receive it, but sent it back againe. But 


these things I doe but mention, because they are more 
at large allready put forth in printe, by M r . Winslow, 
at y e requeste of some freinds. And it is like y e 
reason was their owne ambition, who, (since y e death 
of so many of y e Indeans,) thought to dominire & 
lord it over y e rest, & conceived y e English would be a 
barr in their way, and saw that Massasoyt took sheil- 
ter allready under their wings. 

But this made them y e more carefully to looke to 
them selves, so as they agreed to inclose their dwell- 
ings with a good strong pale, and make flankers in 
convenient places, with gates to shute, which were 
every night locked, and a watch kept, and when neede 
required ther was also warding in y e day time. And 
y e company was by y e Captaine and y e Gov r [70] ad- 
vise, devided into 4. squadrons, and every one had 
ther quarter apoynted them, unto which they were to 
repaire upon any suddane alarme. And if ther should 
be any crie of fire, a company were appointed for a 
gard, with muskets, whilst others quenchet y e same, to 
prevent Indean treachery. This was accomplished very 
cherfully, and y e towne impayled round by y e begin- 
ing of March, in which evry family had a prety garden 
plote secured. And herewith I shall end this year. 
Only I shall remember one passage more, rather of 
mirth then of waight. One y e day called Chrismas- 
d a y> y e Grov r caled them out to worke, (as was used,) 
but y e most of this new-company excused them selves 


and said it wente against their consciences to work on 
y* day. So y e Gov r tould them that if they made it 
mater of conscience, he would spare them till they 
were better informed. So he led-away y e rest and 
left them ; but when they came home at noone from 
their worke, he found them in y e streete at play, 
openly; some pitching y e barr, & some at stoole-ball, 
and shuch like sports. So he went to them, and tooke 
away their implements, and tould them that was against 
his conscience, that they should play & others worke. 
If they made y e keeping of it mater of devotion, let 
them kepe their houses, but ther should be no game- 
ing or revelling in y e streets. Since which time noth- 
ing hath been atempted that way, at least openly. 

Anno 1622. 

AT y e spring of y e year they had apointed y e Massa- 
chusets to come againe and trade with them, and be- 
gane now to prepare for that vioag about y e later end 
of March. But upon some rumors heard, Hobamak, 
their Indean, tould them upon some jealocies he had, 
he feared they were joyned w th y e Narighansets and 
might betray them if they were not carefull. He inti- 
mated also some jealocie of Squanto, by what he gath- 
ered from some private whisperings betweene him and 
other Indeans. But [71] they resolved to proseede, 
and sente out their shalop with 10. of their cheefe 
men aboute y e begining of Aprill, and both Squanto 


& Hobamake with them, in regarde of y e jelocie be- 
tweene them. But they had not bene gone longe, but 
an Indean belonging to Squantos family came runing 
in seeming great fear, and tould them that many 
of y e Narihgansets, with Corbytant, and he thought 
also Massasoyte, were coming against them ; and he 
gott away to tell them, not without danger. And 
being examined by y e Gov r , he made as if they were 
at hand, and would still be looking back, as if they 
were at his heels. At which the Gov r caused them 
to take armes & stand on their garde, and suppos- 
ing y e boat to be still within hearing (by reason it 
was calme) caused a warning peece or 2. to be shote 
of, the which y ey heard and came in. But no Indeans 
apeared; watch was kepte all night, but nothing was 
scene. Hobamak was confidente for Massasoyt, and 
thought all was false ; yet y e Gov r caused him to send 
his wife privatly, to see what she could observe (pre- 
tening other occasions), but ther was nothing found, 
but all was quiet. After this they proseeded on their 
vioge to y e Massachusets, and had good trade, and 
returned in saftie, blessed be God. 

But by the former passages, and other things of 
like nature, they begane to see y* Squanto sought his 
owne ends, and plaid his owne game, by putting y e 
Indeans in fear, and drawing gifts from them to en- 
rich him selfe ; making them beleeve he could stur up 
warr against whom he would, & make peece for whom 


he would. Yea, he made them beleeve they kept y e 
plague buried in y e ground, and could send it amongs 
whom they would, which did much terrific the Indeans, 
and made them depend more on him, and seeke more 
to him then to Massasoyte, which proucured him envie, 
and had like to have cost him his life. For after y e 
discovery of his practises, Massasoyt sought it both pri- 
vatly and openly ; which caused him to stick close to 
y e English, & never durst goe from them till he dyed. 
They also made good use of y e emulation y* grue be- 
tweene Hobamack and him, which made them cary more 
squarely. And y e Gov r seemed to countenance y e one, 
and y e Captaine y e other, by which they had better 
intelligence, and made them both more diligente. 

[72] Now in a maner their provissions were wholy 
spent, and they looked hard for supply, but none came. 
But about y e later end of May, they spied a boat at 
sea, which at first they thought had beene some French- 
man; but it proved a shalop which came from a ship 
which M r . Western & an other had set out a fishing, 
at a place called Damarins-cove, 40. leagues to y e 
eastward of them, wher were y* year many more 
ships come a fishing. This boat brought 7. passengers 
and some letters, but no vitails, nor any hope of any. 
Some part of which I shall set downe. 

M r . Carver, in my last leters by y e Fortune, in whom M r . 
Cushman wente, and who I hope is with you, for we daly 


expecte y e shipe back againe. She departed hence, y e begin- 
ing of July, with 35. persons, though not over well provided 
with necesaries, by reason of y e parsemonie of y e adventurers.* 
I have solisited them to send you a supply of men and provis- 
sions before shee come. They all answer they will doe great 
maters, when they hear good news. Nothing before ; so faith- 
full, constant, & carefull of your good, are your olde & honest 
freinds, that if they hear not from you, they are like to send 
you no supplie, &c. I am now to relate y e occasion of send- 
ing this ship, hoping if you give credite to my words, you will 
have a more favourable opinion of it, then some hear, wherof 
Pickering is one, who taxed me to mind my owne ends, which 
is in part true, &c. M r . Beachamp and my selfe bought this 
litle ship, and have set her out, partly, if it may be, to uphold f 
y e plantation, as well to doe others good as our selves ; and 
partly to gett up what we are formerly out ; though we are 
otherwise censured, &c. This is y e occasion we have sent this 
ship and these passengers, on our owne accounte ; whom we 
desire you will frendly entertaine & supply with shuch neces- 
aries as you cane spare, and they wante, &c. And among 
other things we pray you lend or sell them some seed corne, 
and if you have y e salt remaining of y e last year, that y u will 
let them have it for their presente use, and we will either pay 
you for it, or give you more when we have set our salt-pan to 
worke, which we desire may be set up in one of y e litle ilands 
in your bay, &c. And because we intende, if God plase, [73] 
(and y e generallitie doe it not,) to send within a month another 
shipe, who, having discharged her passengers, shal goe to Vir- 
ginia, &c. And it may be we shall send a small ship to abide 
with you on y e coast, which I conceive may be a great help to 
y e plantation. To y e end our desire may be effected, which, I 
assure my selfe, will be also for your good, we pray you give 
them entertainmente in your houses y e time they shall be with 

* Adventures in the manuscript. f I know not w ch way. 


you, that they may lose no time, but may presently goe in hand 
to fell trees & cleave them, to y e end lading may be ready and 
our ship stay not. 

Some of y e adventurers have sent you hearwith all some 
directions for your furtherance in y e comone bussines, who 
are like those S*. James speaks of, y* bid their brother eat, 
and warme him, but give him nothing ; so they bid you make 
salt, and uphold y e plantation, but send you no means wher- 
withall to doe it, &c. By y e next we purpose to send more 
people on our owne accounte, and to take apatente; that if your 
peopl should be as unhumane as some of y e adventurers, not 
to admite us to dwell with them, which were extreme barba- 
risme, and which will never enter into my head to thinke you 
have any shuch Pickerings amongst you. Yet to satisfie our 
passengers I must of force doe it ; and for some other reasons 
not necessary to be writen, &c. I find y e generall so backward, 
and your freinds at Ley den so could, that I fear you must stand 
on your leggs, and trust (as they say) to God and your selves. 


your loving freind, 

Jan: 12. 1621. THO : WESTON. 

Sundry other things I pass over, being tedious & 

All this was but could comfort to fill their hungrie 
bellies, and a slender performance of his former late 
promiss ; and as litle did it either fill or warme them, 
as those y e Apostle James spake of, by him before 
mentioned. And well might it make them remember 
what y e psalmist saith, Psa. 118. 8. It is better to trust 
in the Lord, then to have confidence in man. And Psa. 
146. Put not you trust in princes (much less in y e 


marchants) nor in y e sone of man, for ther is no help 
in them. v. 5. Blesed is he that hath y e God of 
Jacob for his help, whose hope is in y 6 Lord his God. 
And as they were now fayled of suply by him and 
others in this their greatest neede and wants, which 
was caused by him and y e rest, who put so great a 
company of men upon them, as y e former company 
were, without any food, and came at shuch a time as 
they must live almost a whole year before any could 
[74] be raised, excepte they had sente some ; so, upon 
y e pointe they never had any supply of vitales more 
afterwards (but what the Lord gave them otherwise) ; 
for all y e company sent at any time was allways too 
short for those people y* came with it. 

Ther came allso by y e same ship other leters, but of 
later date, one from M r . Weston, an other from a parte 
of y e adventurers, as foloweth. 

M r . Carver, since my last, to y e end we might y e more readily 
proceed to help y e generall, at a meeting of some of y e prin- 
cipall adventurers, a proposition was put forth, & alowed by 
all presente (save Pickering), to adventure each man y e third 
parte of what he formerly had done. And ther are some other 
y 4 folow his example, and will adventure no furder. In regard 
wherof y e greater part of y e adventurers being willing to uphold 
y e bussines, finding it no reason that those y* are willing should 
uphold y e bussines of those that are unwilling, whose back- 
wardnes doth discourage those that are forward, and hinder 
other new-adventurers from coming in, we having well con- 
sidered therof, have resolved, according to an article in y e 


agreemente, (that it may be lawfull by a generall consente of 
y 6 adventurers & planters, upon just occasion, to breake of their 
joynte stock,) to breake it of ; and doe pray you to ratifie, and 
confirme y e same on your parts. Which being done, we shall 
y e more willingly goe forward for y e upholding of you with 
all things necesarie. But in any case you must agree to y e 
artickls, and send it by y e first under your hands & seals. So 

I end 

Your loving freind, 

Jan: 17. 1621. 

Another leter was write from part of y e company 
of y e adventurers to the same purpose, and subscribed 
with 9. of their names, wherof M r . Westons & M r . 
Beachamphs were tow. Thes things seemed strang unto 
them, seeing this unconstancie & shufling; it made 
them to thinke ther was some misterie in y e matter. 
And therfore y e Gov r concealed these letters from y e 
publick, only imparted them to some trustie freinds 
for advice, who concluded with him, that this tended 
to disband & scater them (in regard of their straits) ; 
and if M r . Weston & others, who seemed to rune in 
a perticuler way, should come over with shiping so 
provided as his letters did intimate, they most would 
fall to him, to y e prejudice of them selves & y e rest 
of the adventurers,* their freinds, from whom as yet 
they heard nothing. And it was doubted whether he 
had not sente [75] over shuch a company in y e former 

* Adventures in the manuscript. 


ship, for shuch an end. Yet they tooke compassion 
of those 7. men which this ship, which fished to y* 
eastivard, had kept till planting time was over, and so 
could set no corne; and allso wanting vitals, (for y ey 
turned them off w th out any, and indeed wanted for 
them selves,) neither was their salt-pan come, so as 
y ey could not performe any of those things which M r . 
Weston had apointed, and might have starved if y e 
plantation had not succoured them ; who, in their 
wants, gave them as good as any of their owne. 
The ship wente to Virginia, wher they sould both 
ship & fish, of which (it was conceived) M r . Weston 
had a very slender accounte. 

After this came another of his ships, and brought 
letters dated y e 10. of Aprill, from M r . Weston, as 
folio weth. 

M r . Bradford, these, &c. The Fortune is arived, of whose 
good news touching your estate & proceeings, I am very glad 
to hear. And how soever he was robed on y e way by y e French- 
men, yet I hope your loss will not be great, for y e conceite of 
so great a returne doth much animate y e adventurers, so y l I 
hope some matter of importance will be done by them, &c. As 
for my selfe, I have sould my adventure & debts unto them, 
so as I am quit * of you, & you of me, for that matter, &c. 
Now though I have nothing to pretend as an adventurer 
amongst you, yet I will advise you a litle for your good, if 
you can apprehend it. I perceive & know as well as another, 
y e dispositions of your adventurers, whom y e hope of gaine hath 

* See how his promiss is fulfild. 


drawne on to this they have done ; and yet I fear y* hope will 
not draw them much furder. Besids, most of them are against 
y e sending of them of Leyden, for whose cause this bussines was 
first begune, and some of y e most religious (as M r . Greene by 
name) excepts against them. So y l my advice is (you may 
follow it if you please) that you forthwith break of your 
joynte stock, which you have warente to doe, both in law & 
conscience, for y e most parte of y e adventurers have given 
way unto it by a former letter. And y e means you have 
ther, which I hope will be to some purpose by y e trade of this 
spring, may, with y e help of some freinds hear, bear y e charge 
of trasporting those of Leyden ; and when they are with you 
I make no question but by Gods help you will be able to sub- 
sist of your selves. But I shall leave you to your discretion. 

I desired diverce of y e adventurers, as M r . Peirce, M r . Greene, 
& others, if they had any thing to send you, either vitails or 
leters, to send them by these ships; and marvelling they sent 
not so much as a letter, I asked our passengers what leters 
they had, and with some dificultie one of them tould me he 
had one, which was delivered him with [76] great charge of 
secrecie ; and for more securitie, to buy a paire of new-shoes, 
& sow it betweene y e soles for fear of intercepting. I, taking 
y e leter, wondering what mistrie might be in it, broke it open, 
and found this treacherous letter subscribed by y e hands of M r . 
Pickering & M r . Greene. Wich leter had it come to you r hands 
without answer, might have caused y e hurt, if not y e ruine, of 
us all. For assuredly if you had followed their instructions, 
and shewed us that unkindness which they advise you unto, to 
hold us in distruste as enimise, &c., it might have been an occa- 
sion to have set us togeather by y e eares, to y e distruction of 
us all. For I doe beleeve that in shuch a case, they knowing 
what bussines hath been betweene us, not only my brother, but 
others also, would have been violent, and heady against you, 
&c. I mente to have setled y e people I before and now send, 

144 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

with or near you, as well for their as your more securitie and 
defence, as help on all occasions. But I find y e adventurers 
so jealous & suspitious, that I have altered my resolution, & 
given order to my brother & those with him, to doe as they 
and him selfe shall find fitte. Thus, &c. 

Your loving freind, 
Aprill 10. 1621. THO : WESTON. 

Some part of M r Pickerings letter before mentioned. 

To M r . Bradford & M r . Brewster, &c. 

My dear love remembred unto you all, &c. The company 
hath bought out M r . Weston, and are very glad they are freed 
of him, he being judged a man y* thought him selfe above y e 
geuerall, and not expresing so much y e fear of God as was 
ineete in a man to whom shuch trust should have been reposed 
in a matter of so great importance. I am sparing to be so 
plaine as indeed is clear against him ; but a few words to y e 

M r . Weston will not permitte leters to be sent in his ships, 
nor any thing for your good or ours, of which ther is some 
reason in respecte of him selfe, &c. 'His brother Andrew, 
whom he doth send as principall in one of these ships, is a 
heady yong man, & violente, and set against you ther, & y e 
company hear ; ploting with M r . Weston their owne ends, which 
tend to your & our undooing in respecte of our estates ther, 
and prevention of our good ends. For by credible testimoney 
we are informed his purpose is to come to your colonie, pre- 
tending he comes for and from y e adventurers, and will seeke 
to gett what you have in readynes [77] into his ships, as if 
they came from y e company, & possessing all, will be so much 
profite to him selfe. And further to informe them selves what 
spetiall places or things you have discovered, to y e end that 
they may supres & deprive you, &c. 


The Lord, who is y e watchman of Israll & slepeth not, pre- 
serve you & deliver you from unreasonable men. I am sorie 
that ther is cause to admonish you of these things concerning 
this man ; so I leave you to God, who bless and multiply you 
into thousands, to the advancemente of y e glorious gospell of 
our Lord Jesus. Amen. Fare well. 

Your loving freinds, 


I pray conceale both y e writing & deliverie of this leter, but 
make the best use of it. We hope to sete forth a ship our selves 
with in this month. 

The heads of his answer. 

M r . Bradford, this is y e leter y 4 I wrote unto you of, which 
to answer in every perticuler is needles & tedious. My owne 
conscience & all our people can and I thinke will testifie, y* 
my end in sending y e ship Sparrow was your good, &c. Now 
I will not deney but ther are many of our people rude fellows, 
as these men terme them ; yet I presume they will be governed 
by such as I set over them. And I hope not only to be able 
to reclaime them from y l profanenes that may scandalise y e 
vioage, but by degrees to draw them to God, &c. I am 
so farr from sending rude fellows to deprive you either by 
fraude or violence of what is yours, as I have charged y e 
m r . of y e ship Sparrow, not only to leave with you 2000. of 
bread, but also a good quantitie of fish,* &c. But I will 
leave it to you to consider what evill this leter would or 
might have done, had it come to your hands & taken y e 
effecte y e other desired. 

Now if you be of y e mind y l these men are, deale plainly 
with us, & we will seeke our residence els-wher. If you 

* But y e [he] left not his own men a bite of bread. 

146 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

are as freindly as we have thought you to be, give us y e 
entertainment of freinds, and we will take nothing from you, 
neither meat, drinke, nor lodging, but what we will, in one 
kind or other, pay you for, &c. I shall leave in y e coun- 
trie a litle ship (if God send her safe thither) with mariners 
& fisher-men to stay ther, who shall coast, & trad with y e 
savages, & y e old plantation. It may be we shall be as 
helpfull to you, as you will be to us. I thinke I shall see 
you y e next spring; and so I comend you to y e protection 
of God, who ever keep you. 

Your loving freind, 


[78] Thus all ther hops in regard of M r . Western 
were layed in y e dust, and all , his promised helpe 
turned into an empttie advice, which they apprehended 
was nether lawfull nor profitable for them to follow. 
And they were not only thus left destitute of help in 
their extreme wants, haveing neither vitails, nor any 
thing to trade with, but others prepared & ready to 
glean up what y e cuntrie might have afforded for their 
releefe. As for those harsh censures & susspitions in- 
timated in y e former and following leters, they desired 
to judg as charitably and wisly of them as they could, 
waighing them in y e ballance of love and reason ; and 
though they (in parte) came from godly & loveing 
freinds, yet they conceived many things might arise 
from over deepe jealocie and fear, togeather with un- 
meete provocations, though they well saw M r . Weston 
pursued his owne ends, and was imbittered in spirite. 


For after the receit of y e former leters, the Gov r re- 
ceived one from M r . Cushman, who went home in y e 
ship, and was allway intimate with M r . Weston, (as 
former passages declare), and it was much marveled 
that nothing was heard from him, all this while. But 
it should seeme it was y e difficulty of sending, for 
this leter was directed as y e leter of a wife to her 
husband, who was here, and brought by him to y e 
Gov r . It was as followeth. 

Beloved S r : I hartily salute you, with trust of your health, 
and many thanks for your love. By Gods providence we 
got well home y e 17. of Feb. Being robbed by y e French- 
men by y e way, and carried by them into France, and were 
kepte ther 15. days, and lost all y* we had that was worth 
taking; but thanks be to God, we escaped with our lives 
& ship. I see not y* it worketh any discouragment hear. 
I purpose by Gods grace to see you shortly, / hope in June 
nexte, or before. In y e mean space know these things, and 
I pray you be advertised a litle. M r . Weston hath quite 
broken of from our company, through some discontents y* 
arose betwext him and some of our adventurers, & hath 
sould all his adventurs, & hath now sent 3. smale ships for his 
perticuler plantation. The greatest wherof, being 100. tune, 
M r . Reynolds goeth m r . and he with y e rest purposeth to 
come him selfe ; for what end I know not. 

The people which they cary are no men for us, wherfore 
I pray you entertaine them not, neither exchainge man for 
man with them, excepte it be some of your worst. He hath 
taken a patente for him selfe. If they off err to buy any 
thing of you, let it be shuch as you can spare, and let 
them give y e worth of it. If they borrow any thing of you, 


let them leave a good pawne, &c. It is like he [78*] will 
plant to y e southward of y e Cape, for William Trevore hath 
lavishly tould but what he knew or imagined of Capewack, 
Mohiggen, & y e Narigansets. I fear these people will hardly 
deale so well with y e savages as they should. I pray you 
therfore signifie to Squanto, that they are a distincte body 
from us, and we have nothing to doe with them, neither 
must be blamed for their falts, much less can warrente their 
fidelitie. We are aboute to recover our losses in France. 
Our freinds at Leydeu are well, and will come to you as 
many as can this time. I hope all will turne to y e best, 
wherfore I pray you be not discouraged, but gather up your 
selfe to goe thorow these dificulties cherfully & with courage 
in y 4 place wherin God hath sett you, untill y e day of re- 
freshing come. And y e Lord God of sea & land bring us 
comfortably togeather againe, if it may stand with his glorie. 


On y e other sid of y e leafe, in y e same leter, came 
these few lines from M r . John Peirce, in whose name 
the patente was taken, and of whom more will follow, 
to be spoken in its place. 

Worthy S r : I desire you to take into consideration that 
which is writen on y e other side, and not any way to 
damnific your owne collony, whos strength is but weaknes, 
and may therby be more iufeebled. And for y e leters of 
association, by y e next ship we send, I hope you shall re- 
ceive satisfaction ; in y e mean time whom you adrnite I will 
approve. But as for M r . Weston's company, I thinke them 
so base in condition (for y e most parte) as in all apearance 

* The number is repeated in the Ms. 


not fitt for an honest mans company. I wish they prove 
other wise. My purpose is not to enlarge my selfe, but 
cease in these few lins, and so rest 

Your loving freind, 


All these things they pondred and well considered, 
yet concluded to give his men frendly entertainmente ; 
partly in regard of M r . Weston him selfe, considering 
what he had been unto them, & done for them, & to 
some, more espetially ; and partly in compassion to y e 
people, who were now come into a willdernes, (as 
them selves were,) and were by y e ship to be pres- 
ently put a shore, (for she was to cary other passen- 
gers to Virginia, who lay at great charge,) and they 
were alltogeather unacquainted & knew not what to 
doe. So as they had received his former company of 
7. men, and vitailed them as 'their owne hitherto, so 
they also received these (being aboute 60. lusty men), 
and gave [79] housing for them selves and their 
goods ; and many being sicke, they had y e best means 
y place could aford them. They stayed hear y e most 
parte of y somer till y e ship came back againe from 
Virginia. Then, by his direction, or those whom he 
set over them, they removed into y e Massachusset 
Bay, he having got a patente for some part ther, (by 
light of ther former discovery in leters sent home). 
Yet they left all ther sicke folke hear till they were 
setled and housed. But of ther victails they had not 


any, though they were in great wante, nor any thing 
els in recompence of any courtecie done them ; neither 
did they desire it, for they saw they were an unruly 
company, and had no good govermente over them, and 
by disorder would soone fall into wants if M r . Wes- 
ton came not y e sooner amongst them ; and therfore, 
to prevente all after occasion, would have nothing of 

Amids these streigths, and y e desertion of those 
from whom they had hoped for supply, and when 
famine begane now to pinch them sore, they not know- 
ing what to doe, the Lord, (who never fails his,) pre- 
sents them with an occasion, beyond all expectation. 
This boat which came from y e eastward brought them 
a letter from a stranger, of whose name they had 
never heard before, being a captaine of a ship come 
ther a fishing. This leter was as followeth. Being 
thus inscribed. 

To all his good freinds at Plimoth, these, &c. 

Freinds, cuntrimen, & neighbours : I salute you, and wish 
you all health and hapines in y e Lord. I make bould with 
these few lines to trouble you, because unless I were un- 
humane, I can doe no less. Bad news doth spread it selfe 
too farr ; yet I will so farr informe you that my selfe, with 
many good freinds in y e south-collonie of Virginia, have re- 
ceived shuch a blow, that 400. persons large will not make 
good our losses. Therfore I doe intreat you (allthough not 
knowing you) that y e old rule which I learned when I went 
to schoole, may be sufficente. That is, Hapie is he whom 


other mens harmes doth make to beware. And now againe 
and againe, wishing all those y l willingly would serve y e 
Lord, all health and happines in this world, and everlasting 
peace in y e world to come. And so I rest, 



By this boat y e Gov r returned a thankfull answer, 
as was meete, and sent a boate of their, owne with 
them, which was piloted by them, in which M r . Wins- 
low was sente to procure what provissions he could 
of y e ships, who was kindly received by y e foresaid 
gentill-man, who not only spared what he [90 *] could, 
but writ to others to doe y e like. By which means 
he gott some good quantitie and returned in saftie, by 
which y e plantation had a duble benefite, first, a pres- 
ent refreshing by y e food brought, and secondly, they 
knew y e way to those parts for their benifite hear- 
after. But what was gott, & this small boat brought, 
being devided among so many, came but to a litle, 
yet by Gods blesing it upheld them till harvest. It 
arose but to a quarter of a pound of bread a day to 
each person ; and y e Gov r caused it to be dayly given 
them, otherwise, had it been in their owne custody, 
they would have eate it up & then starved. But thus, 
with what els they could get, they made pretie shift 
till corne was ripe. 

* Mr. Hunter writes : " Here is an error in Bradford's pagination. He 
passes from 79 to 90. No part of the manuscript is here lost." 79 is repeated 
in the paging. 


This somer they builte a fort with good timber, 
both strong & comly, which was of good defence, made 
with a flate rofe & batllments, on which their ordnance 
were mounted, and wher they kepte constante watch, 
espetially in time of danger. It served them allso for 
a meeting house, and was fitted accordingly for that 
use. It was a great worke for them in this weaknes 
and time of wants ; but y e deanger of y e time required 
it, and both y e continuall rumors of y e fears from y e 
Indeans hear, espetially y e Narigansets, and also y e 
hearing of that great massacre in Virginia, made all 
hands willing to despatch y e same. 

Now y e wellcome time of harvest aproached, in 
which all had their hungrie bellies filled. But it arose 
but to a litle, in comparison of a full years supplie ; 
partly by reason they were not yet well aquainted 
with y e maner of Indean corne, (and they had no 
other,) allso their many other imployments, but cheefly 
their weaknes for wante of food, to tend it as they 
should have done. Also much was stolne both by 
night & day, before it became scarce eatable, & much 
more afterward. And though many were well whipt 
(when they were taken) for a few ears of corne, yet 
hunger made others (whom conscience did not re- 
straine) to venture. So as it well appeared y 4 famine 
must still insue y e next year allso, if not some way 
prevented, or supplie should faile, to which they durst 
not trust. Markets there was none to goe too, but 


only y e Indeans, and they had no trading comodities. 
Behold now another providence of God ; a ship conies 
into y e [91] harbor, one Captain Jons being cheefe 
therin. They were set out by some marchants to dis- 
covere all y e harbors betweene this & Virginia, and y e 
shoulds of Cap-Cod, and to trade along y e coast wher 
they could. This ship had store of English-beads 
(which were then good trade) and some knives, but 
would sell none but at dear rates, and also a good 
quantie togeather. Yet they weere glad of y e occa- 
sion, and faine to buy at any rate ; they were faine 
to give after y e rate of cento per cento, if not more, 
and yet pay away coat-beaver at 3 s . per 11 -, which in a 
few years after yeelded 20 s . By this means they were 
fitted againe to trade for beaver & other things, and 
intended to buy what corne they could. 

But I will hear take liberty to make a litle digres- 
sion. Ther was in this ship a gentle-man by name 
M r . John Poory ; he had been secretarie in Virginia, 
and was now going home passenger in this ship. 
After his departure he write a leter to y e Gov r in y e 
postscrite wherof he hath these lines. 

To your selfe and M r . Brewster, I must acknowledg my 
selfe many ways indebted, whose books I would have you 
thinke very well bestowed on him, who esteemeth them shuch 
juells. My hast would not suffer me to remember (much 
less to begg) M r . Ainsworths elaborate worke upon y e 5. 
books of Moyses. Both his & M r . Robinsons doe highly 


comend the authors, as being most conversante in y e scrip- 
turs of all others. And what good (who knows) it may 
please God to worke by them, through my hands, (though 
most unworthy,) who finds shuch high contente in them. 
God have you all in his keeping. 

Your uufained and firme freind, 
Aug. 28. 1622. JOHN PORT. 

These things I hear inserte for honour sake of y e 
authors memorie, which this gentle-man doth thus in- 
geniusly acknowledg; and him selfe after his returne 
did this poore-plantation much credite amongst those 
of no mean ranck. But to returne. 

[92] Shortly after harvest M r . Westons people who 
were now seated at y e Massachusets, and by disorder 
(as it seems) had made havock of their provissions, 
begane now to perceive that want would come upon 
them. And hearing that they hear had bought trading 
comodities & intended to trade for corne, they write 
to y e Gov r and desired they might joyne with them, 
and they would imploy their small ship in y e servise ; 
and furder requested either to lend or sell them so 
much of their trading comodities as their part might 
come to, and they would undertake to make paymente 
when M r . Weston, or their supply, should come. The 
Gov r condesended upon equall terms of agreemente, 
thinkeing to goe aboute y e Cap to y e southward 
with y e ship, wher some store of corne might be 
got. Althings being provided, Captaint Standish was 


apointed to goe with them, and Squanto for a guid & 
interpreter, about y e latter end of September; but y e 
winds put them in againe, & putting out y e 2. time, 
he fell sick of a feavor, so y e Gov r wente him selfe. 
But they could not get aboute y e should of Cap-Cod, 
for flats & breakers, neither could Squanto directe 
them better, nor y c m r . durst venture any further, so 
they put into Manamoyack Bay and got w 1 * they 
could ther. In this place Squanto fell sick of an 
Indean feavor, bleeding much at y e nose (which y e 
Indeans take for a simptome of death), and within a 
few days dyed ther ; desiring y e Gov r to pray for him, 
that he might goe to y e Englishmens God in heaven, 
and bequeathed sundrie of his things to sundry of his 
English freinds, as remembrances of his love ; of whom 
they had a great loss. They got in this vioage, in one 
place & other, about 26. or 28. hogsheads of corne & 
beans, which was more then y e Indeans could well 
spare in these parts, for y e set but a litle till they got 
English hows. And so were faine to returne, being sory 
they could not gett about the Cap, to have been better 
laden. After ward y e Gov r tooke a few men & wente 
to y c inland places, to get what he could, and to fetch 
it home at y c spring, which did help them something. 
[93] After these things, in Feb: a messenger came 
from John Sanders, who was left cheefe over M r . Wes- 
ton's men in y e bay of Massachusets, who brought a 

* W** in the manuscript. 

156 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

letter shewing the great wants they were falen into ; 
and he would have borrowed a KB of corne of y e In- 
deans, but they would lend him none. He desired 
advice whether he might not take it from them by 
force to succore his men till he came from y e east- 
ward, whither he was going. The Gov r & rest de- 
swaded him by all means from it, for it might so 
exasperate the Indeans as might endanger their saftie, 
and all of us might smart for it ; for they had already 
heard how they had so wronged y e Indeans by steal- 
ing their corne, &c. as they were much incensed 
against them. Yea, so base were some of their own 
company, as they wente & tould y e Indeans y* their 
Gov r was purposed to come and take their corne by 
force. The which with other things made them enter 
into a conspiracie against y e English, of which more 
in y e nexte. Hear with I end this year. 

Anno Dom: 1623. 

IT may be thought strang that these people should 
fall to these extremities in so short a time, being left 
competently provided when y e ship left them, and had 
an addition by that moyetie of corn that was got by 
trade, besids much they gott of y e Indans wher they 
lived, by one means & other. It must needs be their 
great disorder, for they spent excesseivly whilst they 
had, or could get it ; and, it may be, wasted parte 
away among y e Indeans (for he y* was their cheef 


was taxed by some amongst them for keeping Indean 
women, how truly I know not). And after they 
begane to come into wants, many sould away their 
cloathes and bed coverings; others (so base were they) 
became servants to y e Indeans, and would cutt them 
woode & fetch them water, for a cap full of corne ; 
others fell to plaine stealing, both night & day, from 
y e Indeans, of which they greevosly complained. In 
y e end, they came to that misery, that some starved 
& dyed with could & hunger. One in geathering 
shell-fish was so weake as he stuck fast in y e mudd, 
and was found dead in y e place. At last most of them 
left their dwellings & scatered up & downe in y e [94] 
woods, & by y e water sids, wher they could find 
ground nuts & clames, hear 6. and ther ten. By 
which their cariages they became contemned & scorned 
of y e Indeans, and they begane greatly to insulte over 
them in a most insolente maner ; insomuch, many times 
as they lay thus scatered abrod, and had set on a pot 
with ground nuts or shell-fish, when it was ready the 
Indeans would come and eate it up ; and when night 
came, wheras some of them had a sorie blanket, or 
such like, to lappe them selves in, the Indeans would 
take it and let y e other lye all nighte in the could; 
so as their condition was very lamentable. Yea, in 
y e end they were faine to hange one of their men, 
whom they could not reclaime from stealing, to give 
y e Indeans contente. 

158 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Whilst things wente in this maner with them, y e 
Grov r & people hear had notice y* Massasoyte ther 
freind was sick & near unto death. They sent to 
vissete him, and withall sente him such comfortable 
things as gave him great contente, and was a means 
of his recovery ; upon which occasion he discovers y e 
conspiracie of these Indeans, how they were resolved 
to cutt of M r . Westons people, for the continuall in- 
juries they did them, & would now take opportunitie 
of their weaknes to doe it ; and for that end had con- 
spired with other Indeans their neighbours their aboute. 
And thinking the people hear would revenge their 
death, they therfore thought to doe y e like by them, 
& had solisited him to joyne with them. He advised 
them therfore to prevent it, and that speedly by tak- 
ing of some of y e cheefe of them, before it was to 
late, for he asured them of y c truth hereof. 

This did much trouble them, and they tooke it into 
serious delibration, and found upon examenation other 
evidence to give light hear unto, to longe hear to 
relate. In y e mean time, came one of them from 
y e Massachucts, with a small pack at his back; and 
though he knew not a foote of y e way, yet he got 
safe hither, but lost his way, which was well for him, 
for he was pursued, and so was mist. He tould them 
hear how all things stood amongst them, and that he 
durst stay no longer, he apprehended they (by what 
he observed) would be all knokt in y e head shortly. 


This made them make y e more hast, & dispatched a 
boate away w th Capten Standish & some men, who 
found them in a miserable condition, out of which he 
rescued them, and helped them to some releef, cut of 
some few of y e cheefe conspirators, and, according to 
his order, offered to bring them all hither if they 
thought good ; and they should fare no worse then 
them selves, till M r . Weston or some supplie came to 
them. Or, if any other course liked them better, 
he was to doe them any helpfullnes he could. They 
thanked him & y e rest. But most of them desired he 
would help them with some corne, and they would 
goe with their smale ship to y e eastward, wher hapily 
they might here of M r . Weston, or some supply from 
him, seing y e time of y e year was for fishing ships 
to [95] be in y e land. If not, they would worke 
among y e fishermen for their liveing, and get ther pas- 
sage into England, if they heard nothing from M r . 
Weston in time. So they shipped what they had of 
any worth, and he got them all y e corne he could 
(scarce leaving to bring him home), and saw them 
well out of y e bay, under saile at sea, and so came 
home, not takeing y e worth of a peny of any thing 
that was theirs. I have but touched these things 
breefly, because they have allready been published in 
printe more at large. 

This was y e end of these that some time bosted of 
their strength, (being all able lustie men,) and what 


they would doe & bring to pass, in comparison of y e 
people hear, who had many women & children and 
weak ons amongst them ; and said at their first arivall, 
when they saw the wants hear, that they would take 
an other course, and not to fall into shuch a condition, 
as this simple people were come too. But a mans 
way is not in his owne power ; God can make y e 
weake to stand ; let him also that standeth take heed 
least he fall. 

Shortly after, M r . Weston came over with some of 
y e fishermen, under another name, and y e disguise of a 
blacke-smith, were he heard of y e ruine and disolution 
of his colony. He got a boat and with a man or 
2. came to see how things were. But by y e way, for 
wante of skill, in a storme, he cast away his shalop in 
y e botome of y e bay between Meremek river & Pas- 
cataquack, & hardly escaped with life, and afterwards 
fell into the hands of y e Indeans, who pillaged him 
of all he saved from the sea, & striped him out of 
all his cloaths to his shirte. At last he got to Pas- 
cataquack, & borrowed a suite of cloaths, and got 
means to come to Plimoth. A strang alteration ther 
was in him to such as had seen & known him in his 
former florishing condition ; so uncertaine are y e muta- 
ble things of this unstable world. And yet men set 
their harts upon them, though they dayly see y e vanity 

After many passages, and much discourse, (former 


things boy ling in his mind, but bit in as was dis- 
cernd,) he desired to borrow some beaver of them ; 
and tould them he had hope of a ship & good supply 
to come to him, and then they should have any thing 
for it they stood in neede of. They gave litle credite 
to his supplie, but pitied his case, and remembered 
former curtesies. They tould him he saw their wants, 
and they knew not when they should have any supply ; 
also how y e case stood betweene them & their ad- 
venturers, he well knew ; they had not much bever, 
& if they should let him have it, it were enoughe to 
make a mutinie among y e people, seeing ther was no 
other means to procure them foode which they so much 
wanted, & cloaths allso. Yet they tould him they 
would help him, considering his necessitie, but must 
doe it secretly for y e former reasons. So they let 
him have 100. beaver-skins, which waighed 170 U . odd 
pounds. Thus they helpt him when all y e world faild 
him, and with this means he went againe to y e ships, 
and stayed his small ship & some of his men, & 
bought provissions and fited him selfe ; and it was y e 
only foundation [96] of his after course. But he re- 
quited them ill, for he proved after a bitter enimie 
unto them upon all occasions, and never repay ed them 
any thing for it, to this day, but reproches and evill 
words. Yea, he divolged it to some that were none 
of their best freinds, whilst he yet had y e beaver in 
his boat; that he could now set them all togeather by 

162 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

y e ears, because they had done more then they could 
answer, in letting him have this beaver, and he did 
not spare to doe what he could. But his malice could 
not prevaile. 

All this whille no supply was heard of, neither knew 
they when they might expecte any. So they begane 
to thinke how they might raise as much corne as they 
could, and obtaine a beter crope then they had done, 
that they might not still thus languish in miserie. At 
length, after much debate of things, the Gov r (with 
y e advise of y e cheefest amongest them) gave way that 
they should set corne every man for his owne per- 
ticuler, and in that regard trust to them selves ; in all 
other things to goe on in y e generall way as before. 
And so assigned to every family a parcell of land, 
according to the proportion of their number for that 
end, only for present use (but made no devission for 
inheritance), and ranged all boys & youth under some 
familie. This had very good success ; for it made all 
hands very industrious, so as much more corne was 
planted then other waise would have bene by any 
means y c Grov r or any other could use, and saved him 
a great deall of trouble, and gave farr better contente. 
The women now wente willingly into y e feild, and 
tooke their litle-ons with them to set corne, which 
before would aledg weaknes, and inabilitie ; whom to 
have compelled would have bene thought great tiranie 
and oppression. 


The experience that was had in this comone course 
and condition, tried sundrie years, and that amongst 
godly and sober men, may well evince the vanitie of 
that conceite of Platos & other ancients, applauded 
by some of later times ; that y e taking away of 
propertie, and bringing in comunitie into a comone 
wealth, would make them happy and florishing ; as if 
they were wiser then God. For this comunitie (so 
farr as it was) was found to breed much confusion & 
discontent, and retard much imploymet that would 
have been to their benefite and comforte. For y e 
yong-men that were most able and fitte for labour & 
service did repine that they should spend their time 
& streingth to worke for other mens wives and chil- 
dren, with out any recompence. The strong, or man 
of parts, had no more in devission of victails & cloaths, 
then he that was weake and not able to doe a quarter 
y e other could ; this was thought injuestice. The aged 
and graver men to be ranked and [97] equalised in 
labours, and victails, cloaths, &c., with y e meaner & 
yonger sorte, thought it some indignite & disrespect 
unto them. And for mens wives to be commanded to 
doe servise for other men, as dresing their meate, wash- 
ing their cloaths, &c., they deemd it a kind of slaverie, 
neither could many husbands well brooke it. Upon y e 
poynte all being to have alike, and all to doe alike, 
they thought them selves in y e like condition, and one 
as good' as another; and so, if it did not cut of those 


relations that God hath set amongest men, yet it did 
at least much diminish and take of y e mutuall respects 
that should be preserved amongst them. And would 
have bene worse if they had been men of another 
condition. Let none objecte this is men's corruption, 
and nothing to y e course it selfe. I answer, seeing all 
men have this corruption in them, God in his wis- 
dome saw another course fiter for them. ^ 

But to returne. After this course setled, and by 
that their core was planted, all ther victails were 
spente, and they were only to rest on Gods provi- 
dence ; at night not many times knowing wher to have 
a bitt of any thing y e next day. And so, as one well 
observed, had need to pray that God would give them 
their dayly brade, above all people in y e world. Yet 
they bore these wants with great patience & allacritie 
of spirite, and that for so long a time as for y e most 
parte of 2. years; which makes me remember what 
Peter Martire writs, (in magnifying y e Spaniards) in 
his 5. Decade, pag. 208. They (saith he) led a mis- 
erable life for 5. days togeather, with y 6 parched graine 
of maize only, and that not to saturitie; and then con- 
cluds, that shuck pains, shuch labours, and shuck hunger, 
he thought none living which is not a Spaniard could 
have endured. But alass ! these, when they had maize 
(y* is, Indean corne) they thought it as good as a 
feast, and wanted not only for 5. days togeather, but 
some time 2. or 3. months togeather, and neither had 


bread nor any kind of corne. Indeed, in an other 
place, in his 2. Decade, page 94. he mentions how 
others of them were worse put to it, wher they were 
faine to eate doggs, toads, and dead men, and so 
dyed almost all. From these extremities the * Lord in 
his goodnes kept these his people, and in their great 
wants preserved both their lives and healthes ; let his 
name have y e praise. Yet let me hear make use of 
his conclusion, which in some sorte may be applied 
to this people : TJiat with their miseries they opened 
a way to these new-lands; and after these stormes, with 
what ease other men came to inhabite in them, in respecte 
of y e calamities these men suffered; so as they seeme to 
goe to a bride feaste wher all things are provided for 

They haveing but one boat left and she not over 
well fitted, they were devided into severall companies, 
6. or 7. to a gangg or company, and so wente out 
with a nett they had bought, to take bass & such like 
fish, by course, every company knowing their turne. 
No sooner was y e boate discharged [98] of what she 
brought, but y e next company tooke her and wente 
out with her. Neither did they returne till they had 
cauight something, though it were 5. or 6. days be- 
fore, for they knew ther was nothing at home, and to 
goe home emptie would be a great discouragemente 
to y e rest. Yea, they strive who should doe best. 

* They in the MS. 

166 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

If she stayed longe or got litle, then all went to seek- 
ing of shel-fish, which at low-water they digged out 
of y e sands. And this was their living in y e somer 
time, till God sente y m beter; & in winter they were 
helped with ground-nuts and foule. Also in y e somer 
they gott now & then a dear; for one or 2. of y e 
fitest was apoynted to range y e woods for y* end, & 
what was gott that way was devided amongst them. 

At length they received some leters from y e ad- 
venturers, too long and tedious hear to record, by 
which they heard of their furder crosses and frustra- 
tions ; begining in this maner. 

Loving freinds, as your sorrows & afflictions have bin 
great, so our croses & interceptions in our proceedings hear, 
have not been small. For after we had with much trouble 
& charge sente y e Parragon away to sea, and thought all y e 
paine past, within 14. days after she came againe hither, 
being dangerously leaked, and brused with tempestious 
stormes, so as shee was faine to be had into y e docke, and 
an 100 li . bestowed upon her. All y e passengers lying upon 
our charg for 6. or 7. weeks, and much discontent and dis- 
temper was occasioned hereby, so as some dangerous evente 
had like to insewed. But we trust all shall be well and 
worke for y e best and your benefite, if yet with patience 
you can waite, and but have strength to hold in life. 
Whilst these things were doing, M r . Westerns ship came 
and brought diverce leters from you, &c. It rejoyseth us 
much to hear of those good reports y* diverce have brought 
home from you, &c. 

These letters were dated Des. 21 : 1622. 


So farr of this leter. 

This ship was brought by M r . John Peirce, and set 
out at his owne charge, upon hope of great maters. 
These passengers, & y e goods the company sent in 
her, he tooke in for fraught, for which they agreed 
with him to be delivered hear. This was he in whose 
name their first palente was taken, by reason of 
aquaintance, and some aliance that some of their 
freinds had with him. But his name was only used in 
trust. But when he saw they were hear hopfully thus 
seated, and by y e success Grod gave them had obtained 
y e favour of y e Counsell of New-England, he goes and 
sues to them for another patent of much larger extente 
(in their names), which was easily obtained. But he 
mente to keep it to him selfe and alow them what 
he pleased, to hold of him as tenants, and sue to his 
courts as cheefe Lord, as will appear by that which 
follows. But y e Lord marvelously crost him; for after 
this first returne, and y e charge above mentioned, 
when shee was againe fitted, he pesters him selfe and 
taks in more passengers, and those not very good to 
help to bear his losses, and sets out y e 2. time. But 
[99] what y e event was will appear from another leter 
from one of y e cheefe of y e company, dated y e 9. of 
Aprill, 1623. writ to y e Gov r hear, as folio weth. 

Loving freind, when I write my last leter, I hope to have 
received one from you well-nigh by this time. But when 
I write in Des: I litle thought to have seen M r . John 


Peirce till he had brought some good tidings from you. But 
it pleased God, he brought us y e wofull tidings of his 
returne when he was half-way over, by extraime tempest, 
werin y e goodnes & mercie of God appeared in sparing their 
lives, being 109. souls. The loss is so great to M r . Peirce, 
&c., and y e companie put upon so great charge, as veryly, &c. 

Now with great trouble & loss, we have got M r . John 
Peirce to assigne over y e grand patente to y e companie, 
which he had taken in his owne name, and made quite voyd 
our former grante. I am sorie to writ how many hear thinke 
y* the hand of God was justly against him, both y e first 
and 2. time of his returne ; in regard he, whom you and 
we so confidently trusted, but only to use his name for y e 
company, should aspire to be lord over us all, and so make 
you & us tenants at his will and pleasure, our assurance 
or patente being quite voyd & disanuled by his means. I 
desire to judg charitably of him. But his imwillingnes to 
part with his royall Lordship, and y e high-rate he set it at, 
which was 500 11 . which cost him but 50 li ., maks many speake 
and judg hardly of him. The company are out for goods in 
his ship, with charge aboute y e passengers, 640 U ., &c. 

We have agreed with 2. marchants for a ship of 140. 
tunes, caled y e Anne, which is to be ready y e last of this 
month, to bring 60. passengers & 60. tune of goods, &c. 

This was dated Aprill 9. 1623. 

These were ther owne words and judgmente of this 
mans dealing & proceedings ; for I thought it more 
meete to render them in theirs then my owne words. 
And yet though ther was never got other recompence 
then the resignation of this patente, and y e shares he 
had in adventure, for all y e former great sumes, he 
was never quiet, but sued them in most of y e cheefe 


courts in England, and when he was still cast, brought 
it to y e Parlemente. But he is now dead, and I will 
leave him to y e Lord. 

This ship suffered y e greatest extreemitie at sea at 
her 2. returne, that one shall lightly hear of, to be 
saved ; as I have been informed by M r . William Peirce 
who was then m r . of her, and many others that were 
passengers in her. It was aboute y e midle of Feb: 
The storme was for y e most parte of 14. days, but 
for 2. or 3. days & nights togeather in most violent 
extremitie. After they had cut downe their mast, y e 
storme beat of their round house and all their uper 
works; 3. men had worke enough at y e helme, and he 
that cund y e ship before y e sea, was faine [100] to be 
bound fast for washing away; the seas did so over- 
rake them, as many times those upon y e decke knew 
not whether they were within bord or withoute ; and 
once she was so foundered in y e sea as they all 
thought she would never rise againe. But yet y e 
Lord preserved them, and brought them at last safe 
to Ports-mouth^ to y e wonder of all men y* saw in 
what a case she was in, and heard what they had 

About y e later end of June came in a ship, with 
Captaine Francis West, who had a comission to be 
admirall of New-England, to restraine interlopers, and 
shuch fishing ships as came to fish & trade without 
a licence from y e Counsell of New-England, for which 


they should pay a round sume of money. But he 
could doe no good of them, for they were to stronge 
for him, and he found y e fisher men to be stuberne 
fellows. And their owners, upon complainte made to 
y e Parlemente, procured an order y* fishing should be 
free. He tould y e Gov r they spooke with a ship at 
sea, and were abord her, y t was coming for this plan- 
tation, in which were sundrie passengers, and they 
marvelled she was not arrived, fearing some miscariage ; 
for they lost her in a storme that fell shortly after 
they had been abord. Which relation filled them full 
of fear, yet mixed with hope. The m r . of this ship 
had some 2. mi of pease to sell, but seeing their 
wants, held them at 9* 1 . sterling a hoggshead, & under 
8 U . he would not take, and yet would have beaver at 
an under rate. But they tould him they had lived 
so long with out, and would doe still, rather then 
give so unreasonably. So they went from hence to 

* I may not here omite how, notwithstand all their great paines & indus- 
trie, and y e great hops of a large cropp, the Lord seemed to blast, & take 
away the same, and to threaten further & more sore famine unto them, by 
a great drought which continued from y e 3. weeke in May, till about y e 
midle of July, without any raine, and with great heat (for y e most parte), 
insomuch as y e corne begane to wither away, though it was set with fishe, 
the moysture wherof helped it much. Yet at length it begane to languish 
sore, and some of y e drier grounds were partched like withered hay, part 
wherof was never recovered. Upon which they sett a parte a solemne day 
of humilliation, to seek y e Lord by humble & fervente prayer, in this great 
distrese. And he was pleased to give them a gracious & speedy answer, both 
to their owne, & the Indeans admiration, that lived amongest them. For all 
y e morning, and greatest part of the day, it was clear weather & very hotte, 


About 14. days after came in this ship, caled y e 
Anne, wherof M r . William Peirce was m r .> and aboute 
a weeke or 10. days after came in y e pinass which in 
foule weather they lost at sea, a fine new vessell of 
about 44. tune, which y e company had builte to stay 
in the cuntrie. They brought about 60. persons -for 
y e generall, some of them being very usefull persons, 
and became good members to y e body, and some were 
y e wives and children of shuch as were hear allready. 
And some were so bad, as they were faine to be at 
charge to send them home againe y e next year. Also, 
besids these ther came a company, that did not belong 
to y e generall body, but came one * their perticuler, 
and were to have lands assigned them, and be for 
them selves, yet to be subject e to y e generall Gov- 

and not a cloud or any signe of raine to be seen, yet toward evening it 
begane to overcast, and shortly after to raine, with shuch sweete and gentle 
showers, as gave them cause of rejoyceing, & blesing God. It came, without 
either wind, or thunder, or any violence, and by degreese in y 4 abundance, 
as that y e earth was thorowly wete and soked therwith. Which did so 
apparently revive & quicken y e decayed corne & other fruits, as was won- 
derfull to see, and made y e Indeans astonished to behold ; and afterwards the 
Lord sent them shuch seasonable showers, with enterchange of faire warme 
weather, as, through his blessing, caused a fruitfull & liberall harvest, to 
their no small comforte and rejoycing. For which mercie (in time con- 
veniente) they also sett aparte a day of thanksgiveing. This being overslipt 
in its place, I thought meet here to inserte y e same. 

[The above is written on the reverse of page 103 of the original, and 
should properly be inserted here. This passage, "being overslipt in its 
place," the author at first wrote it, or the most of it, under the preceding 
year; but, discovering his error before completing it, drew his pen across it, 
and wrote beneath, "This is to be here rased out, and is to be placed on 
page 103, wher it is inserted."] 

* On. 


erment ; which caused some diferance and disturbance 
[101] amongst them, as will after appeare. I shall 
hear againe take libertie to inserte a few things out 
of shuch leters as came in this shipe, desiring rather 
to manefest things in ther words and apprehentions, 
then in my owne, as much as may be, without 

Beloved freinds, I kindly salute you all, with trust of 
your healths & wellfare, being right sorie y 4 no supplie hath 
been made to you all this while; for defence wher of, I 
must referr you to our geuerall leters. Naitheir indeed have 
we now sent you many things, which we should & would, 
for want of money. But persons, more then inough, (though 
not all we should,) for people come flying in upon us, but 
monys come creeping in to us. Some few of your old 
freinds are come, as, &c. So they come droping to you, 
and by degrees, I hope ere long you shall enjoye them all. 
And because people press so hard upon us to goe, and often 
shuch as are none of y e fitest, I pray you write ernestly to 
y e Treasurer and directe what persons should be sente. It 
greeveth me to see so weake a company sent you, and yet 
had I not been hear they had been weaker. You must still 
call upon the company hear to see y 4 honest men be sente 
you, and threaten to send them back if any other come, &c. 
We are not any way so much in danger, as by corrupte an 
noughty persons. Shuch, and shuch, came without my con- 
sente ; but y e importunitie of their freinds got promise of 
our Treasurer in my absence. Neither is ther need we 
should take any lewd men, for we may have honest men 
enew, &c. 

Your assured freind, 

R. C. 


The following was from y e genrall. 

Loving freinds, we most bartily salute you in all love and 
harty affection ; being yet in hope y* the same God which 
hath hithertoo preserved you in a marvelous maner, doth yet 
continue your lives and health, to his owne praise and all 
our comforts. Being right sory that you have not been sent 
unto all this time, &c. We have in this ship sent shuch 
women, as were willing and ready to goe to their husbands 
and freinds, with their children, &c. We would not have 
you discontente, because we have not sent you more of your 
old freinds, and in spetiall, him* on whom you most' depend. 
Farr be it from us to neclecte you, or contemne him. But 
as y e intente was at first, so y e evente at last shall shew it, 
that we will deal fairly, and squarly answer your expec- 
tations to the full. Ther are also come unto you, some 
honest men to plant upon their particulers besids you. A 
thing which if we should not give way unto, we should wrong 
both them and you. Them, by puting them on things more 
inconveniente, and you, for that being honest men, they will 
be a strengthening to y e place, and good neighbours [102] 
unto you. Tow things we would advise you of, which we 
have likwise signified them hear. First, y e trade for skins 
to be retained for the generall till y e devidente ; 2 ly . y' their 
setling by you, be with shuch distance of place as is neither 
inconvenient for y e lying of your lands, nor hurtfull to your 
speedy & easie assembling togeather. 

We have sente you diverse fisher men, with salte, &c. 
Diverse other provissions we have sente you, as will appear 
in your bill of lading, and though we have not sent all we 
would (because our cash is small) , yet it is y* we could, &c. 

And allthough it seemeth you have discovered many more 
rivers and fertill grounds then y 4 wher you are, yet seeing by 

* I. R. 

174 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Gods providence y* place fell to you r lote, let it be accounted 
as your portion ; and rather fixe your eyes upon that which 
may be done ther, then languish in hops after things els-wher. 
If your place be not y e best, it is better, you shall be y e 
less envied and encroached upon ; and shuch as are earthly 
minded, will not setle too near your border.* If y e land 
afford you bread, and y e sea yeeld you fish, rest you a while 
contented, God will one day afford you better fare. And all 
men shall know you are neither fugetives nor discontents. 
But can, if God so order it, take y e worst to your selves, 
with content,! & leave y e best to your neighbours, with 

Let it not be greeveous unto you y* you have been instru- 
ments to breake y e ise for others who come after with less 
dificulty, the honour shall be yours to y e worlds end, &c. 

We bear you always in our brests, and our harty affection 
is towards you all, as are y e harts of hundreds more which 
never saw your faces, who doubtles pray for your saftie as 
their owne, as we our selves both doe & ever shall, that y e 
same God which hath so marvelously preserved you from 
seas, foes, and famine, will still preserve you from all 
future dangers, and make you honourable amongst men, and 
glorious in blise at y e last day. And so y e Lord be with 
you all & send us joy full news from you, and inable us 
with one shoulder so to accomplish & perfecte this worke, 
as much glorie may come to Him y* confoundeth y e mighty 
by the weak, and maketh small thinges great. To whose 
greatnes, be all glorie for ever & ever. 

This leter was subscribed with 13. of their names. 
These passengers, when they saw their low & poore 
condition a shore, were much danted and dismayed, 

* This proved rather, a propheti, then advice, 
f Contend in the manuscript. 


and according to their diverse humores were diversly 
affected ; some wished them selves in England againe ; 
others fell a weeping, fancying their own miserie in 
what y ey saw now in others ; other some pitying the 
distress they saw their freinds had been long in, and 
still were under; in a word, all were full of sadnes. 
Only some of their old freinds rejoysed to see them, 
and y l it was no worse with them, for they could not 
expecte it should be better, and now hoped they should 
injoye better days togeather. And truly it was [103] 
no marvell they should be thus affected, for they were 
in a very low condition, many were ragged in aparell, 
& some litle beter then halfe naked; though some y* 
were well stord before, were well enough in this re- 
gard. But for food they were all alike, save some y' 
had got a few pease of y e ship y i was last hear. The 
best dish they could presente their freinds with was 
a lobster, or a peece of fish, without bread or any 
thing els but a cupp of fair spring water. And y e 
long continuance of this diate, and their labours abroad, 
had something abated y e freshnes of their former com- 
plexion. But God gave them health and strength in 
a good measure ; and shewed them by experience y c 
truth of y* word, Deut. 8. 3. Y t man liveth not by 
bread only, but by every word y* proceedeth out of y e 
mouth of y e Lord doth a man live. 

When I think how sadly y e scripture speaks of the 
famine in Jaakobs time, when he said to his sonns, 

176 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Goe buy us food, that we may live and not dye. 
Gen. 42. 2. and 43. 1, that the famine was great, or 
heavie in the land; and yet they had such great herds, 
and store of catle of sundrie kinds, which, besids flesh, 
must needs produse other food, as milke, butter & 
cheese, &c., and yet it was counted a sore affliction ; 
theirs hear must needs be very great, therfore, who 
not only wanted the staffe of bread, but all these 
things, and had no Egipte to goe too. But God fedd 
them out of y e sea for y e most parte, so wonderfull 
is his providence over his in all ages ; for his mercie 
endureth for ever. 

On y e other hand the old planters were affraid that 
their corne, when it was ripe, should be imparted to y e 
new-comers, whose provissions w ch they brought with 
them they feared would fall short before y e year wente 
aboute (as indeed it did). They came to y e Gov r and 
besought him that as it was before agreed that they 
should set corne for their perticuler, and accordingly 
they had taken extraordinary pains ther aboute, that 
they might freely injoye the same, and they would not 
have a bitte of y e victails now come, but waite till 
harvest for their owne, and let y e new-comers injoye 
what they had brought ; they would have none of it, 
excepte they could purchase any of it of them by 
bargaine or exchainge. Their requeste was granted 
them , for it gave both sides good contente ; for y e 
new-comers were as much afraid that y e hungrie 


planters would have eat up y e provissions brought, and 
they should have fallen into y e like condition. 

This ship was in a shorte time laden with clapbord, 
by y e help of many hands. Also they sente in her all 
y e beaver and other furrs they had, & M r . Winslow 
was sent over with her, to informe of all things, and 
procure such things as were thought needfull for their 
presente condition. By this time harvest was come, 
and in stead of famine, now God gave them plentie, 
and y e face of things was changed, to y e rejoysing of 
y e harts of many, for which they blessed God. And 
y e effect of their particuler planting was well seene, for 
all had, one way & other, pretty well to bring y e year 
aboute, and some of y e abler sorte and more [104] 
industrious had to spare, and sell to others, so as any 
generall wante or famine hath not been amongst them 
since to this day. 

Those that come on their perticuler looked for greater 
matters then they found or could attaine unto, aboute 
building great houses, and such pleasant situations for 
them, as them selves had fancied; as if they would be 
great men & rich, all of a sudaine ; but they proved 
castls in y e aire. These were y e conditions agreed on 
betweene y e colony and them. 

First, that y e Gov 1 , in y e name and with y e consente 
of y e company, doth in all love and frendship receive 
and imbrace them ; and is to allote them competente 
places for habitations within y e towne. And promiseth 


to shew them all such other curtesies as shall be rea- 
sonable for them to desire, or us to performe. 

2. That they, on their parts, be subjecte to all such 
laws & orders as are already made, or hear after shall 
be, for y e publick good. 

3. That they be freed and exempte from y e generall 
imployments of the said company, (which their pres- 
ente condition of comunitie requireth,) excepte com- 
mune defence, & such other imployments as tend to 
y e perpetuall good of y e collony. 

4 ly . Towards y e maintenance of Gov rt , & publick 
officers of y e said collony, every male above y e age 
of 16. years shall pay a bushell of Indean wheat, or 
y e worth of it, into y e commone store. 

5 ly . That (according to y e agreemente y e marchants 
made with y m before they came) they are to be wholy 
debared from all trade with the Indeans for all sorts 
of furrs, and such like commodities, till y e time of y e 
comunallitie be ended. 

About y e midle of September arrived Captaine 
Robart Gorges in y e Bay of y e Massachusets, with 
sundrie passengers and families, intending ther to 
begine a plantation ; and pitched upon y e place M r . 
Weston's people had forsaken. He had a comission 
from y e Counsell of New-England, to be generall Gove r 
of y e cuntrie, and they appoynted for his counsell & 
assistance, Captaine Francis West, y e aforesaid admirall, 
Christopher Levite, Esquire, and y e Gov r of Plimoth for 


y e time beeing, &c. Allso, they gave him authoritie to 
chuse such other as he should find fit. Allso, they gave 
(by their comission) full power to him & his assistants, 
or any 3. of them, wherof him selfe was all way to be 
one, to doe and execute what to them should seeme 
good, in all cases, Capitall, Criminall, and Civill, &c., 
with diverce other instructions. Of which, & his 
comission, it pleased him to suffer y e Gov r hear to 
take a coppy. 

He gave them notice of his arivall by letter, but 
before they could visite him he went to y e eastward 
with y e ship he came in; but a storme arising, (and 
they wanting a good pilot to harbor them in those 
parts,) they bore up for this harbor. He and his 
men were hear kindly entertained ; he stayed hear 
14. days. In y e mean time came in M r . Weston with 
his small ship, which he had now recovered. [105*] 
Captaine Gorges tooke hold of y e opportunitie, and 
acquainted y e Gov r hear, that one occasion of his 
going to y c eastward was to meete with M r . Weston, 
and call him to accounte for some abuses he had to 
lay to his charge. Wherupon he called him before 
him, and some other of his assistants, with y e Gov r of 
this place ; and charged him, first, with y e ille carriage 
of his men at y c Massachusets ; by which means the 
peace of y e cuntrie was disturbed, and him selfe & the 
people which he had brought over to plante in that 

* In MS. also 145. 

180 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

bay were therby much prejudised. To this M r . Weston 
easily answered, that what was that way done, was in 
his absence, and might have befalen any man ; he left 
them sufficently provided, and conceived they would 
have been well governed ; and for any errour comitted 
he had sufficiently smarted. This particuler was passed 
by. A 2 d . was, for an abuse done to his father, S r . 
Ferdenando Gorges, and to y e State. The thing was 
this ; he used him & others of y e Counsell of New- 
England, to procure him a licence for y e transporting 
of many peeces of great ordnance for New-England, 
pretending great fortification hear in y e countrie, & I 
know not what shipping. The which when he had 
obtained, he went and sould them beyond seas for his 
private profite ; for which (he said) y e State was much 
offended, and his father suffered a shrowd check, and 
he had order to apprehend him for it. M r . Weston 
excused it as well as he could, but could not deney 
it ; it being one maine thing (as was said) for which 
he with-drew himself. But after many passages, by 
y e mediation of y e Gov r and some other freinds hear, 
he was inclined to gentlnes (though he aprehended y e 
abuse of his father deeply) ; which, when M r . Weston 
saw, he grew more presumptuous, and gave such pro- 
vocking & cutting speches, as made him rise up in 
great indignation & distemper, and vowed y* he would 
either curb him, or send him home for England. At 
which M r . Weston was something danted, and came 


privatly to y e Gov r hear, to know whether they would 
suffer Captaine Gorges to apprehend him. He was 
tould they could not hinder him, but much blamed 
him, y* after they had pacified things, he should thus 
breake out, by his owne folly & rashnes, to bring 
trouble upon him selfe & them too. He confest it 
was his passion, and prayd y e Gov r to entreat for him, 
and pacific him if he could. The which at last he 
did, with much adoe ; so he was called againe, and y e 
Gov r was contente to take his owne bond to be ready 
to make further answer, when either he or y e lords 
should send for him. And at last he tooke only his 
word, and ther was a freidly parting on all hands. 

But after he was gone, M r . Weston in lue of thanks 
to y e Gov r and his freinds hear, gave them this quib 
(behind their baks) for all their pains. That though 
they were but yonge justices, yet they wear good 
beggers. Thus they parted at this time, and shortly 
after y e Gov 1 ' tooke his leave and went to y e Mas- 
sachusets by land, being very thankfull for his kind 
entertainemente. The ship stayed hear, and fitted her 
selfe to goe for Virginia, having some passengers ther 
to deliver; and with her returned sundrie of those 
from hence which came over on their perticuler, some 
out of discontente and dislike of y e cuntrie ; others by 
reason of a fire that broke out, and burnt y e houses 
they lived in, and all their provisions [106 *] so as 

* In MS. also 146. 

182 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

they were necessitated therunto. This fire was occa- 
sioned by some of y e sea-men that were roystering in 
a house wher it first begane, makeing a great fire in 
very could weather, which broke out of y e chimney 
into y c thatch, and burnte downe 3. or 4. houses, and 
consumed all y e goods & provissions in y m . The 
house in which it begane was right against their store- 
house, which they had much adoe to save, in which 
were their comone store & all their provissions ; y e 
which if it had been lost, y e plantation had been over- 
throwne. But through Gods mercie it was saved by 
y c great dilligence of y e people, & care of y e Gov r & 
some aboute him. Some would have had y e goods 
throwne out ; but if they had, ther would much have 
been stolne by the rude company y* belonged to these 
2. ships, which were allmost all ashore. But a trusty 
company was plased within, as well as those that with 
wet-cloaths & other means kept of y e fire without, 
that if necessitie required they might have them out 
with all speed. For y ey suspected some malicious 
dealling, if not plaine treacherie, and whether it was 
only suspition or no, God knows; but this is certaine, 
that when y e tumulte was greatest, ther was a voyce 
heard (but from whom it was not knowne) that bid 
them looke well aboute them, for all were not freinds 
y* were near them. And shortly after, when the 
vemencie of y e fire was over, smoke was seen to arise 
within a shed y* was joynd to y e end of y e store- 


house, which was watled up with bowes, in y e withered 
leaves wherof y e fire was kindled, which some, runing 
to quench, found a longe firebrand of an ell longe, 
lying under y e wale on y e inside, which could not 
possibly come their by cassualtie, but must be laid 
ther by some hand, in y e judgrnente of all that saw 
it. But God kept them from this deanger, what ever 
was intended. 

Shortly after Captaine Gorges, y e generall Gov r , was 
come home to y e Massachusets, he sends a warrante 
to arrest M r . Weston & his ship, and sends a m r . to 
bring her away thither, and one Captain Hanson (that 
belonged to him) to conducte him along. The Gov r 
& others hear were very sory to see him take this 
course, and tooke exception at y e warrante, as not 
legall nor sumciente ; and withall write to him to dis- 
swade him from this course, shewing him y 1 he would 
but entangle and burthen him selfe in doing this ; for 
he could not doe M r . Weston a better turne, (as things 
stood with him) ; for he had a great many men that 
belonged to him in this barke, and was deeply ingaged 
to them for wages, and was in a maner out of victails 
(and now winter) ; all which would light upon him, if 
he did arrest his barke. In y e mean time M r . Weston 
had notice to shift for him selfe ; but it was conceived 
he either knew not whither to goe, or how to mend 
him selfe, but was rather glad of y e occasion, and so 
stirred not. But y e Gov 1 ' would not be pers waded, but 


[107] sent a very formall warrente under his hand & 
seall, with strict charge as they would answere it to 
y e state ; he also write that he had better considered 
of things since he was hear, and he could not answer 
it to let him goe so ; besids other things that were 
come to his knowledg since, which he must answer too. 
So he was suffered to proceede, but he found in the 
end that to be true that was tould him ; for when an 
inventorie was taken of what was in y e ship, ther was 
not vitailes found for above 14. days, at a pare allow- 
ance, and not much else of any great worth, & the 
men did so crie out of him for wages and diate, in y e 
mean time, as made him soone weary. So as in con- 
clusion it turned to his loss, and y e expence of his 
owne provissions ; and towards the spring they came to 
agreement, (after they had bene to y e eastward,) and 
y e Gov r restord him his vessell againe, and made him 
satisfaction, in bisket, meal, and such like provissions, 
for what he had made use of that was his, or what 
his men had any way wasted or consumed. So M r . 
WestoD came hither againe, and afterward shaped his 
course for Virginie, & so for present I shall leave 

The Gov r and some y* depended upon him returned 
for England, haveing scarcly saluted y e cuntrie in his 
Govermente, not finding the state of things hear to 

* He dyed afterwards at Bristoll, in y e time of the warrs, of y e sicknes 
in y 1 place. 


answer his quallitie & condition. The peopl dispersed 
them selves, some went for England, others for Vir- 
ginia, some few remained, and were helped with sup- 
plies from hence. The Gov r brought over a minister 
with him, one M r . Morell, who, about a year after y e 
Gov r returned, tooke shipping from hence. He had I 
know not what power and authority of superintendancie 
over other churches granted him, and sundrie instruc- 
tions for that end ; but he never shewed it, or made any 
use of it; (it should seeme he saw it was in vaine ;) 
he only speake of it to some hear at his going away. 
This was in effect y e end of a 2. plantation in that 
place. Ther were allso this year some scatering be- 
ginings made in other places, as at Paskataway, 
by M r . David Thomson, at Monhigen, and some other 
places by sundrie others. 

It rests now y 1 I speake a word aboute y e pinass 
spoken of before, which was sent by y e adventurers to 
be imployed in y e cuntrie. She was a fine vessel!, and 
bravely set out,* and I fear y e adventurers did over 
pride them selves in her, for she had ill success. How 
ever, they erred grosly in tow things aboute her ; first, 
though she had a sufficiente maister, yet she was rudly 
maned, and all her men were upon shars, and none was 
to have any wages but y e m r . 2 ly , wheras they mainly 
lookt at trade, they had sent nothing of any value to 
trade with. When the men came hear, and mette with 

* With her flages, & streamers, pendents, & wastcloaths, &c. 


ill counsell from M r . Weston & his crue, with others 
of y e same stampe, neither m r . nor Gov r could scarce 
rule [108] them, for they exclaimed that they were 
abused & deceived, for they were tould they should 
goe for a man of warr, and take I know not whom, 
French & Spaniards, &c. They would neither trade 
nor fish, excepte they had wages ; in fine, they would 
obey no comand of y e maisters ; so it was appre- 
hended they would either rune away with y e vessell, or 
get away w th y e ships, and leave her ; so as M r . Peirce 
& others of their freinds perswaded the Grov r to chaing 
their condition, and give them wages ; which was ac- 
cordingly done. And she was sente about y e Cape to 
y e Narigansets to trade, but they made but a poore 
vioage of it. Some corne and beaver they got, but y e 
Dutch used to furnish them with cloath & better comod- 
ities, they haveing only a few beads & knives, which 
were not ther much esteemed. Allso, in her returne 
home, at y e very entrance into ther owne harbore, she 
had like to have been cast away in a storme, and was 
forced to cut her maine mast by y e bord, to save her- 
selfe from driving on y e flats that lye without, caled 
Browns Hands, the force of y e wind being so great as 
made her anchors give way and she drive right upon 
them ; but her mast & takling being gone, they held 
her till y e wind shifted. 


Anno Dom: 1624. 

THE time of new election of ther officers for this 
year being come, and* y e number of their people in- 
creased, and their troubls and occasions therwith, the 
Gov r desired them to chainge y e persons, as well as 
renew y e election ; and also to adde more Assistans 
to y e Gov r for help & counsell, and y e better carrying 
on of affairs. Showing that it was necessarie it should 
be so. If it was any honour or benefite, it was fitte 
others should be made pertakers of it ; if it was a 
burthen, (as doubtles it was,) it was but equall others 
should help to bear it; and y* this was y e end of 
Anuall Elections. The issue was, that as before ther 
was but one Assistante, they now chose 5. giving the 
Gov r a duble voyce ; and aftwards they increased them 
to 7. which course hath continued to this day. 

They having with some truble & charge new-masted 
and rigged their pinass, in y e begining of March they 
sent her well vitaled to the eastward on fishing. She 
arrived safly at a place near Damarins cove, and was 
there well harbored in a place wher ships used to 
ride, ther being also some ships allready arived out 
of England. But shortly after ther [109] arose such 
a violent & extraordinarie storme, as y e seas broak 
over such places in y e harbor as was never seene be- 
fore, and drive her against great roks, which beat such 

* And is repeated in the MS. 

188 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

a hole in her bulke, as a horse and carte might have 
gone in, and after drive her into deep-water, wher she 
lay sunke. The m 1 . was drowned, the rest of y e men, 
all save one, saved their lives, with much a doe ; all 
her provision, salt, and what els was in her, was lost. 
And here I must leave her to lye till afterward. 

Some of those that still remained hear on their per- 
ticuler, begane privatly to nurish a faction, and being 
privie to a strong faction that was among y e adventur- 
ers in England, on whom sundry of them did depend, 
by their private whispering : they drew some of the 
weaker sorte of y c company to their side, and so filld 
them with discontente, as nothing would satisfie them 
excepte they might be suffered to be in their perticuler 
allso ; and made great offers, so they might be freed 
from y e generall. The Gov r consulting with y e ablest 
of y e generall body what was best to be done hear 
in, it was resolved to permitte them so to doe, upon 
equall conditions. The conditions were the same in 
effect with y e former before related. Only some more 
added, as that they should be bound here to remaine 
till y e generall partnership was ended. And also that 
they should pay into y e store, y e on halfe of all such 
goods and comodities as they should any waise raise 
above their food, in consideration of what charg had 
been layed out for them, with some such like things. 
This liberty granted, soone stopt this gape, for ther 
was but a few that undertooke this course when it 


came too ; and they were as sone weary of it. For 
the other had pers waded them, & M r . Weston to- 
geather, that ther would never come more supply to 
y e generall body ; but y e perticulers had such freinds 
as would carry all, and doe for them I know not 

Shortly after, M r . Winslow came over, and brought 
a prety good supply, and the ship came on fishing, a 
thing fatall to this plantation. He brought 3. heifers 
& a bull, the first begining of any catle of that kind 
in y e land, with some cloathing & other necessaries, as 
will further appear; but withall y e reporte of a strong 
faction amongst the adventurers * against them, and 
espetially against y e coming of y e rest from Ley den, 
and with what difficulty this supply was procured, and 
how, by their strong & long opposision, bussines was 
so retarded as not only they were now falne too late 
for y e fishing season, but the best men were taken up 
of y e fishermen in y e west countrie, and he was forct 
to take such a m r . & company for that imployment as 
he could procure upon y e present. Some letters from 
them shall beter declare these things, being as fol- 

[110] Most worthy & loving freinds, your kind & loving 
leters I have received, and render you many thanks, &c. It 
hath plased God to stirre up y e harts of our adventurers * 

* Adventures in the manuscript. 


to raise a new stock for y e seting forth of this shipe, caled 
y e Charitie, with men & necessaries, both for y e plantation 
and y e fishing, though accomplished with very great diffi- 
culty ; in regard we have some amongst us which undoubt- 
edly aime more at their owne private ends, and y e thwarting 
& opposing of some hear, and other worthy instruments,* of 
Grods glory elswher, then at y e generall good and further- 
ance of this noble & laudable action. Yet againe we have 
many other, and I hope y c greatest parte, very honest Chris- 
tian men, which I am perswaded their ends and intents are 
wholy for y e glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, in y e propaga- 
tion of his gospell, and hope of gaining those poore salvages 
to y e knowledg of God. But, as we have a proverbe, One 
seabed sheep may marr a whole flock, so these malecontented 
persons, & turbulente spirits, doe what in them lyeth to 
withdraw mens harts from you and your freinds, yea, even 
from y e generall bussines ; and yet under show and pretence 
of godlynes and furtherance of y e plantation. Wheras the 
quite contrary doth plainly appeare ; as some of y e honester 
harted men (though of late of their faction) did make manifest 
at our late meeting. But what should I trouble you or my 
selfe with these restles opposers of all goodnes, and I doubte 
will be continuall disturbers of our frendly meetings & love. 
On Thurs-day y e 8. of Jan : we had a meeting aboute the 
artickls betweene you & us ; wher they would rejecte that, 
which we in our late leters prest you to grante, (an addition 
to y e time of our joynt stock). And their reason which 
they would make known to us was, it trobled their con- 
science to exacte longer time of you then was agreed upon 
at y e first. But that night they were so followed and crost 
of their perverse courses, as they were even wearied, and 
offered to sell their adventurs ; and some were willing to buy. 
But I, doubting they would raise more scandale and false 

* He means M r . Robinson. 


reports, aud so diverse waise doe us more hurt, by going of 
in such a furie, then they could or can by continuing adven- 
turers amongst us, would not suffer them. But on y e 12. of 
Jan : we had another meting, but in the interime diverse of 
us had talked with most of them privatly, and had great 
combats & reasoning, pro & con. But at night when we 
mete to read y e generall letter, we had y e loveingest and 
frendlyest meeting that ever I knew * and our greatest ene- 
mise offered to lend us 50n. So I sent for a potle of wine, 
(I would you could f doe y e like,) which we dranke freindly 
together. Thus God can turne y e harts of men when it 
pleaseth him, &c. Thus loving freinds, I hartily salute you 
all in y e Lord, hoping ever to rest, 

Yours to my power, 
Jan: 25. 1623. JAMES SHERLET. 

[Ill] Another leter. 

Beloved S r ., &c. We have now sent you, we hope, men 
& means, to setle these 3. things, viz. fishing, salt making, 
and boat making ; if you can bring them to pass to some 
perfection, your wants may be supplyed. I pray you bend 
you selfe what you can to setle these bussinesses. Let y e 
ship be fraught away as soone as you can, and sent to Bil- 
bow. You must send some discreete man for factore, whom, 
once more, you must also authorise to confirme y e conditions. 
If M r . Winslow could be spared, I could wish he came 

* But this lasted not long, they had now provided Lyford & others to send 

f It is worthy to be observed, how y e Lord doth chaing times & things; 
for what is now more plentifull then wine ? and that of y e best, coming from 
Malago, y e Cannaries, and other places, sundry ships lading in a year. So 
as ther is now more cause to complaine of y e excess and y abuse of wine 
(through mens corruption) even to drunkennes, then of any defecte or wante 
of y e same. Witnes this year 1646. The good Lord lay not y e sins & un- 
thankfullnes of men to their charge in this perticuler. 

192 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

againe. This ship carpenter is thought to be the fittest man 
for you in the laud, and will no doubte doe you much good. 
Let him have an absolute comand over his servants & 
such as you put to him. Let him build you 2. catches, a 
lighter, and some 6. or 7. shalops, as soone as you can. 
The salt-man is a skillfull & industrious man, put some to 
him, that may quickly apprehende y e misterie of it. The 
preacher we have sent is (we hope) an honest plaine man, 
though none of y e most eminente and rare. Aboute chusing 
him into office use your owne liberty & discretion ; he knows 
he is no officer amongst you, though perhaps custome & 
universalitie may make him forget him selfe. M r . Winslow 
& my selfe gave way to his going, to give contente to some 
hear, and we see no hurt in it, but only his great charge of 

We have tooke a patente for Cap Anne, &c. I am sory 
ther is no more discretion used by some in their leters 
hither.* Some say you are starved in body & soule ; others, 
y 4 you eate piggs & doggs, that dye alone; others, that y e 
things hear spoaken of, y e goodnes of y e cuntry, are gross 
and palpable lyes ; that ther is scarce a foule to be seene, 
or a fish to be taken, and many such like. I would such 
discontented men were hear againe, for it is a miserie when 
y e whole state of a plantation shall be thus exposed to y e 
passionate humors of some discontented men. And for my 
selfe I shall hinder for hearafter some y* would goe, and 
have not better composed their affections ; mean space it is 
all our crosses, and we must bear them. 

I am sorie we have not sent you more and other things, 
but in truth we have rune into so much charge, to victaile 
y e ship, provide salte & other fishing implements, &c. as we 
could not provid other comfortable things, as buter, suger, 
&c. I hope the returne of this ship, and the James, will 

* This was John Oldome & his like. 


put us in cash againe. The Lord make you full of courage 
in this troublesome bussines, which now must be stuck unto, 
till God give us rest from our labours. Fare well in all 
harty affection. 

Your assured freind, 
Jan: 24. 1623. R. C. 

With y e former letter write by M r . Sherley, 'there 
were sente sundrie objections concerning which he thus 
writeth. " These are the cheefe objections which they 
[112] that are now returned make against you and 
the countrie. I pray you consider them, and answer 
them by the first conveniencie." These objections were 
made by some of those that came over on their pertic- 
uler and were returned home, as is before mentioned, 
and were of y e same suite with those y* this other 
letter mentions. 

I shall here set them downe, with y e answers then 
made unto them, and sent over at y e returne of this 
ship ; which did so confound y e objecters, as some 
confessed their falte, and others deneyed what they 
had said, and eate their words, & some others of them 
have since come over againe and heere lived to con- 
vince them selves sufficiently, both in their owne & 
other mens judgments. 

1. obj. was diversitie aboute Keligion. Ans : We 
know no such matter, for here was never any con- 
troversie or opposition, either publicke or private, (to 
our knowledg,) since we came. 

194 HISTORY or [BOOK u. 

2. ob : Neglecte of familie duties, one y e Lords day. 
Ans. We allow no such thing, but blame it in our 

selves & others ; and they that thus reporte it, should 
have shewed their Christian love the more if they had 
in love tould y e offenders of it, rather then thus to 
reproach them behind their baks. But (to say no 
more) we wish them selves had given better example. 

3. ob : Wante of both the sacrements. 

Ans. The more is our greefe, that our pastor is 
kept from us, by whom we might injoye them; for 
we used to have the Lords Supper every Saboth, and 
baptisme as often as ther was occasion of children to 

4. ob : Children not catechised nor taught to read. 
Ans : Neither is true ; for diverse take pains with 

their owne as they can ; indeede, we have no comone 
schoole for want of a fitt person, or hithertoo means 
to maintaine one ; though we desire now to begine. 

5. ob : Many of y e perticuler members of y e planta- 
tion will not work for y e generall. 

Ans : This allso is not wholy true ; for though some 
doe it not willingly, & other not honestly, yet all doe 
it ; and he that doth worst gets his owne foode & 
something besids. But we will not excuse them, but 
labour to reforme them y e best we cane, or else to 
quitte y e plantation of them. 

6. ob : The water is not wholsome. 

Ans : If they mean, not so wholsome as y e good 


beere and wine in London, (which they so dearly 
love,) we will not dispute with them; but els, for 
water, it is as good as any in y e world, (for ought 
we knowe,) and it is wholsome enough to us that can 
be contente therwith. 

7. ob: The ground is barren and doth bear no 
grasse . 

[113] Ans : It is hear (as in all places) some better 
& some worse ; and if they well consider their words, 
in England they shall not find such grasse in them, as 
in their feelds & meadows. The catle find grasse, for 
they are as fatt as need be ; we wish we had but one 
for every hundred that hear is grase to keep. Indeed, 
this objection, as some other, are ridiculous to all here 
which see and know y e contrary. 

8. ob : The fish will not take salt to keepe sweete. 
Ans : This is as true as that which was written, 

that ther is scarce a foule to be seene or a fish to 
be taken. Things likly to be true in a cuntrie wher 
so many sayle of ships come yearly a fishing ; they 
might as well say, there can no aile or beere in Lon- 
don be kept from sowering. 

9. ob : Many of them are theevish and steale on 
from an other. 

Ans : Would London had been free from that crime, 
then we should not have been trobled with these here ; 
it is well knowne sundrie have smarted well for it, 
and so are y e rest like to doe, if they be taken. 


10. ob : The countrie is anoyed with foxes and 

Ans : So are many other good cuntries too ; but 
poyson, traps, and other such means will help to 
destroy them. 

11. ob : The Dutch are planted nere Hudsons Bay, 
and are likely to overthrow the trade. 

Ans : They will come and plante in these parts, 
also, if we and others doe not, but goe home and 
leave it to them. We rather commend them, then 
condemne them for it. 

12. ob : The people are much anoyed with mus- 

Ans : They are too delicate and unfitte to begine 
new-plantations and collonies, that cannot enduer the 
biting of a muskeeto ; we would wish such to keepe 
at home till at least they be muskeeto proofe. Yet 
this place is as free as any, and experience teacheth 
that y e more y e land is tild, and y e woods cut downe, 
the fewer ther will be, and in the end scarse any 
at all. 

Having thus dispatcht these things, that I may 
handle things togeather, I shall here inserte 2. other 
letters from M r . Robinson their pastor ; the one to y e 
Gov r , y e other to M r . Brewster their Elder, which will 
give much light to y e former things, and express the 
tender love & care of a true pastor over them. 


His leter to y e Gov r . 

My loving & much beloved freind, whom God hath 
hithertoo preserved, preserve and keepe you still to his 
glorie, and y e good of many ; that his blessing may make 
your godly and wise endeavours answerable to y e valuation 
which they ther have, & set upon y e same. Of your love 
too and care for us here, we never doubted ; so are we glad 
to take knowledg of it in that fullnes we doe. Our love & 
care to and for you, is mutuall, though our hopes of com- 
ing [114] unto you be small, and weaker then ever. But 
of this at large in M r . Brewsters letter, with whom you, and 
he with you, mutualy, I know, comunicate your letters, as 
I desire you may doe these, &c. 

Concerning y e killing of those poor Indeans, of which we 
heard at first by reporte, and since by more certaine rela- 
tion, oh! how happy a thing had it been, if you had con- 
verted some, before you had killed any ; besids, wher bloud 
is one begune to be shed, it is seldom e stanched of a long 
time after. You will say they deserved it. I grant it ; but 
upon what provocations and invitments by those heathenish 
Christians?* Besids, you, being no magistrats over them, 
were to consider, not what they deserved, but what you 
were by necessitie constrained to inflicte. Necessitie of this, 
espetially of killing so many, (and many more, it seems, 
they would, if they could,) I see not. Methinks on or tow 
principals should have been full enough, according to that 
approved rule, The punishmente to a few, and y e fear to 
many. Upon this occasion let me be bould to exhorte you 
seriouly to consider of y e dispossition of your Captaine, whom 
I love, and am perswaded y e Lord in great merci'e and for 
much good hath sent you him, if you use him aright. He 
is a man humble and meek amongst you, and towards all 

* M r . "Westerns men. 


in ordinarie course. But now if this be meerly from an 
humane spirite, ther is cause to fear that by occasion, 
espetially of provocation, ther may be wanting y* tendernes 
of y e life of man (made after Gods image) which is meete. 
It is also a thing more glorious in mens eyes, then pleas- 
ing in Gods, or conveniente for Christians, to be a terrour 
to poore barbarous people ; and indeed I am afraid least, by 
these occasions, others should be drawne to affecte a kind of 
rufling course in the world. I doubt not but you will take 
in good part these things which I write, and as ther is 
cause make use of them. It were to us more comfortable 
and convenient, that we comunicated our mutuall helps in 
presence, but seeing that canot be done, we shall always 
long after you, and love you, and waite Gods apoynted 
time. The adventurers it seems have neither money nor 
any great mind of us, for y e most parte. They deney it to 
be any part of y e covenants betwixte us, that they should 
trasporte us, neither doe I looke for any further help from 
them, till means come from you. We hear are strangers in 
effecte' to y e whole course, and so both we and you (save as 
your owne wisdoms and worths have intressed you further) 
of principals intended in this bussines, are scarce accessa- 
ries, &c. My wife, with me, resalute you & yours. Unto 
him who is y e same to his in all places, and nere to them 
which are farr from one an other, I comend you and all 
with you, resting, 

Yours truly loving, 

Leyden, Des: 19. 1623. 

His to M r . Brewster. 

Loving and dear freind and brother: That which I most 
desired of God in regard of you, namly, y e continuance of 
your life and health, and the safe coming of these sent unto 


you, that I most gladly hear of, and praise God for the 
same. And I hope M rs . Brewsters weake and decayed state 
of body will have some reparing by the coming of her 
daughters, and the provissions in this and former ships, I 
hear is made for you ; which maks us with more patience 
bear our languishing state, and y e deferring of our desired 
trasportation ; w ch I call desired, rather than hoped for, 
whatsoever you are borne in hand by any others. For first, 
ther is no hope at all, that I know, or can conceive of, of 
any new stock to be raised for that end ; so that all must 
depend [115] upon returns from you, in which are so many 
uncertainties, as that nothing with any certaintie can thence 
be concluded. Besids, howsoever for y e presente the adven- 
turers aledg nothing but want of money, which is an in- 
vincible difculty, yet if that be taken away by you, others 
without doubte will be found. For the beter clearing of this, 
we must dispose y e adventurers into 3. parts; and of them 
some 5. or 6. (as I conceive) are absolutly bent for us, 
above any others. Other 5. or 6. are our bitter professed 
adversaries. The rest, being the body, I conceive to be 
honestly minded, & loveingly also towards us ; yet such as 
have others (namly y e forward preachers) nerer unto them, 
then us, and whose course so farr as ther is any cliff erance, 
they would rather advance then ours. Now what a hanck 
these men have over y e professors, you know. And I per- 
swade my selfe, that for me, they of all others are unwilling 
I should be transported, espetially such of them as have an 
eye that way them selves ; as thinking if I come ther, ther 
market will be mard in many regards. And for these ad- 
versaries, if they have but halfe y e witte to their malice, they 
will stope my course when they see it intended, for which 
this delaying serveth them very opportunly. And as one 
restie jade can hinder, by hanging back, more then two or 
3. can (or will at least, if they be not very free) draw for- 


ward, so will it be in this case. A notable * experimente of 
this, they gave in your messengers presence, constraining y e 
company to promise that none of the money now gathered 
should be expended or imployed to y e help of any of us 
towards you. Now touching y e question propounded by you, 
I judg it not lawfull for you, being a ruling Elder, as Rom. 
12. 7. 8. & 1. Tim. 5. 17. opposed to the Elders that teach 
& exhorte and labore in y e word and doctrine, to which y c 
sacrements are anexed, to administer them, nor convenient 
if it were lawfull. Whether any larned man will come unto 
you or not, I know not; if any doe, you must Consiliu 
capere in arena. Be you most hartily saluted, & you r wife 
with you, both from me & mine. Your God & ours, and 
y e God of all his, bring us together if it be his will, and keep 
us in the mean while, and all ways to his glory, and make us 
servisable to his majestic, and faithfull to the end. Amen. 

Your very loving brother, 

Leyden, Des : 20. 1623. 

These things premised, I shall now prosecute y e pro- 
cedings and afairs here. And before I come to other 
things I must speak a word of their planting this 
year; they having found y e benifite of their last 
years harvest, and setting corne for their particuler, 
having therby with a great deale of patience over- 
come -hunger & famine. Which maks me remember 
a saing of Senecas, JEJpis: 123. That a great parte of 
libertie is a well governed belly, and to be patiente in all 
wants. They begane now highly to prise corne as 

Notabe in MS. 


more pretious then silver, and those that had some to 
spare begane to trade one with another for smale 
things, by y e quarte, potle, & peck, &c. ; for money 
they had none, and if any had, corne was prefered 
before it. That they might therfore encrease their 
tillage to better advantage, they made suite [116] to 
the Gov r to have some portion of land given them 
for continuance, and not by yearly lotte, for by that 
means, that which y e more industrious had brought 
into good culture (by much pains) one year, came to 
leave it y e nexte, and often another might injoye it; 
so as the dressing of their lands were the more 
sleighted over, & to lese profite. Which being well 
considered, their request was granted. And to every 
person was given only one acrre of land, to them & 
theirs, as nere y e towne as might be, and they had no 
more till y e 7. years were expired. The reason was, 
that they might be kept close together both for more 
saftie and defence, and y e better improvement of y e 
generall imployments. Which condition of theirs did 
make me often thinke, of what I had read in Plinie * 
of y e Romans first beginings in Romulus time. How 
every man contented him selfe with 2. Acres of land, 
and had no more assigned them. And chap. 3. It 
was thought a great reward, to receive at y e hands of 
y e people of Rome a pinte of corne. And long after, 
the greatest presente given* to a Captaine y* had gotte a 

* Plin : lib : 18. chap. 2. 

202 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

victory over their enemise, was as much ground as 
they could till in one day. And he was not counted 
a good, but a dangerous man, that would not contente 
him selfe with 7. Acres of land. As also how they 
did pound their corne in morters, as these people were 
forcte to doe many years before they could get a 

The ship which brought this supply, was speedily 
discharged, and with her m r . & company sente to 
Cap- Anne (of which place they had gott a patente, as 
before is shewed) on fishing, and because y e season was 
so farr spente some of y e planters were sent to help 
to build their stage, to their owne hinderance. But 
partly by y e latenes of y e year, and more espetialy by 
y e basnes of y e m r ., one Baker, they made a poore 
viage of it. He proved a very drunken beast, and 
did nothing (in a maner) but drink, & gusle, and 
consume away y e time & his victails ; and most of 
his company followed his example ; and though M r . 
William Peirce was to over see the busines, & to 
be m r . of y e ship home, yet he could doe no good 
amongst them, so as y e loss was great, and would 
have bene more to them, but that they kept one a 
trading ther, which in those times got some store of 
skins, which was some help unto them. 

The ship-carpenter that was sent them, was an 
honest and very industrious - man, and followed his 
labour very dilligently, and made all that were im- 


ployed with him doe y e like; he quickly builte them 
2. very good & strong shalops (which after did them 
greate service), and a great and strong lighter, and 
had hewne timber for 2. catches; but that was lost, 
for he fell into a feaver in y e hote season of y e year, 
and though he had the best means y e place could aforde, 
yet he dyed; of whom they had a very [117] great 
loss, and were very sorie for his death. But he whom 
they sent to make salte was an ignorante, foolish, self- 
willd fellow ; he bore them in hand he could doe great 
matters in making salt-works, so he was sente to seeke 
out fitte ground for his purpose ; and after some serch 
he tould y e Gov r that he had found a sufficente place, 
with a good botome to hold water, and otherwise very 
conveniente, which he doubted not but in a short time 
to bring to good perfection, and to yeeld them great 
profite ; but he must have 8. or ten men to be con- 
stantly imployed. He was wisht to be sure that y e 
ground was good, and other things answerable, and 
y* he could bring it to perfection ; otherwise he would 
bring upon them a great charge by imploying him 
selfe and so many men. But he was, after some triall, 
so confidente, as he caused them to send carpenters to 
rear a great frame for a large house, to receive y e salte 
& such other uses. But in y e end all proved vaine. 
Then he layed fault of y e ground, in which he was 
deceived; but if he might have the lighter to cary 
clay, he was sure then he could doe it. Now though 


y e Gov r & some other foresaw that this would come to 
litle, yet they had so many malignant spirits amongst 
them, that would have laid it upon them, in their let- 
ters of complainte to y e adventurers, as to be their 
falte y* would not suffer him to goe on to bring his 
work to perfection ; for as he by his bould confidence 
& large promises deceived them in England that sente 
him, so he had wound him selfe in to these mens high 
esteeme hear, so as they were faine to let him goe on 
till all men saw his vanity. For he could not doe any 
thing but boyle salt in pans, & yet would make them 
y* were joynd with him beleeve ther was so grat a 
misterie in it as was not easie to be attained, and 
made them doe many unnecessary things to blind their 
eys, till they discerned his sutltie. The next yere he 
was sente to Cap- Anne, and y e pans were set up ther 
wher the fishing was ; but before somer was out, he 
burte the house, and the fire was so vehemente as it 
spoyld the pans, at least some of them, and this was 
the end of that chargable bussines. 

The 3 d - eminente person (which y e letters before men- 
tion) was y e minister which they sent over, by name 
M r . John Lyford, of whom & whose doing I must be 
more large, though I shall abridg things as much as I 
can. When this man first came a shore, he saluted 
them with that reverence & humilitie as is seldome to 
be seen, and indeed made them ashamed, he so bowed 
and cringed unto them, and would have kissed their 


hands if they would have [118] suffered him ; * yea, 
he wept & shed many tears, blessing God that had 
brought him to see their faces ; and admiring y e things 
they had done in their wants, &c. as if he had been 
made all of love, and y e humblest person in y e world. 
And all y e while (if we may judg by his after cariags) 
he was but like him mentioned in Psa : 10. 10. That 
croucheth & boweth, that heaps of poore may fall by 
his might. Or like to that dissembling Ishmaell,f who, 
when he had slaine Gedelia, went out weeping and 
mette them y* were coming to offer incence in y e house 
of y e Lord ; saing, Come to Gedelia, when he ment to 
slay them. They gave him y e best entertainment y ey 
could, (in all simplisitie,) and a larger alowans of 
food out of y e store then any other had, and as the 
Gov r had used in all waightie affairs to consulte with 
their Elder, M r . Brewster, (togeither with his assist- 
ants,) so now he caled M r . Liford also to counsell with 
them in their waightiest bussineses. Ater some short 
time he desired to joyne himselfe a member to y e 
church hear, and was accordingly received. He made 
a large confession of his faith, and an acknowledge- 
mente of his former disorderly walking, and his being 
intangled with many corruptions, which had been a 
burthen to his conscience, and blessed God for this 
opportunitie of freedom & libertie to injoye y e ordi- 
nances of God in puritie among his people, with many 

* Of w ch were many witneses. t Jer. 41. 6. 

206 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

more such like expressions. I must hear speake a word 
also of M r . John Oldom, who was a copartner with 
him in his after courses. He had bene a cheefe sticler 
in y e former faction among y e perticulers, and an 
intelligencer to those in England. But now, since the 
coming of this ship and he saw y e supply that came, 
he tooke occasion to open his minde to some of y e 
cheefe amongst them heere, and confessed he had done 
them wrong both by word & deed, & writing into 
England; but he now saw the eminente hand of God 
to be with them, and his blesing upon them, which 
made his hart smite him, neither should those in Eng- 
land ever use him as an instrumente any longer against 
them in any thing ; he also desired former things 
might be forgotten, and that they would looke upon 
him as one that desired to close with them in all 
things, with such like expressions. Now whether this 
was in hipocrisie, or out of some sudden pange of 
conviction (which I rather thinke), God only knows. 
Upon it they shew all ready nes to imbrace his love, 
and carry towards him in all frendlynes, and called 
him to counsell with them in all cheefe affairs, as y e 
other, without any distrust at all. 

Thus all things seemed to goe very comfortably and 
smothly on amongst them, at which they did much 
rejoyce ; but this lasted not [119] long, for both Oldom 
and he grew very perverse, and shewed a spirite of 
great malignancie, drawing as many into faction as 


they could; were they never so vile or profane, they 
did nourish & back them in all their doings ; so they 
would but cleave to them and speak against y e church 
hear; so as ther was nothing but private meetings and 
whisperings amongst them; they feeding themselves & 
others with what they should bring to pass in England 
by the faction of their freinds their, which brought 
others as well as them selves into a fools paradise. 
Yet they could not cary so closly but much of both 
their doings & sayings were discovered, yet outwardly 
they still set a faire face of things. 

At lenght when y e ship was ready to goe, it was 
observed Liford was long in writing, & sente many 
letters, and could not forbear to comunicate to his 
intimats such things as made them laugh in their 
sleeves, and thought he had done ther errand suffi- 
ciently. The Gov r and some other of his freinds know- 
ing how things stood in England, and what hurt these 
things might doe, tooke a shalop and wente out with 
the ship a league or 2. to sea, and caled for all Lifords 
& Oldums letters. M r . William Peirce being m r . of 
y e ship, (and knew well their evill dealing both in 
England & here,) afforded him all y e assistance he 
could. He found above 20. of Ly fords letters, many 
of them larg, and full of slanders, & false accusations, 
tending not only to their prejudice, but to their ruine 
& utter subversion. Most of the letters they let pas, 
only tooke copys of them, but some of y e most materiall 


they sent true copyes of them, and kept y e originalls, 
least he should deney them, and that they might 
produce his owne hand against him. Amongst his let- 
ters they found y e coppyes of tow letters which he 
sent inclosed in a leter of his to M r . John Pember- 
ton, a minster, and a great opposite of theirs. These 
2. letters of which he tooke the coppyes were one of 
them write by a gentle-man in England to M r . Brewster 
here, the other by M r . Winslow to M r . Robinson, in 
Holand, at his coming away, as y e ship lay at Gravs- 
end. They lying sealed in y e great cabin, (whilst 
M r . Winslow was bussie aboute the affairs of y e ship,) 
this slye marchante taks & opens them, taks these 
coppys, & seals them up againe ; and not only sends 
the coppyes of them thus to his friend and their adver- 
sarie, but adds thertoo in y 6 margente many scurrilous 
and flouting anotations. This ship went out towards 
eving, and in the night y e Gov r retured. They were 
somwaht blanke at it, but after some weeks, when 
they heard nothing, they then were as briske as ever, 
thinking nothing had been knowne, but all was gone 
currente, and that the Gov r went but to dispatch his 
owne letters. The reason why the Gov r & rest con- 
cealed these things the longer, was to let things ripen, 
that they [120] might y e better discover their intents 
and see who were their adherents. And y e rather 
because amongst y rest they found a letter of one of 
their confederats, in w ch was writen that M r . Oldame 


& M r . Lyford intended a reformation in church and 
commone wealth ; and, as soone as the ship was gone, 
they intended to joyne togeather, and have the sacre- 
ments, &c. 

For Oldame, few of his leters were found, (for he 
was so bad a scribe as his hand was scarce legible,) 
yet he was as deepe in y e mischeefe as the other. And 
thinking they were now strong enough, they begane 
to pick quarells at every thing. Oldame being called 
to watch (according to order) refused to come, fell 
out with y e Capten, caled him raskell, and beggerly 
raskell, and resisted him, drew his knife at him ; 
though he offered him no wrong, nor gave him no ille 
termes, but with all fairnes required him to doe his 
duty. The Gov r , hearing y e tumulte, sent to quiet it, 
but he ramped more like a furious beast then a man, 
and cald them all treatours, and rebells, and other 
such foule language as I am ashamed to remember; 
but after he was clapt up a while, he came to him 
selfe, and with some slight punishmente was let goe 
upon his behaviour for further censure. 

But to cutt things shorte, at length it grew to this 
esseue, that Lyford with his complicies, without ever 
speaking one word either to y e Gov r , Church, or Elder, 
withdrewe them selves & set up a publick meeting 
aparte, on y e Lord's day ; with sundry such insolente 
cariages, too long here to relate, begining now pub- 
likly to acte what privatly they had been long plotting. 


It was now thought high time (to prevent further 
mischeefe) to calle them to accounte ; so y e Gov r 
called a courte and sumoned the whol company to 
appeare. And then charged Lyford & Oldom with 
such things as they were guilty of. But they were 
stiffe, & stood resolutly upon y e deneyall of most 
things, and required proofe. They first alledged what 
was write to them out of England, compared with 
their doings & pactises hear; that it was evident they 
joyned in plotting against them, and disturbing their 
peace, both in respecte of their civill & church state, 
which was most injurious ; for both they and all y e 
world knew they came hither to injoye y e libertie of 
their conscience and y e free use of Gods ordinances ; 
and for y t end had ventured their lives and passed 
throwgh so much hardshipe hithertoo, and they and 
their freinds had borne the charg of these beginings, 
which was not small. And that Lyford for his parte 
was sent over on this charge, and that both he and 
his great family was maintained on y e same, and also 
was joyned to y e church, & a member of them ; and 
for him to plote against them & seek their ruine, 
was most unjust & perfidious. And for [121] Oldam 
or any other that came over at their owne charge, and 
were on ther perticuler, seeing they were received in 
curtesie by the plantation, when they came only to 
seeke shelter & protection under their wings, not being 
able to stand alone, that they, (according to y e fable,) 


like the Hedghogg whom y e conny in a stormy day in 
pittie received into her borrow, would not be content 
to take part with her, but in the end with her sharp 
pricks forst the poore conny to forsake her owne bor- 
row ; so these men with the like injustice indevored to 
doe y e same to thos that entertained them. 

Lyford denyed that he had any thing to doe with 
them in England, or knew of their courses, and made 
other things as strange that he was charged with. 
Then his letters were prodused & some of them read, 
at which he was struck mute. But Oldam begane to 
rage furiously, because they had intercepted and opened 
his letters, threatening them in very high language, 
and in a most audacious and mutinous maner stood up 
& caled upon y e people, saying, My maisters, wher is 
your harts? now shew your courage, you have oft 
complained to me so & so ; now is y e time, if you will 
doe any thing, I will stand by you, <fec. Thinking y* 
every one (knowing his humor) that had soothed and 
nattered him, or other wise in their discontente uttered 
any thing unto him, would now side w th him in open 
rebellion. But he was deceived, for not a man opened 
his mouth, but all were silent, being strucken with the 
injustice of y e thing. Then y e Gov r turned his speech 
to M r . Lyford, and asked him if he thought they had 
done evill to open his letters ; but he was silente, & 
would not say a word, well knowing what they might 
reply. Then y e Gov r shewed the people he did it as 


a magistrate, and was bound to it by his place, to 
prevent y e mischeefe & ruine that this conspiracie and 
plots of theirs would bring on this poor colony. But 
he, besids his evill dealing hear, had delte trecherusly 
with his freinds y 1 trusted him, & stole their letters 
& opened them, and sent coppies of them, with dis- 
gracefull anotations, to his freinds in England. And 
then y e Gov r produced them and his other letters un- 
der his owne hand, (which he could not deney,) and 
caused them to be read before all y e people ; at which 
all his freinds were blanke, and had not a word to say. 

It would be too long & tedious here to inserte his 
letters (which would almost fill a volume), though I 
have them by me. I shall only note a few of y e 
cheefe things collected out of them, with y e answers 
to them as they were then given ; and but a few of 
those many, only for instance, by which the rest may 
be judged of. 

[121*] 1. First, he saith, the church would have 
none to live hear but them selves. 2 ly . Neither are 
any willing so to doe if they had company to live els- 

Ans : Their answer was, that this was false, in both 
y e parts of it ; for they were willing & desirous y* any 
honest men may live with them, that will cary them 
selves peacably, and seek y e comone good, or at least 
doe them no hurte. And againe, ther are many that 

* 121 is repeated in the paging of the original. 


will not live els wher so long as they may live with 

2. That if ther come over any honest men that are 
not of y e seperation, they will quickly distast them, &c. 

A. Ther answer was as before, that it was a false 
callumniation, for they had many amongst them that 
they liked well of, and were glad of their company ; 
and should be of any such like that should come 
amongst them. 

3. That they excepted against him for these 2. doc- 
trins raised from 2. Sam: 12. 7. First, that ministers 
must sume times perticulerly apply their doctrine to 
spetiall persons ; 2 ly , that great men may be reproved 
as well as meaner. 

A. Their answer was, that both these were without 
either truth or colour of y e same (as was proved to 
his face), and that they had taught and beleeved these 
things long before they knew M r . Liford. 

4. That they utterly sought y e ruine of y e perticu- 
lers; as appeareth by this, that they would not suffer 
any of y e generall either to buy or sell with them, or 
to exchaing one comoditie for another. 

Ans : This was a most malicious slander and voyd 
of all truth, as was evidently proved to him before all 
men ; for any of them did both buy, sell, or exchaing 
with them as often as they had any occation. Yea, 
and allso both lend & give to them when they wanted ; 
and this the perticuler persons them selves could not 

214 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

deney, but freely confest in open court. But y e 
ground from whence this arose made it much worse, 
for he was in counsell with them. When one was 
called before them, and questioned for receiving pow- 
der and bisket from y e guner of y e small ship, which 
was y e company s, and had it put in at his window in 
the night, and allso for buying salt of one, that had 
no right to it, he not only stood to back him (being 
one of these perticulers) by excusing & extenuating 
his falte, as long as he could, but upon this builds 
this mischeeous & most false slander : That because 
they would not suffer them to buy stolne goods, ergo, 
they sought their utter ruine. Bad logick for a devine. 

5. Next he writs, that he chocked them with this ; 
that they turned [122] men into their perticuler, and 
then sought to starve them, and deprive them of all 
means of subsistance. 

A. To this was answered, he did them manifest 
wrong, for they turned none into their perticuler ; it 
was their owne importunitie and ernest desire that 
moved them, yea, constrained them to doe it. And 
they apealed to y e persons them selves for y e truth 
hereof. And they testified the same against him be- 
fore all present, as allso that they had no cause to 
complaine of any either hard or unkind usage. 

6. He accuseth them with unjust distribution, and 
writeth, that it was a strang difference, that some have 
bene alowed 16 K . of meale by y e weeke, and others 


but 4 U . And then (floutingly) saith, it seems some 
mens mouths and bellies are very litle & slender over 

Ans : This might seeme strange indeed to those to 
whom he write his leters in England, which knew not 
y e reason of it; but to him and others hear, it could 
not be strange, who knew how things stood. For the 
first comers had none at all, but lived on their corne. 
Those w ch came in y e Anne, y e August before, & were 
to live 13. months of the provissions they brought, 
had as good alowance in meal & pease as it would 
extend too, y e most part of y e year; but a litle be- 
fore harvest, when they had not only fish, but other 
fruits began to come in, they had but 4 a . having 
their libertie to make their owne provisions. But 
some of these which came last, as y e ship carpenter, 
and samiers, the salte-men & others that were to fol- 
low constante imployments, and had not an howers 
time, from their hard labours, to looke for any thing 
above their alowance ; they had at first, 16 U alowed 
them, and afterwards as fish, & other food coued be 
gott, they had as balernente, to 14. &. 12. yea some 
of them to 8. as the times & occasions did vary. And 
yet those which followed planting and their owne 
occasions, and had but 4 ]i . of meall a week, lived better 
then y e other, as was well knowne to all. And yet 
it must be remembered that Lyford & his had allwais 
the highest alowance. 


Many other things (in his letters) he accused them 
of, with many aggravations ; as that he saw exseeding 
great wast of tools & vesseles ; & this, when it came 
to be examened, all y e instance he could give was, that 
he had seen an old hogshed or too fallen to peeces, 
and a broken how or tow lefte carlesly in y e feilds by 
some. Though he also knew that a godly, honest man 
was appointed to looke to these things. But these 
things & such like was write of by him, to cast dis- 
grace & prejudice upon them ; as thinking what came 
from a [123] minister would pass for currente. Then 
he tells them that Winslow should say, that ther 
was not above 7. of y e adventurers y* souight y e 
good of y e collony. That M r . Oldam & him selfe had 
had much to doe with them, and that y e faction here 
might match y e Jesuits for politie. With many y e like 
greevious complaints & accusations. 

1. Then, in the next place, he comes to give his 
freinds counsell and directtion. And first, that y e 
Ley den company (M r . Robinson & y e rest) must still 
be kepte back, or els all will be spoyled. And least 
any of them should be taken in privatly somewher on 
y e coast of England, (as it was feared might be done,) 
they must chaing the m r . of y e ship (M r . William 
Peirce), and put another allso in Winslows stead, for 
marchante, or els it would not be prevented. 

2. Then he would have such a number provided as 
might oversway them hear. And that y e perticulers 


should have voyces in all courts & elections, and be 
free to bear any office. And that every perticuler 
should come over as an adventurer, if he be but a 
servante; some other venturing 10*., y e bill may be 
taken out in y e servants name, and then assigned to 
y e party whose money it was, and good covenants 
drawn betweene them for y e clearing of y e matter ; 
and this (saith he) would be a means to strengthen 
this side y e more. 

3. Then he tells them that if that Capten they 
spoake of should come over hither as a generall, he 
was perswaded he would be chosen Capten; for this 
Captaine Standish looks like a silly boy, and is in 
utter contempte. 

4. Then he shows that if by y e forementioned 
means they cannot be strengthened to cary & over- 
bear things, it will be best for them to plant els 
wher by them selves ; and would have it artickled by 
them that they might make choyse of any place that 
they liked best within 3. or 4; myls distance, shew- 
ing ther were farr better places for plantation then 

5. And lastly he concluds, that if some number 
came not over to bear them up here, then ther would 
be no abiding for them, but by joyning with these 
hear. Then he adds : Since I begane to write, ther 
are letters come from your company, wherin they 
would give sole authoritie in diverce things unto the 


Gov r here ; which, if it take place, then, Ve nobis. 
But I hope you will be more vigilante hereafter, that 
nothing may pass in such a maner. I suppose (saith 
he) M r . Oldame will write to you further of these 
things. I pray you conceall me in the discovery of 
these things, &c. 

Thus I have breefly touched some cheefe things in 
his leters, and shall now returne to their procceeding 
with him. After the reading of his leters before the 
whole company, he was demanded what he could say 
to these things. [124] But all y e answer he made 
was, that Billington and some others had informed him 
of many things, and made sundrie complaints, which 
they now deneyed. He was againe asked if that was 
a sufficiente ground for him thus to accuse & traduse 
them by his letters, and never say word to them, con- 
sidering the many bonds betweene them. And so they 
went on from poynte to poynte ; and wisht him, or 
any of his freinds & confederats, not to spare them in 
any thing; if he or they had any proofs or witnes 
of any corrupte or evill dealing of theirs, his or their 
evidence must needs be ther presente, for ther was 
the whole company and sundery strangers. He said 
he had been abused by others in their informations, (as 
he now well saw,) and so had abused them. And this 
was all the answer they could have, for none would 
take his parte in any thing; but Billington, & any 
whom he named, deneyed the things, and protested he 


wronged them, and would have drawne them to such 
& such things which they could not consente too, 
though they were sometimes drawne to his meetings. 
Then they delte with him aboute his dissembling with 
them aboute y e church, and that he professed to concur 
with them in all things, and what a large confession 
he made at his admittance, and that he held not 
him selfe a minister till he had a new calling, &c. 
And yet now he contested against them, and drew a 
company aparte, & sequestred him selfe ; and would 
goe minister the sacrements (by his Episcopall caling) 
without ever speaking a word unto them, either as 
magistrats or bretheren. In conclusion, he was fully 
convicted, and burst out into tears, and " confest he 
feared he was a reprobate, his sinns were so great 
that he doubted God would not pardon them, he was 
unsavorie salte, &c. ; and that he had so wronged 
them as he could never make them amends, con- 
fessing all he had write against them was false & 
nought, both for matter & maner." And all this 
he did with as much fullnes as words & tears could 

After their triall & conviction, the court censured 
them to be expeld the place ; Oldame presently, though 
his wife & family had liberty to stay all winter, or 
longer, till he could make provission to remove them 
comfortably. Lyford had liberty to stay 6. months. 
It was, indeede, with some eye to his release, if he 


caried him selfe well in the rneane time, and that his 
repentance proved sound. Lyford acknowledged his 
censure was farr less then he deserved. 

Afterwards, he confest his sin publikly in y e church, 
with tears more largly then before. I shall here put 
it downe as I find it recorded by some who tooke it 
from his owne words, as him selfe utered them. Ac- 
knowledging [125] "That he had don very evill, and 
slanderously abused them ; and thinking most of y e 
people would take parte with him, he thought to cary 
all by violence and strong hand against them. And 
that God might justly lay inocente blood to his 
charge, for he knew not what hurt might have come 
of these his writings, and blest God they were stayed. 
And that he spared not to take knowledg from any, 
of any evill that was spoaken, but shut his eyes & 
ears against all the good ; and if God should make 
him a vacabund in y e earth, as was Caine, it was but 
just, for he had sined in envie & malice against his 
brethren as he did. And he confessed 3. things to be 
y e ground & causes of these his doings : pride, vaine- 
glorie, & selfe love." Amplifying these heads with 
many other sade expressions, in the perticulers of 

So as they begane againe to conceive good thoughts 
of him upon this his repentance, and admited him to 
teach amongst them as before ; and Samuell Fuller (a 
deacon amongst them), and some other tender harted 


men amongst them, were so taken with his signes of 
sorrow & repentance, as they professed they would 
fall upon their knees to have his censure released. 

But that which made them all stand amased in the 
end, and may doe all others that shall come to hear 
y e same, (for a rarer president can scarse be showne,) 
was, that after a month or 2. notwithstand all his for- 
mer conffessions, convictions, and publick acknowledg- 
ments, both in y e face of y e church and whole company, 
with so many tears & sadde censures of him selfe be- 
fore God & men, he should goe againe to justifie what 
he had done. 

For secretly he write a 2 d . leter to y e adventurers 
in England, in w ch he justified all his former writings, 
(save in 'some things which tended to their damage,) 
the which, because it is brefer then y e former, I shall 
here inserte. 

Worthy S rs : Though the filth of mine owne doings may 
justly be cast in my face, and with blushing cause my per- 
petuall silence, yet that y e truth may not herby be injuried, 
your selves any longer deluded, nor injurious * dealing caried 
out still, with bould out facings, I have adventured once 
more to write unto you. Firest, I doe freely confess I delte 
very indiscreetly in some of my perticuler leters w ch I wrote 
to private freinds, for y e courses in coming hither & the 
like ; which I doe in no sorte seeke to justifie, though stired 
up ther unto in the beholding y e indirecte courses held by 

* Inurious in MS. 

222 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

others, both hear, & ther with you, for effecting their de- 
signes. But am hartily sory for it, and doe to y e glory 
of God & mine owne shame acknowledg it. Which leters 
being intercepted by the Gov r , I have for y e same under- 
gone y e censure [126] of banishmente. And had it not 
been for y e respecte I have unto you, and some other mat- 
ters of private regard, I had returned againe at this time by 
y e pinass for England ; for hear I purpose not to abide, 
unless I receive better incouragmente from you, then from 
y e church (as they call them selves) here I doe receive. I 
purposed before I came, to undergoe hardnes, therfore I shall 
I hope cherfully bear y e conditions of y e place, though very 
mean ; and they have chainged my wages ten times allready. 
I suppose my letters, or at least y e coppies of them, are 
come to your hands, for so they hear reporte ; which, if it 
be so, I pray you take notice of this, that I have writen 
nothing but what is certainly true, and I could make so 
apeare planly to any indifferente men, whatsoever colours 
be cast to darken y e truth, and some ther are very audatious 
this way ; besids many other matters which are farre out of 
order hear. My mind was not to enlarge my selfe any fur- 
ther, but "in respecte of diverse poore souls here, y e care of 
whom in parte belongs to you, being here destitute of the 
meas of salvation. For how so ever y e church are provided 
for, to their contente, who are y e smalest number in y e coll- 
ony, and doe so appropriate y e ministrie to them selves, 
houlding this principle, that y e Lord hath not appointed any 
ordinary ministrie for y e conversion of those y 4 are without, 
so y l some of y e poor souls have w th tears complained of this 
to me, and I was taxed for preaching to all in generall. 
Though in truth they have had no ministrie here since they 
came, but such as may be performed by any of you, by their 
owne possition, what soever great pretences they make ; but 
herin they equivocate, as in many other things they doe. 


But I exceede y e bounds I set my selfe, therfore resting 
thus, untill I hear further from you, so it be within y e time 
limited me. I rest, &c., 

Remaining yours ever, 

Dated Aug: 22. An : 1624. 

They made a breefe answer to some things in this 
leter, but referred cheefly to their former. The effecte 
was to this purpose : That if God in his providence 
had not brought these things to their hands (both y e 
former & later), they might have been thus abused, 
tradused, and calumniated, overthrowne, & undone; and 
never have knowne by whom, nor for what. They 
desired but this equall favoure, that they would be 
pleased to hear their just defence, as well as his accu- 
sations, and waigh them in y e balance of justice & 
reason, and then censure as they pleased. They had 
write breefly to y e heads of things before, and should 
be ready to give further [127] answer as any occasion 
should require ; craving leave to adde a word or tow 
to this last. 

1. And first, they desire to examene what filth 
that was y* he acknowledgeth might justly be throwne 
in his face, and might cause blushing & perpetuall 
silence ; some great mater sure ! But if it be looked 
into, it amounts to no more then a poynte of indiscre- 
tion, and thats all; and yet he licks of y* too with 
this excuse, that he was stired up therunto by behold- 


ing y e indirecte course here. But this point never 
troubled him here, it was counted a light matter both 
by him & his freinds, and put of with this, that 
any man might doe so, to advise his private freinds 
to come over for their best advantage. All his sor- 
row & tears here was for y e wrong & hurt he had 
done us, and not at all for this he pretends to be done 
to you : it was not counted so much as indiscretion. 
2. Having thus payed you full satisfaction, he 
thinks he may lay load of us here. And first com- 
plains that we have changed his wages ten times. 
We never agreed with him for any wages, nor made 
any bargen at all with him, neither know of any 
that you have made. You sent him over to teach 
amongst us, and desired he might be kindly used ; 
and more then this we know not. That he hath 
beene kindly used, (and farr beter then he deserves 
from us,) he shall be judged first of his owne 
mouth. If you please to looke upon that writing 
of his, that was sent you amongst his leters, which 
he cals a generall relation, in which, though he doth 
otherwise traduse us, yet in this he him selfe clears 
us. In y e latter end therof he hath these words. 
/ speak not this (saith he) out of any ill affection to 
the men, for I have found them very kind & loving 
to me. You may ther see these to be his owne 
words under his owne hand. 2 ly . It will appere by 
this that he hath ever had a larger alowance of food 


out of y e store for him and his then any, and 
clothing as his neede hath required; a dwelling in 
one of our best houses, and a man wholy at his 
owne comand to tend his private affairs. What 
cause he hath therfore to complaine, judge ye ; and 
what he means in his speech we know not, except 
he aluds to y* of Jaacob & Laban. If you have 
promised him more or other wise, you may doe it 
when you please. 

3. Then with an impudente face he would have 
you take notice, . that (in his leters) he hath write 
nothing but what is certainly true, yea, and he could 
make it so appeare plainly to any indifferente men. 
This indeed doth astonish us and causeth us to 
tremble at y e deceitfullnes [128] and desperate wick- 
ednes of mans harte. This is to devoure holy things, 
and after voues to enquire. It is admirable that 
after such publick confession, and acknowledgmente 
in court, in church, before God, & men, with such 
sadd expressions as he used, and with such melting 
into teares, that after all this he shoud now justifie 
all againe. If things had bene done in a corner, it 
had been some thinge to deney them ; but being done 
in y e open view of y e cuntrie & before all men, it is 
more then strange now to avow to make them plainly 
appear to any indifferente men; and here wher things 
were done, and all y e evidence that could be were 
presente, and yet could make nothing appear, but even 


his freinds condemnd him & gave their voyce to his 
censure, so grose were they ; we leave your selves 
to judge herein. Yet least this man should triumph 
in his wikednes, we shall be ready to answer him, 
when, or wher you will, to any thing he shall lay to 
our charg, though we have done it sufficiently allready. 

4. Then he saith he would not inlarge, but for 
some poore souls here who are destiute of y e means 
of salvation, &c. But all his soothing is but that 
you would use means, that his censure might be 
released that he might here continue ; and under 
you (at least) be sheltered, till he sees what his 
freinds (on whom he depends) can bring about & 
efiecte. For such men pretend much for poor souls, 
but they will looke to their wages & conditions ; if 
that be not to their content, let poor souls doe what 
they will, they will shift for them selves, and seek 
poore souls some wher els among richer bodys. 

Next he fals upon y e church, that indeed is y e 
burthensome stone that troubls him. First, he saith 
they hold this principle, that the Lord hath not 
apointed any ordinarie ministrie for y e converssion of 
those without. The church needs not be ashamed of 
what she houlds in this, haveing Gods word for her 
warrente ; that ordinarie officers are bound cheefly to 
their flocks, Acts 20. 28. and are not to be extra va- 
gants, to goe, come, and leave them at their pleasurs 
to shift for them selves, or to be devoured of wolves. 


Bat he perverts y e truth in this as in other things, 
for y e Lord hath as well appoynted them to con- 
verte, as to feede in their severall charges ; and he 
wrongs y e church to say other wise. Againe, he 
saith he was taxed for preaching to all in gen- 
erall. This is a meere untruth, for this dissembler 
knows that every Lords day some are appointed to 
visite suspected places, & if any be found idling and 
neglecte y e hearing of y e word, (through i dines or 
profanes,) they are punished for y e same. Now to 
procure all to come to hear, and then to blame him 
for preaching to all, were to play y e mad men. 

[129] 6. Next (he saith) they have had no min- 
istrie since they came, what soever pretences they 
make, &c. We answer, the more is our wrong, that 
our pastor is kept from us by these mens means, 
and then reproach us for it when they have done. 
Yet have we not been wholy distitute of y e means of 
salvation, as this man would make y e world beleeve ; 
for our reve d Elder hath laboured diligently in dis- 
pencing the word of God unto us, before he came ; 
and since hath taken equalle pains with him selfe 
in preaching the same ; and, be it spoaken without 
ostentation, he is not inferriour to M r . Lyford (& 
some of his betters) either in gifts or laming, 
though he would never be perswaded to take higher 
office upon him. Nor ever was more pretended in 
this matter. For equivocating, he may take it to 


him selfe ; what y e church houlds, they have mani- 
fested to y e world, in all plaines, both in open 
confession, doctrine, & writing. 

This was y c sume of ther answer, and hear I will 
let them rest for y e presente. I have bene longer 
in these things then I desired, and yet not so long 
as the things might require, for I pass many things 
in silence, and many more deserve to have been 
more largly handled. But I will returne to other 
things, and leave y e rest to its place. 

The pinass that was left sunck & cast away near 
Damarins-cove, as is before showed, some of y e fish- 
ing maisters said it was a pity so fine a vessell 
should be lost, and sent them word that, if they 
would be at y e cost, they would both directe them 
how to waygh her, and let them have their car- 
penters to mend her. They thanked them, & sente 
men aboute it, and beaver to defray y e charge, 
(without which all had been in vaine). So they gott 
coopers to trime, I know not how many tune of 
cask, and being made tight and fastened to her at 
low-water, they boyed her up ; and then with many 
hands hald her on shore in a conveniente place wher 
she might be wrought upon ; and then hired sundrie 
carpenters to work upon her, and other to saw 
planks, and at last fitted her & got her home. But 
she cost a great deale of money, in thus recovering 
her, and buying riging & seails for her, both now 


and when before she lost her mast ; so as she proved 
a chargable vessell to y e poor plantation. So they 
sent her home, and with her Lyford sent his last 
letter, in great secrecie ; but y e party intrusted with 
it gave it y e Gov r . 

The winter was passed over in ther ordinarie 
affairs, without any spetiall mater worth noteing; 
saveing that many who before stood something of 
from y e church, now seeing Lyfords unrighteous deal- 
ing, and malignitie against y e church, now tendered 
them selves to y e church, and were joyned to y e 
same ; proffessing that it was not out of y e dislike 
of any thing that they had stood of so long, but a 
desire to fitte them selves beter for such a state, and 
they saw now y e Lord cald for their help. [130] 
And so these troubls prodused a quite contrary effecte 
in sundrie hear, then these adversaries hoped for. 
Which was looked at as a great worke of God, to 
draw on men by unlickly means ; and that in reason 
which might rather have set them further of. And 
thus I shall end this year. 

Anno Dom: 1625. 

AT y e spring of y e year, about y e time of their 
Election Court, Oldam came againe amongst them ; and 
though it was a part of his censure for his former 
mutiny e and miscariage, not to returne without leave 
first obtained, yet in his dareing spirite, he presumed 

230 HISTORY or [BOOK ii. 

without any leave at all, being also set on & hardened 
by y e ill counsell of others. And not only so, but 
suffered his unruly passion to rune beyond y e limits 
of all reason and modestie ; in so much that some 
strangers which came with him were ashamed of his 
outrage, and rebuked him; but all reprofes were but 
as oyle to y e fire, and made y e flame of his coller 
greater. He caled them all to nought, in this his 
mad furie, and a hundred rebells and tray tors, and 
I know not what. But in conclusion they comited 
him till he was tamer, and then apointed a gard of 
musketers w ch he was to pass throw, and ever one 
was ordered to give him a thump on y e brich, with 
y e but end of his musket, and then was conveied to 
y* water side, wher a boat was ready to cary him 
away. Then they bid him goe & mende his maners. 

Whilst this was a doing, M r . William Peirce and 
M r . Winslow came up from y e water side, being come 
from England ; but they were so busie with Oldam, 
as they never saw them till they came thus upon 
them. They bid them not spare either him or Liford, 
for they had played y e vilans with them. But that I 
may hear make an end with him, I shall hear once 
for all relate what befell concerning him in y e future, 
& y* breefly. After y e removall of his familie from 
hence, he fell into some straits, (as some others did,) 
and aboute a year or more afterwards, towards win- 
ter, he intended a vioage for Virginia; but it so 


pleased God that y e barke that caried him, and many 
other passengers, was in that danger, as they dis- 
paired of life ; so as many of them, as they fell to 
prayer, so also did they begine to examine their con- 
sciences [131] and confess such sins as did most 
burthen them. And M r . Ouldame did make a free 
and large confession of y e wrongs and hurt he had 
done to y e people and church here, in many pertic- 
ulers, that as he had sought their ruine, so God had 
now mette with him and might destroy him ; yea, he 
feared they all fared y e worce for his sake ; he prayed 
God to forgive him, and made vowes that, if y e Lord 
spard his life, he would become otherwise, and y e 
like. This I had from some of good credite, yet 
living in y e Bay, and were them selves partners in 
the same dangers on y e shoulds of Cap-Codd, and 
heard it from his owne mouth. It pleased God to 
spare their lives, though they lost their viage ; and 
in time after wards, Ouldam caried him selfe fairly 
towards them, and acknowledged y e hand of God to 
be with them, and seemed to have an honourable 
respecte of them ; and so farr made his peace with 
them, as he in after time had libertie to goe and 
come, and converse with them, at his pleasure. He 
went after this to Virginia, and had ther a great sick- 
nes, but recovered and came back againe to his familie 
in y e Bay, and ther lived till some store of people 
came over. At lenght going a trading in a smale ves- 

232 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

sell among y e Indians, and being weakly mand, upon 
some quarell they knockt him on y e head with a 
hatched, so as he fell downe dead, & never spake 
word more. 2. litle boys that were his kinsmen were 
saved, but had some hurte, and y e vessell was strangly 
recovered from y e Indeans by another that belonged 
to y e Bay of Massachusets ; and this his death was 
one ground of the Pequente warr which followed. 

I am now come to M r . Lyford. His time being 
now expired, his censure was to take place. He was 
so farre from answering their hopes by amendmente 
in y e time, as he had dubled his evill, as is before 
noted. But first behold y e hand of God conceiring 
him, wherin that of y e Psalmist is verified. Psa : 
7. 15. He hath made a pitte, & digged it, and is 
fallen into the pitte he made. He thought to bring 
shame and disgrace upon them, but in stead therof 
opens his owne to all y e world. For when he was 
delte with all aboute his second letter, his wife was 
so affected with his doings, as she could no longer 
conceaill her greefe and sorrow of tninde, but opens 
y e same to one of their deacons & some other of her 
freinds, & after uttered y e same to M r . Peirce upon 
his arrivall. Which was to this purpose, that she 
feared some great judgment of God would fall upon 
them, and upon her, for her husbands cause ; now 
that they were to remove, she feared to fall into y e 
Indeans hands, and to be defiled by them, as he had 


defiled other women ; or some shuch like [132] judg- 
mente, as God had threatened David, 2. Sam. 12. 11. 
I will raise up evill against y% and will take thy 
wives & give them, &c. And upon it showed how 
he had wronged her, as first he had a bastard by 
another before they were maried, & she having some 
inkling of some ill cariage that way, when he was 
a suitor to her, she tould him what she heard, 
& deneyd him ; but she not certainly knowing y e 
thing, other wise then by some darke & secrete mut- 
erings, he not only stifly denied it, but to satisfie 
her tooke a solemne oath ther was no shuch matter. 
Upon which she gave consente, and maried with him ; 
but afterwards it was found true, and y e bastard 
brought home to them. She then charged him with 
his oath, but he prayed pardon, and said he should 
els not have had her. And yet afterwards she could 
keep no maids but he would be medling with them, 
and some time she hath taken him in y e maner, as 
they lay at their beds feete, with shuch other cir- 
cumstances as I am ashamed to relate. The woman 
being a grave matron, & of good cariage all y e while 
she was hear, and spoake these things out of y e sor- 
row of her harte, sparingly, and yet w th some further 
intimations. And that which did most seeme to 
afiecte her (as they conceived) was, to see his for- 
mer cariage in his repentance, not only hear with 
y e church, but formerly about these things ; sheding 

234 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

tears, and using great & sade expressions, and yet 
eftsone fall into the like things. 

Another thing of y e same nature did strangly con- 
curr herewith. When M r . Winslow & M r . Peirce were 
come over, M r . Winslow informed them that they had 
had y e like bickering with Lyfords freinds in England, 
as they had with him selfe and his freinds hear, 
aboute his letters & accusations in them. And many 
meetings and much clamour was made by his freinds 
theraboute, crying out, a minister, a man so godly, to 
be so esteemed & taxed they held a great skandale, 
and threated to prosecute law against them for it. 
But things being referred to a further meeting of most 
of y e adventurers, to heare y e case and decide y e mat- 
ters, they agreed to chose 2. eminente men for mod- 
erators in the bussines. Lyfords faction chose M r . 
White, a counselor at law, the other parte chose Reve d . 
M r . Hooker, y e minister, and many freinds on both 
sids were brought in, so as ther was a great assemblie. 
In y e mean time, God in his providence had detected 
Lyford's evill cariage in Ireland to some freinds amongst 
y e company, who made it knowne to M r . Winslow, and 
directed him to 2. godly and grave witnesses, who would 
testifie y e same (if caled therunto) upon their oath. 
The thing was this ; he being gott into Ireland, had 
wound him selfe into y e esteeme of sundry godly & 
zelous professours in those parts, who, having been 
burthened with y e ceremonies in England, found ther 


some more liberty to their consciences ; amongst whom 
were these 2. men, which gave [133] this evidence. 
Amongst y e rest of his hearers, ther was a godly yonge 
man that intended to marie, and cast his affection on 
a maide which lived their aboute ; but desiring to chose 
in y e Lord, and preferred y e fear of God before all 
other things, before he suffered his affection to rune too 
farr, he resolved to take M r . Lyfords advise and judg- 
mente of this maide, (being y e minister of y e place,) 
and so broak y e matter unto him ; & he promised 
faithfully to informe him, but would first take better 
knowledg of her, and have private conferance with her ; 
and so had sundry times ; and in conclusion comended 
her highly to y e yong man as a very fitte wife for him. 
So they were maried togeather; but some time after 
mariage the woman was much troubled in mind, and 
afflicted in conscience, and did nothing but weepe and 
mourne, and long it was before her husband could get 
of her what was y e cause. But at length she dis- 
covered y e thing, and prayed him to forgive her, for 
Lyford had overcome her, and defiled her body before 
marriage, after he had comended him unto her for 
a husband, and she resolved to have him, when he 
came to her in that private way. The circumstances 
I forbear, for they would offend chast ears to hear 
them related, (for though he satisfied his lust on her, 
yet he indeaoured to hinder conception.) These things 
being thus discovered, y 6 womas husband tooke some 


godly freinds with him, to deale with Liford for this 
evill. At length he confest it, with a great deale of 
seeming sorrow & repentance, but was forct to leave 
Irland upon it, partly for shame, and partly for fear 
of further punishmente, for y e godly withdrew them 
selves from him upon it ; and so coming into England 
unhapily he was light upon & sente hither. 

But in this great assembly, and before y e moderators, 
in handling y e former matters aboute y e letters, upon 
provocation, in some heate of replie to some of Ly fords 
defenders, M r . Winslow let fall these words, That he 
had delte knavishly ; upon which on of his freinds 
tooke hold, & caled for witneses, that he cald a minister 
of y e gospell knave, and would prosecute law upon it, 
which made a great tumulte, upon which (to be shorte) 
this matter broke out, and the witnes were prodused, 
whose persons were so grave, and evidence so plaine, 
and y e facte so foule, yet delivered in such modest 
& chast terms, and with such circumstances, as strucke 
all his freinds mute, and made them all ashamed ; inso- 
much as y e moderators with great gravitie declared 
that y e former matters gave them cause enough to 
refuse him & to deal with him as they had done, but 
these made him unmeete for ever to bear ministrie any 
more, what repentance soever he should pretend; with 
much more to like effecte, and so wisht his freinds to 
rest quiete. Thus was this matter ended. 

From hence Lyford wente to Natasco, in y e Bay of 


y e Massachusets, with some other of his freinds with 
him, wher Oldom allso lived. From thence he removed 
to Namkeke, since called Salem ; but after ther came 
some people over, wheather for hope of greater profite, 
or what ends els I know not, he left his freinds that 
followed him, and went from thence to Virginia, wher 
he shortly after dyed, and so I leave him to y e Lord. 
His wife afterwards returned againe to this cuntry, and 
thus much of this matter. 

[134] This storme being thus blowne over, yet sun- 
drie sad effects followed y e same ; for the Company 
of Adventurers broake in peeces here upon, and y e 
greatest parte wholy deserted y e colony in regarde of 
any further supply, or care of their subsistance. And 
not only so, but some of L'y fords & Oldoms freinds, 
and their adherents, set out a shipe on fishing, on 
their owne accounte, and getting y e starte of y e ships 
that came to the plantation, they tooke away their 
stage, & other necessary provisions that they had made 
for fishing at Cap- Anne y e year before, at their great 
charge, and would not restore y e same, excepte they 
would fight for it. But y e Gov r sent some of y e planters 
to help y e fisher men to build a new one, and so let 
them keepe it. This shipe also brought them some 
small supply, of little value; but they made so pore 
a bussines of their fishing, (neither could these men 
make them any returne for y e supply sente,) so as, after 
this year, they never looked more after them. 

238 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Also by this ship, they, some of them, sent (in y e 
name of y e rest) certaine reasons of their breaking of 
from y e plantation, and some tenders, upon certaine con- 
ditions, of reuniting againe. The which because they 
are longe & tedious, and most of them aboute the former 
things already touched, I shall omite them; only give- 
ing an instance in one, or tow. 1. reason, they charged 
them for dissembling with his majestic in their petition, 
and with y e adventurers about y e French discipline, &c. 
2 ly , for receiving * a man f into their church, that in 
his conffession renownced all, universall, nationall, and 
diocessan churches, &c., by which (say they) it appears, 
that though they deney the name of Browists, yet they 
practiss y e same, &c. And therfore they should sine 
against God in building up such a people. 

Then they adde : Our dislikes thus laid downe, that 
we may goe on in trade w th better contente & credite, 
our desires are as folio weth. First, that as we are 
partners in trade, so we may be in Gov rt ther, as the 
patente doth give us power, &c. 

2. That the French discipline may be practised in the 
plantation, as well in the circumstances theirof, as in y e 
substance ; wherby y e scandallous name of y e Brownists, 
and other church differences, may be taken away. 

3. Lastly, that M r . Robinson and his company may 
not goe over to our plantation, unless he and they 

* Receive in the manuscript, 
t This was Lyford himselfe. 


will reconcile themselves to our church by a recantation 
under their hands, &c. 

Their answer in part to these things was then as 

Wheras you taxe us for dissembling with his majestie & 
y e adventurers aboute y e French discipline, you doe us wrong, 
for we both hold & practice y e discipline of y e French & other 
reformed churches, (as they have published y e same in y e 
Harmony of Confessions,) according to our means, in effecte 
& substance. But wheras you would tye us to the French 
discipline in every circumstance, you derogate from y e libertie 
we have in Christ Jesus. The Apostle Paule would have 
none to follow him in any thing but wherin he follows Christ, 
much less ought any Christian or church in y e world to doe 
it. The French may erre, we may erre, and other churches 
may erre, and doubtless doe in many circumstances. ' That 
honour therfore belongs only to y e infallible word of God, 
and pure Testamente of Christ, to be propounded and fol- 
lowed as y e only rule and pattern for direction herin to all 
churches & Christians. And it is too great arrogancie for 
any man, or church [135] to thinke y* he or they have so 
sounded y e word of God to y e bottome, as precislie to sett 
downe y e churches discipline, without error in substance or 
circumstance, as y 4 no other without blame may digress or 
differ in any thing from y e same. And it is not difficulte to 
shew, y* the reformed churches differ in many circumstances 
amongest them selves. 

The rest I omitte, for brevities sake, and so leave to 
prosecute these men or their doings any further, but 
shall returne to y e rest of their freinds of y e company, 
w ch stuck to them. And I shall first inserte some part 

240 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

of their letters as followeth ; for I thinke it best to ren- 
der their minds in ther owne words. 

To our loving freinds, &c. 

Though the thing we feared be come upon us, and y e evill 
we strove against have overtaken us, yet we cannot forgett 
you, nor our freindship and fellowship which togeather we 
have had some years ; wherin though our expressions have 
been small, yet our harty affections towards you (unknown 
by face) have been no less then to our nearest freinds, yea, 
to our owne selves. And though this your freind M r . Wins- 
low can tell you y e state of things hear, yet least we should 
seeme to neglecte you, to whom, by a wonderfull providence 
of God, we are so nearly united, we have thought good once 
more to write unto you, to let you know what is here befallen, 
and y e resons of it ; as also our purposes & desirs toward you 
for hereafter. 

The former course for the generalise here is wholy dis- 
solved from what it was ; and wheras you & we were for- 
merly sharers and partners, in all viages & deallings, this way 
is now no more, but you and we are left to bethinke our 
sellves what course to take in y e future, that your lives & 
our monies be not lost. 

The reasons and causes of this alteration have been these. 
First and mainly, y e many losses and crosses at sea, and 
abuses of sea-men, w ch have caused us to rune into so much 
charge, debts, & ingagements, as our estats & means were 
not able to goe on without impoverishing our selves, except 
our estats had been greater, and our associats cloven beter 
unto us. 2 ly , as here hath been a faction and siding amongst 
us now more then 2. years, so now there is an uter breach 
and sequestration amongst us, and in too parts of us a full 
dissertion and forsaking of you, without any intente or pur- 
pose of medling more with you. And though we are per- 


swaded the maine cause of this their doing is wante of 
money, (for neede wherof men use to make many excuses,) 
yet other things are pretended, as that you are Brownists, 
&c. Now what use you or we ought to make of these things, 
it remaineth to be considered, for we know y e hand of God to 
be in all these things, and no doubt he would admonish some 
thing therby, and to looke what is amise. And allthough it 
be now too late for us or you to prevent & stay these things, 
yet it is* not to late to exercise patience, wisdom, and con- 
science in bearing them, and in caring our selves in & under 
them for y e time to come. 

[136] And as we our selves stand ready to imbrace all 
occasions that may tend to y e furthrance of so hopefull a 
work, rather admiring of what is, then grudging for what is 
not ; so it must rest in you to make all good againe. And 
if in nothing else you can be approved, yet let your honestie 
& conscience be still approved, & lose not one jote of you r 
innocencie, amids your crosses & afflictions. And surly if 
you upon this alteration behave your selves wisly, and goe 
on fairly, as men whose hope is not in this life, you shall 
need no other weapon to wound your adversaries ; for when 
your righteousnes is revealled as y e light, they shall cover 
their faces with shame, that causlesly have sought your over- 

Now we thinke it but reason, that all such things as ther 
apertaine to the generall, be kept & preserved togeather, and 
rather increased dayly, then any way be dispersed or imbeseled 
away for any private ends or intents whatsoever. And after 
your necessities are served, you gather togeather such comodi- 
ties as y e cuntrie yeelds, & send them over to pay debts & 
clear ingagements hear, which are not less then 1400". And 
we hope you will doe your best to free our ingagements, &c. 
Let us all indeavor to keep a faire & honest course, and see 

* /* it not in the MS. 

242 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

what time will bring forth, and how God in his providence 
will worke for us. We still are perswaded you are y e people 
that must make a plantation in those remoate places when all 
others faile and returne. And your experience of Gods provi- 
dence and preservation of you is such as we hope your harts 
will not faile you, though your freinds should forsake you 
(which we our selves shall not doe whilst we live, so long 
as your honestie so well appereth). Yet surly help would 
arise from some other place whilst you waite on God, with 
uprightnes, though we should leave you allso. 

And lastly be you all intreated to walke circumspectly, and 
carry your selves so uprightly in all your ways, as y l no man 
may make just exceptions against you. And more espetially 
that y e favour and countenance of God may be so toward you, 
as y l you may find abundante joye & peace even amids tribu- 
lations, that you may say with David, Though my father & 
mother should forsake me, yet y e Lord would take me up. 

We have sent you hear some catle, cloath, hose, shoes, 
leather, &c., but in another nature then formerly, as it stood 
us in hand to doe ; we have comitted them to y e charge 
& custody of M r . Allerton and M r . Winslow, as our factours, 
at whose discretion they are to be sould, and comodities to 
be taken for them, as is fitting. And by how much y e more 
they will be chargable unto you, the better* they had need to 
be husbanded, &c. Goe on, good freinds, comfortably, pluck 
up your spirits, and quitte your selves like men in all your 
difficulties, that notwithstanding all displeasure and threats of 
men, yet y e work may goe on you are aboute, and not be 
neglected. Which is so much for y e glorie of God, and the 
furthrance of our countrie-men, as that a man may with 
more comforte [137] spend his life in it, then live y e life 
of Mathusala, in wasting y e plentie of a tilled land, or eating 
y e fruite of a growne tree. Thus with harty salutations to 

* Bet- in MS. 


you all, and harty prayers for you all, we lovingly take our 
leaves, this 18. of Des : 1624. 

Your assured freinds to our powers, 

J. S. W. C. T. F. R. H. &c. 

By this leter it appears in what state y e affairs of y e 
plantation stood at this time. These goods they bought, 
but they were at deare rates, for they put 40. in y e hun- 
dred upon them, for profite and adventure, outward 
bound ; and because of y e vnture of y e paiment home- 
ward, they would have 30.* in y e 100. more, which was 
in all 70. p r . cent ; a thing thought unreasonable by some, 
and too great an oppression upon y e poore people, as their 
case stood. The catle were y e best goods, for y e other 
being ventured ware, were neither at y e best (some of 
them) nor at y e best prises. Sundrie of their freinds 
disliked these high rates, but coming from many hands, 
they could not help it. 

They sent over also 2. ships on fishing on their owne 
acounte ; the one was y e pinass that was cast away y e last 
year hear in y e cuntrie, and recovered by y e planters, (as 
was before related,) who, after she came home, was at- 
tached by one of y e company for his perticuler debte, and 
now sent againe on this accounte. The other was a great 
ship, who was well fitted with an experienced m r . & com- 
pany of fisher-men, to make a viage, & to goe to Bilbo 
or Sabastians with her fish ; the lesser, her order was 

If I mistake not, it was not much less. [30 U in the manuscript.] 


to load with cor-fish, and to bring the beaver home for 
England, y t should be received for y e goods sould to y e 
plantation. This bigger ship made a great viage of good 
drie fish, the which, if they had gone to a market w th , 
would have yeelded them (as such fish was sould y* 
season) 1800 11 . which would have enriched them. But 
because ther was a bruite of warr with France, y e m r . 
neglected (through timerousnes) his order, and put first 
into Plimoth, & after into Portsmouth, and so lost their 
opportunitie, and came by the loss. The lesser ship had 
as ill success, though she was as hopfull as y e other for 
y e marchants profite ; for they had fild her with goodly 
cor-fish taken upon y e banke, as full as she could swime ; 
and besids she had some 800 a . weaight of beaver, besids 
other furrs to a good value from y e plantation. The m r . 
seeing so much goods come, put it abord y e biger ship, 
for more saftie ; but M r . Winslow (their factor in this 
busines) was bound in a bond of 500*. to send it to Lon- 
don in y e smale ship ; ther was some contending between 
y e m r . & him aboute it. But he tould y e m r . he would 
follow his order aboute it ; if he would take it out after- 
ward, it should be at his perill. So it went in y e smale 
ship, and he sent bills of lading in both. The m r . was 
so carfull being both so well laden, as they went joyfully 
home togeather, for he towed y e leser ship at his sterne 
all y e way over bound, and they had such fayr weather 
as he never cast her of till they were shott deep in to 
y e English Chanell, almost within y e sight of Plimoth; 


and yet ther she was unhaply taken by a Turks man 
of warr, and carried into Saly, wher y e m r . and men 
were made slaves, and many of y e beaver skins were 
sould for 4 d a peece. [138] Thus was all their hops 
dasht, and the joyfull news they ment to cary home 
turned to heavie tidings. Some thought this a hand of 
God for their too great exaction of y e poore plantation, 
but Gods judgments are unseerchable, neither dare I be 
bould therwith : but however it shows us y e uncertainty 
of all humane things, and what litle cause ther is of 
joying in them or trusting to them. 

In y e bigger of these ships was sent over Captine Stan- 
dish from y e plantation, w th leters & instructions, both 
to their freinds of y e company which still clave to them, 
and also to y e Honourable Counsell of New-England. 
To y e company to desire y* seeing that they ment only 
to let them have goods upon sale, that they might have 
them upon easier termes, for they should never be able 
to bear such high intrest, or to allow so much per cent; 
also that what they would doe in y t way that it might 
be disburst in money, or such goods as were fitte and 
needfull for them, & bought at best hand; and to 
aquainte them with y e contents of his leters to y e Counsell 
above said, which was to this purpose, to desire their 
favour & help ; that such of y e adventurers as had thus 
forsaken & deserted them, might be brought to some 
order, and not to keepe them bound, and them selves be 
free. But that they might either stand to ther former 

246 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

covenants, or ells come to some faire end, by dividente, 
or composition. But he came in a very bad time, for 
y e Stat was full of trouble, and y e plague very hote in 
London, so as no bussines could be done ; yet he spake 
with some of y e Honourd Counsell, who promised all 
helpfullnes to y e plantation which lay in them. And 
sundrie of their freinds y e adventurers were so weakened 
with their losses y e last year, by y e losse of y e ship 
taken by the Turks, and y e loss of their fish, w ch by rea- 
son of y e warrs they were forcte to land at Portsmouth, 
and so came to litle ; so as, though their wills were 
good, yet they r power was litle. And ther dyed such 
multituds weekly of y e plague, as all trade was dead, 
and litle money stirring. Yet with much adooe he 
tooke up 150*. (& spent a good deal of it in expences) 
at 50. per cent, which he bestowed in trading goods 
& such other most needfull comodities as he knew 
requiset for their use; and so returned passenger in 
a fhishing ship, haveing prepared a good way for y e 
compossition that was afterward made. 

In y e mean time it pleased y e Lord to give y e plan- 
tation peace and health and contented minds, and so to 
blese ther labours, as they had corne sufficient, (and 
some to spare to others,) with other foode ; neither ever 
had they any supply of foode but what they first brought 
with them. After harvest this year, they sende out 
a boats load of corne 40. or 50. leagues to y e east- 
ward, up a river called Kenibeck ; it being one of those 


2. shalops which their carpenter had built them y e year 
before; for bigger vessell had they none. They had 
laid a litle deck over her midships to keepe y e corne 
drie, but y e men were faine to stand it out all weathers 
without shelter ; and y* time [139] of y e year begins to 
growe tempestious. But God preserved them, and gave 
them good success, for they brought home 700*. of beaver, 
besids some other furrs, having litle or nothing els but 
this corne, which them selves had raised out of y e earth. 
This viage was made by M r . Winslow & some of y e old 
standards,* for seamen they had none. 

Anno Dom: 1626. 

ABOUT y e begining of Aprill they heard of Captain 
Standish his arrivall, and sent a boat to fetch him home, 
and y e things he had brought. Welcome he was, but 
y e news he broughte was sadd in many regards ; not 
only in regarde of the former losses, before related, 
which their freinds had suffered, by which some in a 
maner were undon, others much disabled from doing 
any further help, and some dead of y e plague, but also 
y* M r . Robinson, their pastor, was dead, which struck 
them with much sorrow & sadnes, as they had cause. 
His and their adversaries had been long & continually 
plotting how they might hinder his coming hither, but 
y e Lord had appointed him a better place; concerning 

* First written as in the text, then altered to standerss. 

248 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

whose death & the maner therof, it will appere by these 
few lines write to y e Grov r & M r . Brewster. 

Loving & kind f rinds, &c. I know not whether this will 
ever come to your hands, or miscarie, as other my letters have 
done ; yet in regard of y e Lords dealing with us hear, I have 
had a great desire to write unto you, knowing your desire to 
bear a parte with us, both in our joyes, & sorrows, as we doe 
w th you. These are therfore to give you to understand, that 
it hath pleased the Lord to take out of this vaell of tears, 
your and our loving & faithfull pastor, and my dear & Reve d 
brother, M r . John Robinson, who was sick some 8. clays. He 
begane to be sick on Saturday in y e morning, yet y e next day 
(being the Lords day) he taught us twise. And so y e weeke 
after grew weaker, every day more then other ; yet he felt 
no paine but weaknes all y e time of his sicknes. The phisick 
he tooke wrought kindly in mans judgments, but he grew 
weaker every day, feeling litle or no paine, and sensible to 
y e very last. He fell sicke y e 22. of Feb : and departed this 
life y e 1. of March. He had a continuall inwarde ague, but 
free from infection, so y l all his freinds came freely to him. 
And if either prayers, tears, or means, would have saved his 
life, he had not gone hence. But he having faithfully finished 
his course, and performed his worke which y e Lord had 
appointed him here to doe, he now resteth with y e Lord in 
eternall hapines. We wanting him & all Church Gov, 
yet we still (by y e mercie of God) continue & hould close 
togeather, in peace and quietnes ; and so hope we shall doe, 
though we be very weake. Wishing (if such were y e will of 
God) that you & we were againe united togeather in one, 
either ther or here ; but seeing it is y e will of y e Lord thus 
to dispose of things, we must labour w th patience to rest 
contented, till it please y e Lord otherwise to dispose. For 
[140] news, is here not much; only as in England we have 


lost our old king James, who departed this life aboute a 
month agoe, so here they have lost y e old prince, Grave 
Mourise ; who both departed this life since my brother Robin- 
son. And as in England we have a new-king Charls, of 
whom ther is great hope, so hear they have made prince 
Hendrick Geuerall in his brothers place, &c. Thus with my 
love remembred, I take leave & rest, 

Your assured loving freind, 

* Leyden, Aprill 28. 
An : 1625. 

Thus these too great princes, and their pastor, left this 
world near aboute one time. Death maks no difference. 

He further brought them notice of y e death of their 
anciente freind, M r . Cush-man, whom y e Lord tooke 
away allso this year, & aboute this time, who was as their 
right hand with their freinds y adventurers, and for 
diverce years had done & agitated all their bussines with 
them to ther great advantage. He had write to y e Gove r 
but some few months before, of y e sore sicknes of M r . 
James Sherley, who was a cheefe freind to y c plantation, 
and lay at y e pointe of death, declaring his love & help- 
fullnes, in all things ; and much bemoned the loss they 
should have of him, if God should now take him away, 
as being y e stay & life of y e whole bussines. As allso his 
owne purposs this year to come over, and spend his days 
with them. But he that thus write of anothers sicknes, 
knew not y' his owne death was so near. It shows allso 
that a mas ways are not in his owne power, but in his 


hands who hath y e issues of life and death. Man may 
purpose, but God doth dispose. 

Their other freinds from Leyden writ many leters to 
them full of sad laments for ther heavie loss ; and though 
their wills were good to come to them, yet they saw no 
probabilitie of means, how it might be effected, but con- 
cluded (as it were) that all their hopes were cutt of; and 
many, being aged, begane to drop away by death. 

All which things (before related) being well weighed 
and laied togither, it could not but strick them with great 
perplexitie ; and to looke humanly on y e state of things 
as they presented them selves at this time, it is a rnarvell 
it did not wholy discourage them, and sinck them. But 
they gathered up their spirits, and y e Lord so helped 
them, whose worke they had in hand, as now when they 
were at lowest* they begane to rise againe, and being 
striped (in a maner) of all humane helps and hops, he 
brought things aboute other wise, in his devine provi- 
dence, as they were not only upheld & sustained, but 
their proceedings both honoured and imitated by others ; 
as by y c sequell will more appeare, if y e Lord spare me 
life & time to declare y e same. 

Haveing now no fishing busines, or other things to 
intend, but only their trading & planting, they sett them 
selves to follow the same with y e best industrie they 
could. The planters finding their corne, what they could 
spare from ther necessities, to be a comoditie, (for they 

* Note. 


sould it at 6 s - a bushell,) used great dilligence in planting 
y e same. And y e Gove r and such as were designed to 
manage the trade, (for it was retained for y e generall 
good, [141] and none were to trade in perticuler,) they 
followed it to the best advantage they could ; and want- 
ing trading goods, they understoode that a plantation 
which was at Monhigen, & belonged to some marchants 
of Plimoth was to breake up, and diverse usefull goods 
was ther to be sould ; the Gove r and M r . Winslow tooke 
a boat and some hands and went thither. But M r . David 
Thomson, who lived at Pascataway, understanding their 
purpose, tooke oppertunitie to goe with them, which was 
some hinderance to them both ; for they, perceiveing their 
joynte desires to buy, held their goods at higher rates ; 
and not only so, but would not sell a parcell of their 
trading goods, excepte they sould all. So, lest they 
should further prejudice one an other, they agreed to buy 
all, & devid them equally between them. They bought 
allso a parcell of goats, which they distributed at home 
as they saw neede & occasion, and tooke corne for them 
of y e people, which gave them good content. Their 
moyety of y e goods came to above 400 li . starling. Ther 
was allso that spring a French ship cast away at Saca- 
dahock, in w ch were many Biscaie ruggs & other comodi- 
ties, which were falen into these mens hands, & some 
other fisher men at Damerins-cove, which were allso 
bought in partnership, and made their parte arise to 
above 500*. This they made shift to pay for, for y e most 


part, with y e beaver & comodities they had gott y e winter 
before, & what they had gathered up y* somer. M r . 
Thomson having some thing overcharged him selfe, de- 
sired they would take some of his, but they refused 
except he would let them have his French goods only ; 
and y e marchant (who was one of Bristol) would take 
their bill for to be paid y e next year. They were both 
willing, so they became ingaged for them & tooke them. 
By which means they became very well furnished for 
trade ; and tooke of therby some other ingagments w ch 
lay upon them, as the money taken up by Captaine 
Standish, and y e remains of former debts. With these 
goods, and their corne after harvest, they gott good store 
of trade, so as they were enabled to pay their ingage- 
ments against y e time, & to get some cloathing for y e 
people, and had some comodities before hand. But now 
they begane to be envied, and others wente and fild y e 
Indeans with corne, and beat downe y e prise, giveing 
them twise as much as they had done, and under traded 
them in other comodities allso. 

This year they sent M r . Allerton into England, and 
gave him order to make a composition with y e adventur- 
ers, upon as good termes as he could (unto which some 
way had ben made y e year before by Captaine Standish) ; 
but yet injoyned him not to conclud absolutly till they 
knew y e termes, and had well considered of them ; but 
to drive it to as good an issew as he could, and referr 
y e conclusion to them. Also they gave him a comission 


under their hands & seals to take up some money, pro- 
vided it exeeded'not such a sume specified, for which 
they engaged them selves, and gave him order how to 
lay out y e same for y e use of y e plantation. 

And finding they rane a great hazard to goe so long 
viages in a smale open boat, espetialy y e winter season, 
they begane to thinke how they might gett a small 
pinass ; as for y e reason afforesaid, so also because 
others had raised y e prise with y e Indeans above y e 
halfe of what they had formerly given, so as in such 
a boat they could not [143 *] carry a quantity suffi- 
cient to answer their ends. They had no ship-carpen- 
ter amongst them, neither knew how to get one at 
presente ; but they having an ingenious man that was 
a house carpenter, who also had wrought with y e ship 
carpenter (that was dead) when he built their boats, 
at their request he put forth him selfe to make a triall 
that way of his skill ; and tooke one of y e bigest of 
ther shalops and sawed her in y e midle, and so lenth- 
ened her some 5. or 6. foote, and strengthened her 
with timbers, and so builte her up, and laid a deck 
on her ; and so made her a conveniente and wholsome 
vessell, very fitt & comfortable for their use, which 
did them servise 7. years after; and they gott her 
finished, and fitted with sayles & anchors, y e insuing 
year. And thus passed y e affairs of this year. 

* Here occurs another error in the paging of the original ; 142 is omitted. 

254 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Anno Dom: 1627. 

AT y e usuall season of y e coming of ships M r . Aller- 
ton returned, and brought some usfull goods with him, 
according to y e order given him. For upon his com- 
mission he tooke up 200 U . which he now gott at 30. 
per cent. The which goods they gott safly home, 
and well conditioned, which was much to the comfort 
& contente of y e plantation. He declared unto them, 
allso, how, with much adoe and no small trouble, he 
had made a composition with y e adventurers, by the 
help of sundrie of their faithfull freinds ther, who had 
allso tooke much pains ther about. The agreement or 
bargen he had brought a draught of, with a list of ther 
names ther too annexed, drawne by the best counsell 
of law they could get, to make it firme. The heads 
wherof I shall here inserte. 

To all Christian people, greeting, &c. Wheras at a meeting 
y e 26. of October last past, diverse & sundrie persons, whose 
names to y e one part of these presents are subscribed in a 
schedule hereunto annexed, Adventurers to New-Plimoth in 
New-England in America, were contented and agreed, in con- 
sideration of the sume of one thousand and eight hundred 
pounds sterling to be paid, (in maner and forme foiling,) to 
sell, and make sale of all & every y e stocks, shares, lands, 
marchandise, and chatles, what soever, to y e said adventurers, 
and other ther fellow adventurers to New Plimoth aforesaid, 
any way accruing, or belonging to y e generalitie of y e said 
adventurers aforesaid ; as well by reason of any sume or sumes 


of money, or marchandise, at any time heretofore adventured 
or disbursed by them, or other wise howsoever ; for y e better 
expression and setting forth of which said agreernente, the 
parties to these presents subscribing, doe for [144] them selves 
severally, and as much as in them is, grant, bargan, alien, sell, 
and transfere all & every y e said shares, goods, lauds, mar- 
chandice, and chatles to them belonging as aforesaid, unto 
Isaack Alerton, one of y e planters resident at Plimoth affore- 
said, assigned, and sent over as agente for y e rest of y e 
planters ther, and to, such other planters at Plimoth afforesaid 
as y e said Isack, his heirs, or assignes, at his or ther arrivall, 
shall by writing or otherwise thiuke fitte to joyne or partake 
in y e premisses, their heirs, & assignes, in as large, ample, 
and beneficiall maner and forme, to all intents and purposes, 
as y e said subscribing adventurers here could or may doe, or 
performe. All which stocks, shares, lands, &c. to the said 
adven : in severallitie alloted, apportioned, or any way belong- 
ing, the said adven : doe warrant & defend unto the said 
Isaack Allerton, his heirs and assignes, against them, their 
heirs and assignes, by these presents. And therfore y e said 
Isaack Allerton doth, for him, his heirs & assigns, covenant, 
promise, & grant too & with y e adven : whose names are here 
unto subscribed, ther heirs, &c. well & truly to pay, or cause 
to be payed, unto y e said adven : or 5. of them which were, at 
y* meeting afforsaid, nominated & deputed, viz. John Pocock, 
John Headlamp, Robart Keane, Edward Base, and James 
Sherley, marchants, their heirs, &c. too and for y e use of y e 
generallitie of them, the sume of 1800 li . of lawfull money 
of England, at y e place appoynted for y e receipts of money, 
on the west side of y e Roy all Exchaing in London, by 200 li . 
yearly, and every year, on y e feast of St. Migchell, the first 
paiment to be made An : 1628. &c. Allso y e said Isaack is 
to indeavor to procure & obtaine from y e planters of N. P. 
aforesaid, securitie, by severall obligations, or writings oblig- 



[BOOK n. 

atory, to make paiment of y e said sume of 1800 U . in forme 
afforsaid, according to y e true meaning of these presents. In 
testimonie wherof to this part of these presents remaining with 
y e said Isaack Allerton, y e said subscribing adven : have sett 
to their .names,* &c. And to y e other part remaining with 
y e said adven : the said Isaack Allerton hath subscribed his 
name, y e 15. Nov lr . An": 1626. in y e 2. year of his Majesties 

* Below are the names of the adventurers subscribed to this paper, taken 
from Bradford's Letter-Book, 1 Mass. Hist. Coll., III. 48; being forty-two in 
number. The names of six of these persons are found subsequently among 
the members of the Massachusetts Company, viz. John "White, John Pocock, 
Thomas Goffe, Samuel Sharpe, John Revell, and Thomas Andrews. Mr. 
Haven, who edited the Records of the Massachusetts Company, is of opinion 
that the first person on the list is the celebrated clergyman of Dorchester, the 
reputed author of the Planter's Plea. Emnu. Alltham is probably the same 
person named in the Council Records, under date January 21, 1622-3 : " Emanuel 
Altum to command the Pinnace built for Mr. Peirce's Plantation." Smith 
speaks of " Captaine Altom" as commanding this vessell, but Morton says the 
name of the master of the Little James was Mr. Bridges, who it appears was 
drowned at Damariscove, in March, 1624. See Coll. of the Amer. Antiq. Soc., 
III. 26, 62, Preface ; Felt's MS. Memoranda from the Council Records ; Smith's 
Generall Historic, p. 239; Morton's Memorial, p. 48. 

John White, 

Samuel Sharpe, 

Thomas Hudson, 

John Pocock, 

Robert Holland, 

Thomas Andrews, 

Robert Kean, 

James Sherley, 

Thomas Ward, 

Edward Bass, 

Thomas Mott, 

Fria. Newbald, 

William Hobson, 

Thomas Fletcher, 

Thomas Heath, 

William Penington, 

Timothy Hatherly, 

Joseph Tilden, 

William Quarles, 

Thomas Brewer, 

William Perrin, 

Daniel Poynton, 

John Thorned, 

Eliza Knight, 

Richard Andrews, 

Myles Knowles, 

Thomas Coventry, 

Newman Rookes, 

William Collier, 

Robert Allden, 

Henry Browning, 

John Revell, 

Lawrence Anthony, 

Richard Wright, 

Peter Gudburn, 

John Knight, 

John Ling, 

Emnu. Alltham, 

Matthew Thornhill, 

Thomas Goffe, 

John Beauchamp, 

Thomas Millsop. 


This agreemente was very well liked of, & approved 
by all y e plantation, and consented unto ; though they 
knew not well how to raise y e payment, and discharge 
their other ingagements, and supply the yearly wants 
of y e plantation, seeing they were forced for their 
necessities to take up money or goods at so high in- 
trests. Yet they undertooke it, and 7. or 8. of y e 
cheefe of y e place became joyntly bound for y e pai- 
mente of this 1800*. (in y e behalfe of y e rest) at y e 
severall days. In which they rane a great adventure, 
as their present state stood, having many other heavie 
burthens allready upon them, and all things in an un- 
certaine condition amongst them. So y e next returne 
it was absolutly confirmed on both sids, and y e bargen 
fairly ingrossed in partchmente and in many things put 
into better forme, by y e advice of y e learnedest counsel! 
they could gett; and least any forfeiture should fall on 
y e whole for none paimente at any of y e days, it rane 
thus : to forfite 30 s - a weeke if they missed y e time ; 
and was concluded under their hands & seals, as may 
be seen at large by y e deed it selfe. 

[145] Now though they had some untowarde per- 
sons mixed amongst them from the first, which came 
out of England, and more afterwards by some of y e 
adventurers, as freindship or other affections led them, 
though sundrie were gone, some for Virginia, and 
some to other places, yet diverse were still mingled 
amongst them, about whom y e Gove r & counsell with 

258 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

other of their cheefe freinds had serious consideration, 
how to setle things in regard of this new bargen or 
purchas made, in respecte of y e distribution of things 
both for y e presente and future. For y e present, ex- 
cepte peace and union were preserved, they should be 
able to doe nothing, but indanger to over throw all, 
now that other tyes & bonds were taken away. Ther- 
fore they resolved, for sundrie reasons, to take in all 
amongst them, that were either heads of families, or 
single yonge men, that were of abillity, and free, (and 
able to governe them selvs with meete descretion, and 
their affairs, so as to be helpfull in y e comone-welth, ) 
into this partnership or purchass. First, y ey consid- 
ered that they had need of men & strength both for 
defence and carrying on of bussinesses. 2 ly , most of 
them had borne ther parts in former miseries & wants 
with them, and therfore (in some sort) but equall to 
partake in a better condition, if y e Lord be pleased to 
give it. But cheefly they saw not how peace would 
be preserved without so doing, but danger & great dis- 
turbance might grow to their great hurte & prejudice 
other wise. Yet they resolved to keep such a mean in 
distribution of lands, and other courses, as should not 
hinder their growth in others coming to them. 

So they caled y e company togeather, and conferred 
with them, and came to this conclusion, that y e trade 
should be managed as before, to help to pay the debts ; 
and all such persons as were above named should be 


reputed and inrouled for purchasers; single free men 
to have a single share, and every father of a familie to 
be alowed to purchass so many shares as he had per- 
sons in his family; that is to say, one for him selfe, 
and one for his wife, and for every child that he had 
living with him, one. As for servants, they had none, 
but what either their maisters should give them out of 
theirs, or their deservings should obtaine from y e com- 
pany afterwards. Thus all were to be cast into single 
shares according to the order abovesaid ; and so every 
one was to pay his part according to his proportion 
towards y e purchass, & all other debts, what y e profite 
of y e trade would not reach too; viz. a single man for 
a single share, a maister of a famalie for so many as 
he had. This gave all good contente. And first ac- 
cordingly the few catle which they had were devided, 
which arose to this proportion; a cowe to 6. persons 
or shars, & 2. goats to y e same, which were first 
equalised for age & goodnes, and then lotted for ; 
single persons consorting with others, as they thought 
good, & smaler familys likwise ; and swine though 
more [146] in number, yet by y e same rule. Then 
they agreed that every person or share should have 
20. acres of land devided unto them, besids y e single 
acres they had allready ; and they appoynted were to 
begin first on y e one side of y e towne, & how farr to 
goe ; and then on y e other side in like maner ; and 
so to devid it by lotte; and appointed sundrie by 

260 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

name to doe it, and tyed them to certaine ruls to pro- 
ceed by ; as that they should only lay out settable or 
tillable land, at least such of it as should butt on y e 
water side, (as y e most they were to lay out did,) and 
pass by y e rest as refuse and comune ; and what they 
judged fitte should be so taken. And they were first 
to agree of y e goodnes & fitnes of it before the lott 
was drawne, and so it might as well prove some of 
ther owne, as an other mans ; and this course they 
were to hould throwout. But yet seekeing to keepe 
y e people togither, as much as might be, they allso 
agreed upon this order, by mutuall consente, before 
any lots were cast : that whose lotts soever should fall 
next y e towne, or most conveninte for nearnes, they 
should take to them a neigboure or tow, whom they 
best liked; and should suffer them to plant corne with 
them for 4. years ; and afterwards they might use as 
much of theirs for as long time, if they would. Allso 
every share or 20. acers was to be laid out 5. acres 
in breadth by y e water side, and 4. acres in lenght, 
excepting nooks & corners, which were to be measured 
as y ey would bear to best advantage. But no meadows 
were to be laid out at all, nor were not of many years 
after, because they were but streight of meadow grounds ; 
and if they had bene now given out, it would have 
hindred all addition to them afterwards ; but every 
season all were appoynted wher they should mo we, 
according to y e proportion of catle they had. This 


distribution gave generally good contente, and setled 
mens minds. Also they gave y e Gove r & 4. or 5. of 
y e spetiali men amongst them, y e houses they lived in ; 
y e rest were valued & equalised at an indiferent rate, 
and so every man kept his owne, and he that had a 
better alowed some thing to him that had a worse, as 
y e valuation wente. 

Ther is one thing that fell out in y e begining of y e 
winter before, which I have referred to this place, that 
I may handle y e whole matter togeither. Ther was a 
ship, with many passengers in her and sundrie goods, 
bound for Virginia. They had lost them selves at sea, 
either by y e insufficiencie of y e maister, or his ilnes ; 
for he was sick & lame of y e scurvie, so that he could 
but lye in y e cabin dore, & give direction ; and it should 
seeme was badly assisted either w th mate or mariners ; 
or else y e fear and unrulines of y c passengers were such, 
as they made them stear a course betweene y e southwest 
& y e norwest, that they might fall with some land, 
what soever it was they cared not. For they had been 
6. weeks at sea, and had no water, nor beere, nor any 
woode left, but had burnt up all their emptie caske ; 
only one of y c company had a hogshead of wine or 2. 
which was allso allmost spente, so as they feared they 
should be starved at sea, or consumed with diseases, 
which made them rune this desperate course. But it 
plased God that though they came so neare y e shoulds 
of Cap-Codd [147] or else ran stumbling over them in 


y e night, they knew not how, they came right before 
a small blind harbore, that lyes about y e midle of Mana- 
moyake Bay, to y e southward of Cap-Codd, with a small 
gale of wind ; and about highwater toucht upon a barr 
of sand that lyes before it, but had no hurte, y e sea 
being smoth; so they laid out an anchore. But towards 
the eveing the wind sprunge up at sea, and was so 
rough, as broake their cable, & beat them over the barr 
into y e harbor, wher they saved their lives & goods, 
though much were hurte with salt water ; for w th beating 
they had sprung y e but end of a planke or too, & beat 
out ther occome ; but they were soone over, and ran 
on a drie flate within the harbor, close by a beach ; so 
at low water they gatt out their goods on drie shore, 
and dried those that were wette, and saved most of 
their things without any great loss ; neither was y e ship 
much hurt, but shee might be mended, and made ser- 
visable againe. But though they were not a litle glad 
that they had thus saved their lives, yet when they had 
a litle refreshed them selves, and begane to thinke on 
their condition, not knowing wher they were, nor 
what they should doe, they begane to be strucken 
with sadnes. But shortly after they saw some Indians 
come to them in canows, which made them stand 
upon their gard. But when they heard some of y e 
Indeans speake English unto them, they were not a 
litle revived, especially when they heard them demand 
if they were the Gove r of Plimoths men, or freinds ; 


and y* they would bring them to y e English houses, or 
carry their letters. 

They feasted these Indeans, and gave them many 
giftes; and sente 2. men and a letter with them to y e 
Gove r , and did intreat him to send a boat unto them, 
with some pitch, & occume, and spiks, w th divers other 
necessaries for y e mending of ther ship (which was re- 
coverable). Allso they besought him to help them with 
some corne and sundrie other things they wanted, to 
enable them to make their viage to Virginia; and they 
should be much bound to him, and would make satis- 
faction for any thing they had, in any comodities they 
had abord. After y e Gov r was well informed by y e 
messengers of their condition, he caused a boate to be 
made ready, and such things to be provided as they 
write for ; and because others were abroad upon trading, 
and such other ajflfairs, as had been fitte to send unto 
them, he went him selfe, & allso carried some trading 
comodities, to buy them corne of y e Indeans. It was 
no season of y e year to goe withoute y e Cape, but 
understanding wher y e ship lay> he went into y e bottom 
of y e bay, on y e inside, and put into a crick called 
Naumskachett, wher it is not much above 2. mile over 
[148] land to y e bay wher they were, wher he had 
y e Indeans ready to cary over any thing to them. Of 
his arrivall they were very glad, and received the 
things to mend ther ship, & other necessaries. Allso 
he bought them as much corne as they would have ; 

264 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

and wheras some of their sea-men were rune away 
amonge the Indeans, he procured their returne to y e 
ship, and so left them well furnished and contented, 
being very thankfull for y e curtesies they receaved. But 
after the Gove r thus left them, he went into some other 
harbors ther aboute and loaded his boat with corne, 
which he traded, and so went home. But he had not 
been at home many days, but he had notice from them, 
that by the violence of a great storme, and y e bad 
morring of their ship (after she was mended) she was 
put a shore, and so beatten and shaken as she was now 
wholy unfitte to goe to sea. And so their request was 
that they might have leave to repaire to them, and 
soujourne with them, till they could have means to 
convey them selves to Virginia; and that they might 
have means to trasport their goods, and they would 
pay for y e same, or any thing els wher with y e plan- 
tation should releeve them. Considering their distres, 
their requests were granted, and all helpfulmes done 
unto them ; their goods transported, and them selves 
& goods sheltered in their houses as well as they could. 
The cheefe amongst these people was one M r . Fells 
and M r . Sibsie, which had many servants belonging 
unto them, many of them being Irish. Some others 
ther were y* had a servante or 2. a peece ; but y e most 
were servants, and such as were ingaged to the former 
persons, who allso had y e most goods. Affter they 
were hither come, and some thing setled, the maisters 


desired some ground to imploye ther servants upon ; 
seing it was like to be y e latter end of y e year before 
they could have passage for Virginia, and they had 
now y e winter before them; they might clear some 
ground, and plant a crope (seeing they had tools, 
& necessaries for y e same) to help to bear their charge, 
and keep their servants in imployment ; and if they 
had oppertunitie to departe before the same was ripe, 
they would sell it on y e ground. So they had ground 
appointed them in convenient places, and Fells & some 
other of them raised a great deall of corne, which they 
sould at their departure. This Fells, amongst his other 
servants, had a maid servante which kept his house 
& did his household affairs, and by the intimation of 
some that belonged unto him, he was suspected to keep 
her, as his concubine ; and both of them were examined 
ther upon, but nothing could be proved, and they stood 
upon their justification ; so with admonition they were 
dismiste. But afterward it appeard she was with child, 
so he gott a small boat, & ran away with her, for 
fear of punishmente. First he went to Cap- Anne, and 
after into y e bay of y e Massachussets, but could get no 
passage, and had like to have been cast away; and 
was forst to come againe and submite him selfe ; but 
they pact him away & those that belonged unto him by 
the first oppertunitie, and dismiste all the rest as soone 
as could, being many untoward people amongst them ; 
though ther were allso some that caried them selves 

266 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

very orderly all y e time they stayed. And the [149] 
plantation had some benefite by them, in selling them 
corne & other provisions of food for cloathing ; for they 
had of diverse kinds, as cloath, perpetuanes, & other 
stuffs, besids hose, & shoes, and such like comodities as 
y e planters stood in need of. So they both did good, 
and received good one from another ; and a cuple of 
barks caried them away at y e later end of somer. And 
sundrie of them have acknowledged their thankfullnes 
since from Virginia. 

That they might y e better take all convenient oppor- 
tunitie to follow their trade, both to maintaine them 
selves, and to disingage them of those great sumes 
which they stood charged with, and bound for, they 
resoloved to build a smale pinass at Manamet, a place 
20. mile from y e plantation, standing on y e sea to y e 
southward of them, unto which, by an other creeke on 
this side, they could cary their goods, within 4. or 5. 
miles, and then trasport them over land to their ves- 
sell; and so avoyd the compasing of Cap-Codd, and 
those deangerous shoulds, and so make any vioage to 
y e southward in much shorter time, and with farr less 
danger. Also for y e saftie of their vessell & goods, 
they builte a house their, and kept some servants, who 
also planted corne, and reared some swine, and were 
allwayes ready to goe out with y e barke when ther was 
occasion. All which tooke good effecte, and turned to 
their profite. 


They now sent (with y e returne of y e ships) M r . 
Allerton againe into England, giveing him full power, 
under their hands & seals, to conclude the former bar- 
gaine with y e adventurers ; and sent ther bonds for y e 
paimente of the money. Allso they sent what beaver 
they could spare to pay some of their ingagementes, 
& to defray his chargs ; for those deepe interests still 
kepte them low. Also he had order to procure a patente 
for a fitt trading place in y e river of Kenebec ; for being 
emulated both by the planters at Pascataway & other 
places to y e eastward of them, and allso by y e fishing 
ships, which used to draw much profile from y e Indeans 
of those parts, they threatened to procure a grante, 
& shutte them out from thence ; espetially after they 
saw them so well furnished with comodities, as to carie 
the trade from them. They thought it but needfull to 
prevente such a thing, at least that they might not be 
excluded from free trade ther, wher them selves had 
first begune and discovered the same, ad brought it to 
so good efiecte. This year allso they had letters, and 
messengers from y e Dutch-plantation, sent unto them 
from y e Gov r ther, writen both in Dutch & French. 
The Dutch had traded in these southerne parts, diverse 
years before they came ; but they begane no plantation 
hear till 4. or 5. years after their coming, and here 
begining. Ther letters were as followeth. It being 
their maner to be full of complementall titles. 

268 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Eedele, Eerenfeste Wyse Voorsinnige Heeren, den Goveer- 
neur, ende Raeden in Nieu-Pliemiien residerende ; onse seer 
Goede vrinden den directeiir ende Raed van Nieu-Nederlande, 
weusen vwe Edn : eerenfesten, ende wijse voorsinnige geluck 
salichitt [gemkzaligheid?], In Christ! Jesu onsen Heere ; met 
goede voorspoet, ende gesonthijt, naer siele, ende lichaem. 

The rest I shall render in English, leaving out the 
repetition of superfluous titles. 

[150] We have often before this wished for an opportunitie 
or an occasion to congratulate you, and your prosperous and 
praise-worthy undertakeings, and Goverment of your colony 
ther. And the more, in that we also have made a good 
begiuing to pitch y e foundation of a collonie hear ; and seeing 
our native couutrie lyes not farr from yours, and our fore- 
fathers (diverse hundred years agoe) have made and held 
frendship and alliance with your ancestours, as sufficently 
appears by y e old contractes, and entrecourses, confirmed 
under y e hands of kings & princes, in y e pointe of warr & 
trafick ; as may be scene and read by all y e world in y e old 
chronakles. The which are not only by the king now reign- 
ing confirmed, but it hath pleased his majesty, upon mature 
deliberation, to make a new covenante, (and to take up 
armes,) with y e States Generall of our dear native country, 
against our comone enemie the Spaniards, who seeke nothing 

* The orthography of some of these words differs from the modern way 
of spelling them; and we have no means of ascertaining the accuracy of 
Bradford's copy from the original letter. This passage may be rendered 

"Noble, worshipful, wise, and prudent Lords, the Governor and Council- 
lors residing in New Plymouth, our very dear friends : The Director and 
Council of New Netherland wish to your Lordships, worshipful, wise, and 
prudent, happiness in Christ Jesus our Lord, with prosperity and health, in 
soul and body." 


else but to usurpe and overcome other Christian kings and 
princes lands, that so he might obtaine and possess his pre- 
tended monarchic over all Christendom ; and so to rule and 
comand, after his owiie pleasure, over y e consciences of so 
many hundred thousand sowles, which God forbid. 

And also seeing it hath some time since been reported unto 
us, by some of our people, that by occasion came so farr 
northward with their shalop, and met with sundry of y e 
Indeans, who tould them that they were within halfe a days 
journey of your plantation, and offered ther service to cary 
letters unto you ; therfore we could not forbear to salute you 
with these few lines, with presentation of our good will and 
servise unto you, in all frendly-kindnes & neighbourhood. 
And if it so fall out that any goods that comes to our hands 
from our native countrie, may be serviceable unto you, we 
shall take our selves bound to help and accomadate you ther 
with ; either for beaver or any other wares or marchandise 
that you should be pleased to deale for. And if in case we 
have no comodity at present that may give you contente, 
if you please to sell us any beaver, or otter, or such like 
comodities as may be usefull for us, for ready money, and 
let us understand therof by this bearer in writing, (whom we 
have apoynted to stay 3. or 4. days for your answer,) when 
we understand your minds therin, we shall depute one to 
deale with you, at such place as you shall appointe. In y e 
mean time we pray the Lord to take you, our honoured 
good freinds and neighbours, into his holy protection. 
By the appointment of y e Gov r and Counsell, &c. 

ISAAK DE EASIER, Secrectaris. 
From y e Manhatas, in y e fort Amsterdam, 
March 9. An : 1627. 

To this they returned answer as followeth, on y e 
other side. 


[151] To the Honoured, &c. 

The Gove r & Counsell of New-Plim : wisheth, &c. We have 
received your leters, &c. wherin appeareth your good wills 
& frendship towards us ; but is expresed w th over high titls, 
more then belongs to us, or is ineete for us to receive. But 
for your good will, and congratulations of our prosperitie in 
these smale beginings of our poore colonie, we are much 
bound unto you, and with many thanks doe acknowledg y e 
same ; taking it both for a great honour done unto us, and 
for a certaine testimoney of your love and good neighbourhood. 

Now these are further to give your Wor pp * to understand, 
that it is to us no smale joye, to hear, that his majestie hath 
not only bene pleased to confirme y* ancient amitie, aliance, 
and frendship, and other contracts, formerly made & ratified 
by his predecessors of famous memorie, but hath him selfe 
(as you say) strengthened the same with a new-union the 
better to resist y e prid of y l comone enemy y e Spaniard, from 
whose cruelty the Lord keep us both, and our native coun- 
tries. Now* forasmuch as this is sufficiente to unite us 
togeather in love and good neighbourhood, in all our deal- 
ings, yet are many of us further obliged, by the good and 
curteous entreaty which we have found in your countrie ; have- 
ing lived ther many years, with freedome, and good contente, 
as also many of our freinds doe to this day ; for which we, 
and our children after us, are bound to be thankfull to your 
Nation, and shall never forgett y e same, but shall hartily 
desire your good & prosperity, as our owne, for ever. 

Likwise for your freindly tender, & offer to aconiodate 
and help us with any comodities or marchandise you have, 
or shall come to you, either for beaver, otters, or other wares, 
it is to us very acceptable, and we doubte not but in short 
time we may have profitable comerce & trade togeather. 
But for this year we are fully supplyed with all necessaries, 
both for cloathing and other things ; but hereafter it is like 


we shall cleale with you, if your rates be reasonable. And 
therfore when you please to send to us againe by any of 
yours, we desire to know how you will take beaver, by y e 
pounde, & otters, by y e skine ; and how you will deale per 
cent, for other comodities, and what yon can furnishe us 
with. As likwise what other commodities from us may be 
acceptable unto you, as tobaco, fish, corne, or other things, 
and what prises you will give. &c. 

Thus hoping that you will pardon & excuse us for our rude 
and imperfecte writing in your language, and take it in good 
parte, because [152] for wante of use we cannot so well 
express that we understand, nor hapily understand every thing 
so fully as we should. And so we humbly pray the Lord for 
his mercie sake, that he will take both us and you into his 
keeping & gratious protection. 

By y e Gove r and Counsell of New-Plimoth, 

Your Wor pps very good freinds & neigbours, &c. 

New-Plim: March 19. 

After this ther was many passages betweene them 
both by letters and other entercourse ; and they had 
some profitable commerce togither for diverce years, till 
other occasions interrupted y e same, as may happily 
appear afterwards, more at large. 

Before they sent M r . Allerton away for England this 
year, y e Gove r and some of their cheefe freinds had 
serious consideration, not only how they might discharge 
those great ingagments which lay so heavily upon them, 
as is affore mentioned, but also how they might (if pos- 
siblie they could) devise means to help some of their 
freinds and breethren of Ley den over unto them, who 


desired so much to come to them, ad they desired as 
much their company. To effecte which, they resolved 
to rune a high course, and of great adventure, not 
knowing otherwise how to bring it aboute. Which was 
to hire y e trade of y e company for certaine years, and 
in that time to undertake to pay that 1800 ti . and all y e 
rest of y e debts that then lay upon y e plantation, which 
was aboute some 600 M . more; and so to set them free, 
and returne the trade to y e generalitie againe at y e 
end of y e terme. Upon which resolution they called 
y e company togeither, and made it clearly appear unto 
all what their debts were, and upon what terms they 
would undertake to pay them all in such a time, and 
sett them clear. But their other ends they were faine 
to keepe secrete, haveing only privatly acquaynted some 
of their trusty freinds therwith ; which were glad of y e 
same, but doubted how they would be able to performe 
it. So after some agitation of the thing w th y e com- 
pany, it was yeelded unto, and the agreemente made 
upon y e conditions following. 

Articles of agreemente betweene y e collony of New-Plimoth 
of y e one partie, and William Bradford, Captein Myles 
Standish, Isaack Allerton, &c. one y c other partie ; and 
shuck others as they shall thinke good to take as part- 
ners and undertakers with them, concerning the trade 
for beaver & other furrs & comodities, &c. ; made July, 

First, it is agreed and covenanted betweexte y e said 
parties, that y e afforsaid William Bradford, Captain Myles 


Standish, & Isaack Allerton, &c. have undertaken, and doe 
by these presents, covenante and agree to pay, discharge, 
and acquite y e said collony of all y e debtes both due for 
y e purchass, or any other belonging to them, at y e day of 
y e date of these presents. 

[153] Secondly, y e above-said parties are to have and 
freely injoye y e pinass latly builte, the boat at Manamett, 
and y e shalop, called y e Bass-boat, with all other implements 
to them belonging, that is in y e store of y e said company ; 
with all y e whole stock of furrs, fells, beads, corne, wam- 
pampeak, hatchets, knives, &c. that is now in- y e storre, or 
any way due unto y e same uppon accounte. 

8 ly . That y e above said parties have y e whole trade to them 
selves, their heires and assignes, with all y e privileges therof, 
as y e said collonie doth now, or may use the same, for 6. full 
years, to begine y e last of September next insuing. 

4 Iy . In furder consideration of y e discharge of y e said 
debtes, every severall purchaser doth promise and covenante 
yearly to pay, or cause to be payed, to the above said par- 
ties, during y e full terme of y e said 6. years, 3. bushells of 
corne, or 6 H . of tobaco, at y e undertakers choyse. 

5 ly . The said undertakers shall dureing y e afforesaid terme 
bestow 50 li . per annum, in hose and shoese, to be brought 
over for y e collonies use, to be sould unto them for corne 
at 6 8 . per bushell. 

6 ly . That at y e end of y e said terme of 6. years, the whole 
trade shall returne to y e use and benefite of y e said collonie, 
as before. 

Lastly, if y e afforesaid undertakers, after they have aquainted 
their freinds in England with these covenants, doe (upon y e 
first returne) resolve to performe them, and undertake to dis- 
charge y e debtes of y e said collony, according to y e true mean- 
ing & intente of these presents, then they are (upon such 
notice given) to stand in full force ; otherwise all things to 


remaine as formerly they were, and a true accounte to be 
given to y e said collonie, of the disposing of all things 
according to the former order. 

M r . Allerton carried a coppy of this agreemente with 
him into England, and amongst other his instructions 
had order given him to deale with some of their special I 
freinds, to joyne with them in this trade upon y e above 
recited conditions ; as allso to imparte their further 
ends that moved them to take this course, namly, the 
helping over of some of their freinds from Leyden, as 
they should be able ; in which if any of them would 
joyne with them they should thankfully acceptt of their 
love and partnership herein. And with all (by their 
letters) gave them some grounds of their hops of the 
accomplishrnente of these things with some advantage. 

Anno Dom: 1628. 

AFTER M r . Allertons arivall in England, he aquainted 
them with his comission and full power to conclude y e 
forementioned bargan & purchas ; upon [154] the veiw 
wherof, and y e delivery of y e bonds for y e paymente of 
y e money yearly, (as is before mentioned,) it was fully 
concluded, and a deede * fairly ingrossed in partch- 
mente was delivered him, under their hands & seals 
confirming the same. Morover he delte with them 
aboute other things according to his instructions. As 

* Nov. 6. 1627. Page 238. [Reference is here made to the page of the 
original manuscript.] 


to admitt some of these their good freinds into this 
purchass if they pleased, and to deale with them for 
moneys at better rates, &c. Touching which I shall 
hear inserte a letter of M r . Sherleys, giving light to 
what followed therof, writ to y e Gov 1 ' as followeth. 

S r : I have received yours of y e 26. of May by M r . Gibs, 
& M r . Goffe, with y e barrell of otter skins, according to y e 
contents ; for which I got a bill of store, and so tooke them 
up, and sould them togeather at 78 U . 12 8 . sterling; and 
since, M r . Allerton hath received y e money, as will apear by 
the accouute. It is true (as you write) that your ingag- 
ments are great, not only the purchass, but you are yet 
necessitated to take up y e stock you work upon ; and y 4 not 
at 6. or 8. p r cent, as it is here let out, but at 30. 40. yea, 
& some at 50. |> r cent, which, were not your gaines great, 
and Gods blessing on your honest indeaours more then 
ordinarie, it could not be y* you should longe subsiste in y e 
maintaining of, & upholding of your worldly affaires. And 
this your honest & discreete agente, M r . Allerton, hath seri- 
ously considered, & deeply laid to mind, how to ease you 
of it. He tould me you were contented to accepte of me 
& some few others, to joyne with you in y e purchass, as 
partners ; for which I kindly thanke you and all y e rest, 
and doe willingly accepte of it. And though absente, shall 
willingly be at shuch charge as you & y e rest shall thinke 
meete ; and this year am contented to forbear my former 50 H . 
and 2. years increase for y e venture, both which now makes 
it 80 h . without any bargaine or condition for y e profite, you 
(I mean y e generalitie) stand to y e adventure, outward, and 
homeward. I have perswaded M r . Andrews and M r . Beachamp 
to doe y e like, so as you are eased of y e high rate, you were 
at y e other 2. yeares ; I say we leave it freely to your selves 

276 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

to alow us what you please, and as God shall blesse. What 
course I rune, M r . Beachamp desireth to doe y e same ; and 
though he have been or seemed somwhat harsh heretofore, 
yet now you shall find he is new moulded. I allso see by 
your letter, you desire I should be your agente or factore 
hear. I have ever found you so faithfull, honest, and upright 
men, as I have even resolved with my selfe (God assisting 
me) to doe you all y e good lyeth in my power ; and therfore 
if you please to make choyse of so weak a man, both for 
abillities and body, to performe your bussines, I promise (y e 
Lord enabling me) to doe y e best I can according to those 
abillities he hath given me ; and wherin I faile, blame your 
selves, y* you made no better choyce. Now, because I am 
sickly, and we are all mortall, I have advised M r . Allerton 
to joyne M r . Beachamp with me in your deputation, which 
I conceive to be very necessary & good for you ; your charge 
shall be no more, for it is not your salarie maks me under- 
take your [156*] bussines. Thus comending you & yours, 
and all Gods people, unto y e guidance and protection of y e 
Allmightie, I ever rest, 

Your faithfull loving freind, 
London, Nov. 17. 1628. JAMES SHERLEY.! 

* 155 omitted in original MS. COM. 

t Another leter of his, that should have bene placed before : 
We cannot but take notice how y e Lord hath been pleased to crosse our 
proseedings, and caused many disasters to befale us therin. I conceive y e 
only reason to be, we, or many of us, aimed at other ends then Gods glorie ; 
but now I hope y l cause is taken away ; the bargen being fully concluded, as 
farr as our powers will reach, and confirmed under our hands & seals, to 
M r . Allerton & y e rest of his & your copartners. But for my owne parte, 
I confess as I was loath to hinder y e full confirming of it, being y e first pro- 
pounder ther of at our meeting; so on y e other side, I was as unwilling to 
set my hand to y e sale, being y e receiver of most part of y e adventurs, and 
a second causer of much of y e iugagments; and one more threatened, being 
most envied & aimed at (if they could find any stepe to ground their malice 
on) then any other whosoever. I profess I know no just cause they ever 


With this leter they sent a draught of a formall depu- 
tation to be hear sealed and sent back unto them, to 
authorise them as their agents, according to what is 
mentioned in y e above said letter ; and because some 
inconvenience grue therby afterward I shall here in- 
serte it. 

had, or have, so to doe; neither shall it ever be proved y' I have wronged 
them or any of y adventurers, wittingly or willingly, one peny in y e dis- 
bursing of so many pounds in those 2. years trouble. No, y e sole cause why 
they maligne me (as I & others conceived) was y' I would not side with 
them against you, & the going over of y e Leyden people. But as I then card 
not, so now I litle fear what they can doe ; yet charge & trouble I know they 
may cause me to be at. And for these reasons, I would gladly have per- 
swaded the other 4. to have sealed to this bargaine, and left me out, but they 
would not; so rather then it should faile, M r . Alerton having taken so much 
pains, I have sealed w th y e rest ; with this proviso & promise of his, y l if any 
trouble arise hear, you are to bear halfe y e charge. Wherfore now I doubt 
not but you will give your generallitie good contente, and setle peace amongst 
your selves, and peace with the natives; and then no doubt but y e God of 
Peace will blese your going out & your returning, and cause all y' you sett 
your hands unto to prosper; the which I shall ever pray y e Lord to grante 
if it be his blessed will. ( Asuredly unless y e Lord be mercifull unto us & y 
whole land in generall, our estate & condition is farr worse then yours. 
Wherfore if y e Lord should send persecution or trouble hear, (which is much 
to be feared,) and so should put into our minds to flye for refuge, I know 
no place safer then to come to you, (for all Europ is at varience one with 
another, but cheefly w th us,) not doubting but to find such frendly enter- 
tainmente as shall be honest & conscionable, notwithstanding what hath latly 
passed. For I profess in y e word of an honest man, had it not been to pro- 
cure your peace & quiet from some turbulent spirites hear, I would not have 
sealed to this last deed ; though you would have given me all my adventure 
and debte ready downe. Thus desiring y Lord to blesse & prosper you, 
I cease ever resting, 

Your faithfull & loving freind, 

to my power, 

[The above letter was written on the reverse of page 154 of the original 

278 HISTOEY or [BOOK n. 

To all to whom these prets shall come greeting ; know yee 
that we, William Bradford, Gov r of Plimoth, in N. E. in 
America, Isaak Allertoii, Myles Standish, William Brewster, 
& Ed : Winslow, of Plimoth aforesaid, marchants, doe by 
these presents for us & in our names, make, substitute, & 
appointe James Sherley, Goldsmith, & John Beachamp, Salter, 
citizens of London, our true & lawfull agents, factors, sub- 
stitutes, & assignes ; as well to take and receive all such 
goods, wares, & marchandise what soever as to our said 
substitutes or either of them, or to y e citie of London, or 
other place of y e Relme of Engl : shall be sente, transported, 
or come from us or any of us, as allso to vend, sell, barter, 
or exchaing y e said goods, wares, and marchandise so from 
time to time to be sent to such person or persons upon 
credite, or other wise in such inaner as to our said agents 
& factors joyently, or to either of them severally shall seeme 
meete. And further we doe make & ordaine our said sub- 
stituts & assignes joyntly & severally for us, & to our uses, 
& accounts, to buy and consigne for and to us into New- 
Engl : aforesaid, such goods and marchandise to be provided 
here, and to be returned hence, as by our said assignes, or 
either of them, shall be thought fitt. And to- recover, receive, 
and demand for us & in our names all such debtes & sumes 
of money, as now are or hereafter shall be due incidente 
accruing or belonging to us, or any of us, by any wayes 
or means ; and to acquite, discharge, or compound for any 
debte or sume of money, which now or hereafter shall be 
due or owe ing by any person or persons to us, or any of us. 
And generally for us & in our names to doe, performe, and 
execute every acte & thing which to our said assignes, or 
either of them, shall seeme meete to be done in or aboute y e 
premissies, as fully & effectually, to all intents & purposes, 
as if we or any of us were in person presente. And what- 
soever our said agents & factors joyntly or severally shall 


doe, or cause to be done, in or aboute y e premisses, we will 
& doe, & every of us doth ratife, alow, & confirme, by 
these presents. In wittnes wherof we have here unto put 
our hands & seals. Dated 18. Nov br 1628. 

This was accordingly confirmed by the above named, 
and 4. more of the cheefe of them under their hands 
& seals, and delivered unto them. Also M r . Allerton 
formerly had authoritie under their hands & seals for 
y e transacting of y e former bussines, and taking up of 
moneys, &c. which still he retained whilst he was 
imployed in these affaires ; they mistrusting neither 
him nor any of their freinds faithfullnes, which made 
them more remisse in looking to shuch acts as had 
passed under their hands, as necessarie for y e time ; 
but letting them rune on to long unminded or recaled, 
it turned to their harme afterwards, as will appere in 
its place. 

[157] M r . Allerton having setled all things thus in 
a good and hopfull way, he made hast to returne in y e 
first of y e spring to be hear with their supply for trade, 
(for y e fishermen with whom he came used to sett forth 
in winter & be here betimes.) He brought a resonable 
supply of goods for y e plantation, and without those 
great interests as before is noted; and brought an 
accounte of y e beaver sould, and how y c money was 
disposed for goods, & y e paymente of other debtes, 
having paid all debts abroad to others, save to M r . 
Sherley, M r . Beachamp, & M r . Andrews; from whom 


likwise he brought an accounte which to them all 
amounted not to above 400 U . for which he had passed 
bonds. Allso he had payed the first paymente for y e 
purchass, being due for this year, viz. 200 11 . and brought 
them y e bonde for y e same canselled ; so as they now 
had no more foreine debtes but y e abovesaid 400 11 . and 
odde pownds, and y e rest of y e yearly purchass monie. 
Some other debtes they had in y e cuntrie, but they 
were without any intrest, & they had wherwith to dis- 
charge them when they were due. To this pass the 
Lord had brought things for them. Also he brought 
them further notice that their freinds, the abovenamed, 
& some others that would joyne with them in y e 
trad & purchass, did intend for to send over to Ley den, 
for a competente number of them, to be hear the next 
year without fayle, if y e Lord pleased to blesse their 
journey. He allso brought them a patente for Kene- 
beck, but it was so straite & ill bounded, as they were 
faine to renew & inlarge it the next year, as allso that 
which they had at home, to their great charge, as will 
after appeare. Hithertoo M r . Allerton did them good 
and faithful! service ; and well had it been if he had 
so continued, or els they had now ceased for imploy- 
ing him any longer thus into England. But of this 
more afterwards. 

Having procured a patente (as is above said) for 
Kenebeck, they now erected a house up above in y e 
river in y e most convenientest place for trade, as they 


conceived, and furnished the same with comodities for 
y* end, both winter & somer, not only with corne, but 
also with such other commodities as y e fishermen had 
traded with them, as coats, shirts, ruggs, & blankets, 
biskett, pease, prunes, &c. ; and what they could not 
have out of England, they bought of the fishing ships, 
and so carried on their bussines as well as they could. 
This year the Dutch sent againe unto them from 
their plantation, both kind leterss, and also diverse 
comodities, as suger, linen cloth, Holand finer & 
courser stufes, &c. They came up with their barke 
to Manamete, to their house ther, in which came their 
Secretarie Easier; who was accompanied with a noyse 
of trumpeters, and some other attendants ; and desired, 
that they would send a boat for him, for he could 
not traviil so farr over land. So they sent a boat 
to Manonscussett, and brought him to y e plantation, 
with y e cheefe of his company. And after some few 
days entertainmente, he returned to his barke, and 
some of them wente with him, and bought sundry of 
his goods ; after which begining thus made, they sente 
often times to y e same place, and had entercourse to- 
geather for diverce years ; and amongst other comodi- 
ties, they vended [158] much tobaco for linen cloath, 
stuffs, &c., which was a good benefite to y e people, 
till the Virginians found out their plantation. But 
that which turned most to their profite, in time, was 
an entrance into the trade of Wampampeake ; for they 

282 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

now bought aboute 50 U - worth of it of them ; and they 
tould them how vendable it was at their forte Orania ; 
and did perswade them they would find it so at Kene- 
beck ; and so it came to pass in time, though at first 
it stuck, & it was 2. years before they could put of 
this small quantity, till y e inland people knew of it; 
and afterwards they could scarce ever gett enough for 
them, for many years togeather. And so this, with 
their other provissions, cutt of they trade quite from 
y e fisher-men, and in great part from other of y c strag- 
ling planters. And strange it was to see the great all- 
teration it made in a few years amonge y e Indeans 
them selves ; for all the Indeans of these parts, & y e 
Massachussets, had none or very litle of it,* but y e 
sachems & some spetiall persons that wore a litle of 
it for ornamente. Only it was made & kepte amonge 
y e Nariganssets, & Pequents, which grew rich & potent 
by it, and these people were poore & begerly, and had 
no use of it. Neither did the English of this planta- 
tion, or any other in y e land, till now that they had 
knowledg of it from y c Dutch, so much as know what 
it was, much less y 1 it was a comoditie of that worth 
& valew. But after it grue thus to be a comoditie 
in these parts, these Indeans fell into it allso, and to 
learne how to make it; for y e Narigansets doe geather 
y e shells of which y ey make it from their shors. And 
it hath now continued a current comoditie aboute this 

* Peag. 


20. years, and it may prove a drugg in time. In y e 
mean time it niaks y e Indeans of these parts rich & 
power full and also prowd therby ; and fills them with 
peeces, powder, and shote, which no laws can restraine, 
by reasone of y e bassnes of sundry unworthy persons, 
both English, Dutch, & French, which may turne to 
y e mine of many. Hithertoo y e Indeans of these parts 
had no peeces nor other armes but their bowes & 
arrowes, nor of many years after; nether durst they 
scarce handle a gune, so much were they affraid of 
them ; and y e very sight of one (though out of kilter) 
was a terrour unto them. But those Indeans to y e east 
parts, which had comerce with y e French, got peces of 
them, and they in y e end made a commone trade of it ; 
and in time our English fisher-men, led with y e like 
covetoussnes, followed their example, for their owne 
gaine ; but upon complainte against them, it pleased 
the kings majestic to prohibite y e same by a stricte 
proclamation, commanding that no sorte of armes, or 
munition, should by any of his subjects be traded with 

Aboute some 3. or 4. years before this time, ther 
came over one Captaine Wolastone, (a man of pretie 
parts,) and with him 3. or 4. more of some eminencie, 
who brought with them a great many servants, with 
provissions & other implments for to begine a planta- 
tion ; and pitched them selves in a place within the 
Massachusets, which they called, after their Captains 


name, Mount- Wollaston. Amongst whom was one M r . 
Morton, who, it should seenie, had some small adventure 
(of his owne or other mens) amongst them; but had 
litle respecte [159] amongst them, and was sleghted 
by y e meanest servants. Haveing continued ther some 
time, and not finding things to answer their expecta- 
tions, nor profite to arise as they looked for, Captaine 
Wollaston takes a great part of y c sarvants, and trans- 
ports them to Virginia, wher he puts them of at good 
rates, selling their time to other men ; and writs back 
to one M r . Eassdall, one of his cheefe partners, and 
accounted their marchant, to bring another parte of 
them to Verginia likewise, intending to put them of 
ther as he had done y e rest. And he, w th y c consente 
of y e said Easdall, appoynted one Fitcher to be his 
Livetenante, and governe y e remaines of y e planta- 
tion, till he or Rasdall returned to take further order 
theraboute. But this Morton abovesaid, haveing more 
craft then honestie, (who had been a kind of petie- 
fogger, of Furnefells Inne,) in y e others absence, 
watches an oppertunitie, (commons being but hard 
amongst them,) and gott some strong drinck & other 
junkats, & made them a feast; and after they were 
merie, he begane to tell them, he would give them 
good counsell. You see (saith he) that many of your 
fellows are carried to Virginia; and if you stay till 
this Rasdall return e, you will also be carried away 
and sould for slaves with y e rest. Therfore I would 


advise you to thruste out this Levetenant Fitcher ; and 
I, having a parte in the plantation, will receive you 
as my partners and consociats ; so may you be free 
from service, and we will converse, trad, plante, & 
live togeather as equalls, & supporte & protecte one 
another, or to like effecte. This counsell was easily 
received ; so they tooke oppertunitie , and thrust Leve- 
tenante Fitcher out a dores, and would suffer him to 
come no more amongst them, but forct him to seeke 
bread to eate, and other releefe from his neigbours, 
till he could gett passages for England. After this 
they fell to great licenciousnes, and led a dissolute 
life, powering out them selves into all profanenes. 
And Morton became lord of misrule, and maintained 
(as it were) a schoole of Athisme. And after they 
had gott some good into their hands, and gott much 
by trading with y e Indeans, they spent it as vainly, 
in quaffing & drinking both wine & strong waters in 
great exsess, and, as some reported, 10 U . worth in a 
morning. They allso set up a May-pole, drinking and 
dancing aboute it many days togeather, inviting the 
Indean women, for their consorts, dancing and frisk- 
ing togither, (like so many fairies, or furies rather,) 
and worse practises. As if they had anew revived & 
celebrated the feasts of y e Roman Goddes Flora, or 
y e beasly practieses of y e madd Bacchinalians. Mor- 
ton likwise (to shew his poetrie) composed sundry 
rimes & verses, some tending to lasciviousnes, and 

286 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

others to y e detraction & scandall of some persons, 
which he affixed to this idle or idoll May-polle. They 
chainged allso the name of their place, and in stead 
of calling it Mounte Wollaston, they call it Merie- 
mounte, [160] as if this joylity would have lasted 
ever. But this continued not long, for after Morton 
was sent for England, *(as follows to be declared,) 
shortly after came over that worthy gentlman, M r . 
John Indecott, who brought over a patent under y e 
broad seall, for y e govermente of y e Massachusets, who 
visiting those parts caused y* May-polle to be cutt 
downe, and rebuked them for their profannes, and 
admonished them to looke ther should be better walk- 
ing ; so they now, or others, changed y e name of their 
place againe, and called it Mounte-Dagon. 

Now to maintaine this riotous prodigallitie and pro- 
fuse excess, Morton, thinking him selfe lawless, and 
hearing what gaine y e French & fisher-men made by 
trading of peeces, powder, & shotte to y e Indeans, he, 
as y e head of this consortship, begane y e practise of y e 
same in these parts ; and first he taught them how to 
use them, to charge, & discharg, and what proportion 
of powder to give y e peece, according to y e sise or 
bignes of y e same; and what shotte to use for foule, 
and what for deare. And having thus instructed them, 
he imployed some of them to hunte & fowle for him, 
so as they became farr more active in that imploy- 
mente then any of y e English, by reason of ther 


swiftnes of foote, & nimblnes of body, being also 
quick-sighted, and by continuall exercise well know- 
ing y e hants of all sorts of game. So as when they 
saw y e execution that a peece would doe, and y e bene- 
fite that might come by y e same, they became madd, 
as it were, after them, and would not stick to give 
any prise they could attaine too for them ; account- 
ing their bowes & arrowes but babies in comparison 
of them. 

And here I may take occasion to bewaile y e mis- 
chefe that this wicked man began in these parts, and 
which since base covetousnes prevailing in men that 
should know better, has now at length gott y e upper 
hand, and made this thing comone, notwithstanding any 
laws to y e contrary ; so as y e Indeans are full of peeces 
all over, both fouling peeces, muskets, pistols, &c. 
They have also their moulds to make shotte, of all 
sorts, as muskett bulletts, pistoll bullets, swane & gose 
shote, & of smaler sorts ; yea, some have seen them 
have their scruplats to make scrupins them selves, when 
they wante them, with sundery other implements, wher- 
with they are ordinarily better fited & furnished then 
y e English them selves. Yea, it is well knowne that 
they will have powder & shot, when the English want 
it, nor cannot gett it ; and y* in a time of warr or 
danger, as experience hath manifested, that when lead 
hath been scarce, and men for their owne defence would 
gladly have given a groat a li., which is dear enoughe, 


yet hath it bene bought up & sent to other places, 
and sould to shuch as trade it with y e Indeans, at 
12. pence y e ti. ; and it is like they give 3. or 4. s y e 
pound, for they will have it at any rate. And these 
things have been done in y e same times, when some of 
their neigbours & freinds are daly killed by y e Indeans, 
or are in deanger therof, and live but at y e Indeans 
mercie. [161] Yea, some (as they have aquainted them 
with all other things) have tould them how gunpowder 
is made, and all y e materialls in it, and that they are 
to be had in their owne land ; and I am confidente, 
could they attaine to make saltpeter, they would teach 
them to make powder. O the horiblnes of this vilanie ! 
how many both Dutch & English have been latly slaine 
by those Indeans, thus furnished; and no remedie pro- 
vided, nay, y e evill more increased, and y e blood of 
their brethren sould for gaine, as is to be feared; and 
in what danger all these colonies are in is too well 
known. Oh ! that princes & parlements would take 
some timly order to prevente this mischeefe, and at 
length to suppress it, by some exemplerie punishmente 
upon some of these gaine thirstie murderers, (for they 
deserve no better title,) before their collonies in these 
parts be over throwne by these barbarous savages, thus 
armed with their owne weapons, by these evill instru- 
ments, and tray tors to their neigbors and cuntrie. But 
I have forgott my selfe, and have been to louge in this 
digression ; but now to returne. This Morton having 


thus taught them y e use of peeces, he sould them all 
he could spare ; and he and his consorts detirmined 
to send for many out of England, and had by some 
of y e ships sente for above a score. The which being 
knowne, and his neigbours meeting y e Indeans in y e 
woods armed with guns in this sorte, it was* a terrour 
unto them, who lived straglingly, and were of no 
strenght in any place. And other places (though more 
remote) saw this mischeefe would quietly spread over 
all, if not prevented. Besides, they saw they should 
keep no servants, for Morton would entertaine any, 
how vile soever, and all y c scume of y e countrie, or 
any discontents, would flock to him from all places, 
if this nest was not broken; and they should stand 
in more fear of their lives & goods (in short time) 
from this wicked & deboste crue, then from y e sal- 
vages them selves. 

So sundrie of y e cheefe of y e stragling plantations, 
meeting togither, agreed by mutuall consente to sollissite 
those of Plimoth (who were then of more strength then 
them all) to joyne with them, to prevente y e further 
grouth of this mischeefe, and suppress Morton & his 
consortes before y ey grewe to further head and strength. 
Those that joyned in this acction (and after contributed 
to y e charge of sending him for England) were from 
Pascataway, Namkeake, Winisimett, Weesagascusett, 
Natasco, and other places wher any English were seated. 
Those of Plimoth being thus sought too by their mes- 

290 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

sengers & letters, and way ing both their reasons, and 
the coEnone danger, were willing to afford them their 
help ; though them selves had least cause of fear or 
hurte. So, to be short, they first resolved joyntly to 
write to him, and in a freindly & neigborly way 
to admonish him to forbear these courses, & sent 
a messenger with their letters to bring his answer. 
But he was so highe as he scorned all advise, and 
asked who had to doe with him ; he had and would 
trade peeces with y e Indeans in dispite of all, with 
many other scurillous termes full of disdaine. They 
sente to him a second time, and bad him be better 
advised, and more temperate in his termes, for y e 
countrie could not beare y e injure he did; it was 
against their comone saftie, and against y e king's proc- 
lamation. He answerd in high terms as before, and 
that y e kings proclaimation was no law ; demanding 
what penaltie was upon it. It was answered, more 
then he could [162] bear, his majesties displeasure. 
But insolently he persisted, and said y e king was dead 
and his displeasure with him, & many y e like things ; 
and threatened withall that if any came to molest 
him, let them looke to them selves, for he would pre- 
pare for them. Upon which they saw ther was no 
way but to take him ' by force ; and having so farr 
proceeded, now to give over would make him farr more 
hautie & insolente. So they mutually resolved to 
proceed, and obtained of y e Gov r of Plimoth to send 


Captaine Standish, & some other aide with him, to 
take Morton by force. The which accordingly was 
done ; but they found him to stand stifly in his de- 
fence, having made fast his dors, armed his consorts, 
set diverse dishes of powder & bullets ready on y e 
table ; and if they had not been over armed with drinke, 
more hurt might have been done. They somaned him 
to yeeld, but he kept his house, and they could gett 
nothing but scofes & scorns from him ; but at length, 
fearing they would doe some violence to y e house, he 
and some of his crue came out, but not to yeeld, but 
to shoote ; but they were so steeld with drinke as their 
peeces were to heavie for them; him selfe with a car- 
bine (over charged & allmost halfe fild with powder 
& shote, as was after found) had thought to have shot 
Captaine Standish; but he stept to him, & put by his 
peece, & tooke him. Neither was ther any hurte done 
to any of either side, save y l one was so drunke y 4 he 
rane his owne nose upon y e pointe of a sword y* one 
held before him as he entred y e house; but he lost 
but a litle of his hott blood. Morton they brought 
away to Plimoth, wher he was kepte, till a ship went 
from y e lie of Shols for England, with which he was 
sente to y e Counsell of New-England ; and letters writen 
to give them information of his course & cariage ; and 
also one was sent at their comone charge to informe 
their Ho rs more perticulerly, & to prosecute against 
him. But he foold of y e messenger, after he was gone 


from hence, and though he wente for England, yet 
nothing was done to him, not so much as rebukte, for 
ought was heard; but returned y e nexte year. Some 
of y e worst of y e company were disperst, and some 
of y e more modest kepte y e house till he should be 
heard from. But I have been too long aboute so un- 
worthy a person, and bad a cause. 

This year M r . Allerton brought over a yonge man 
for a minister to y e people hear, wheather upon his 
owne head, or at y e motion of some freinds ther, I 
well know not, but it was without y e churches send- 
ing; for they had bene so bitten by M r . Lyford, as 
they desired to know y e person well whom they should 
invite amongst them. His name was M r . Rogers ; but 
they perceived, upon some triall, that he was erased in 
his braine ; so they were faine to be at further charge 
to send him back againe y e nexte year, and loose all 
y e charge that was expended in his hither bringing, 
which was not smalle by M r . Allerton's accounte, in 
provissions, aparell, bedding, &c. After his returne 
he grue quite distracted, and M r . Allerton was much 
blamed y* he would bring such a man over, they hav- 
ing charge enough otherwise. 

M r . Allerton, in y e years before, had brought over 
some small quantie of goods, upon his owne perticuler, 
and sould them for his owne private benefite ; which 
was more then any man had yet hithertoo attempted. 
But because he had other wise done them good ser- 


vice, and also he sould them among y e people at y e 
plantation, by which their wants were supplied, and 
he aledged it was the [163] love of M r . Sherley and 
some other freinds that would needs trust him with 
some goods, conceiveing it might doe him some good, 
and none hurte, it was not much lookt at, but past 
over. But this year he brought over a greater quan- 
titie, and they were so interrnixte with y e goods of 
y e generall, as they knew not which were theirs, & 
w ch was his, being pact up together ; so as they well 
saw that, if any casualty had beefalne at sea, he might 
have laid y e whole on them, if he would ; for ther was 
no distinction. Allso what was most vendible, and 
would yeeld presente pay, usualy that was his; and 
he now begane allso to sell abroad to others of forine 
places, which, considering their comone course, they 
began to dislike. Yet because love thinkes no evill, 
nor is susspitious, they tooke his faire words for ex- 
cuse, and resolved to send him againe this year for 
England; considering how well he had done y e former 
bussines, and what good acceptation he had with their 
freinds ther ; as also seeing sundry of their freinds 
from Leyden were sente for, which would or might 
be much furthered by his means. Againe, seeing the 
patente for Kenebeck must be inlarged, by reason of 
y e former mistaks in the bounding of it, and it was 
conceived, in a maner, y e same charge would serve to 
inlarge this at home with it, and he that had begane 

294 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

y e former y e last year would be y e fittest to effecte 
this ; so they gave him instructions and sente him 
for England this year againe. And in his instructions 
bound him to bring over no goods on their accounte, 
but 50*. in hose & shoes, and some linen cloth, (as 
y ey were bound by covenante when they tooke y e 
trad;) also some trading goods to such a value; and 
in no case to exseed his instructions, nor rune them 
into any further charge; he well knowing how their 
state stood. Also y* he should so provide y l their 
trading goods came over betimes, and what so ever 
was sent on their accounte should be pact up by it 
selfe, marked with their marke, and no other goods 
to be mixed with theirs. For so he prayed them to 
give him such instructions as they saw good, and he 
would folow them, to prevente any jellocie or farther 
offence, upon the former forementioned dislikes. And 
thus they conceived they had well provided for all 

Anno Dom: 1629. 

M R . ALLERTON safly arriving in England, and deliv- 
ering his leters to their freinds their, and aquainting 
them with his instructions, found good acceptation with 
them, and they were very forward & willing to joyne 
with them in y e partnership of trade, & in y e charge 
to send over y e Leyden people ; a company wherof 
were ailready come out of Holand, and prepared to 
come over, and so were sent away before M r . Allerton 


could be ready to come. They had passage with y e 
ships that came to Salem, that brought over many 
godly persons to begine y e plantations & churches of 
Christ ther, & in y e Bay of Massachussets ; so their 
long stay & keeping back [164] was recompensed by 
y e Lord to ther freinds here with a duble blessing, 
in that they not only injoyed them now beyond ther 
late expectation, (when all their hops seemed to be 
cutt of,) but, with them, many more godly freinds 
& Christian breethren, as y e begining of a larger har- 
vest unto y e Lord, in y e increase of his churches & 
people in these parts, to y e admiration of many, and 
allmost wonder of y e world ; that of so small begin- 
ings so great things should insue, as time after mani- 
fested; and that here should be a resting place for so 
many of y e Lords people, when so sharp a scourge 
came upon their owne nation. But it was y e Lords 
doing, & it ought to be marvellous in our eyes. 

But I shall hear inserte some of their freinds letters, 
which doe best expresse their owne minds in these thir 

A leter of M r . Sherleys to y e Gov r . 

May 25, 1629.* 

S r : &c. Here are now many of your and our freinds 
from Leyden coming over, who, though for y e most parte 
be but a weak company, yet herein is a good parte of that 

* 1629, May 25, the first letter concerning the former company of Leyden 
people. Prince. 

296 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

end obtained which was aimed at, and which hath been so 
strongly opposed by some of our former adventurers. But 
God hath his working in these things, which man cannot 
frustrate. With them we have allso sent some servants in 
y e ship called the Talbut, that wente hence latly ; but these 
come in y e May-flower. M r . Beachamp & my selfe, with 
M r . Andrews & M r . Hatheiiy, are, with your love and lik- 
ing, joyned partners with you, &c. 

Your deputation we have received, and y e goods have 
been taken up & sould by your freind & agente, M r . Aller- 
ton, my selfe having bine nere 3. months in Holland, at 
Amsterdam & other parts in y e Low-Countries. I see further 
the agreemente you have made with y e generallitie, in which 
I cannot understand but you have done very well, both for 
them & you, and also for your freinds at Leyflen. M r . 
Beachamp, M r . Andrews, M r . Hatheiiey, & my selfe, doe 
so like and approve of it, as we are willing to joyne with 
you, and, God directing and inabling us, will be assisting 
and helpfull to you, y e best y* possiblie we can. Nay, had 
you not taken this course, I doe not see how you should 
accomplish y e end you first aimed at, and some others in- 
devored these years past. We know it must keep us from 
y e profite, which otherwise by y e blessing of God and your 
indeaours, might be gained; for most of those that came 
in May, & these now sente, though I hope honest & good 
people, yet not like to be helpfull to raise profite, but rather, 
ney, certaine must, some while, be chargable to you & us; 
at which it is lickly, had not this wise & discreete course 
been taken, many of your generalitie would have grudged. 
Againe, you say well in your letter, and I make no doubte 
but you will performe it, that now being but a few, on 
whom y e burthen must be, you will both menage it y e beter, 
and sett too it more cherfully, haveing no discontente nor 


contradiction, but so lovingly to joyne togeither, in affection 
and counsell, as God no doubte will blesse and prosper your 
honest labours & indeavors. And therfore in all respects 
I doe not see but you have done marvelously discreetly, & 
advisedly, and no doubt but it gives all parties good con- 
tente ; I mean y 4 are reasonable & honest men, such as 
make conscience of giving y e best satisfaction they be able 
for their debts, and y l regard not their owne perticuler so 
much as y e accomplishing of y e good end for which this 
bussines was first intended, &c. Thus desiring y e Lord 
to blese & prosper you, & all yours, and all our honest 
endeavors, I rest 

Your unfained & ever loving freind, 

Lon: March 8. 1629.* 

[165] That I may handle things together, I have 
put these 2. companies that came from Ley den in this 
place; though they came at 2. severall times, yet they 
both came out of England this year. The former com- 
pany, being 35. persons, were shiped in May, and 
arived here aboute August. The later were shiped in 
y e begining of March, and arived hear y e later end of 
May, 1630. M r . Sherleys 2. letters, y e effect wherof 
I have before related, (as much of them as is perti- 
nente,) mentions both. Their charge, as M r . Allerton 
brought it in afterwards on accounte, came to above 
550* 5 - besids ther fetching hither from Salem & y e 
Bay, wher they and their goods were landed; viz. 

* 1629-30, March 8th, the second letter concerning the latter company of 
Leyden people. Prince. 


their transportation from Holland to England, & their 
charges lying ther, and passages hither, with clothing 
provided for them. For I find by accounte for y e one 
company, 125. yeards of karsey, 127. ellons of linen 
cloath, shoes, 66. p r , with many other perticulers. The 
charge of y e other company is reckoned on y e severall 
families, some 50 tt ., some 40"., some 30*., and so more 
or less, as their number & expencess were. And besids 
all this charg, their freinds & bretheren here were to 
provid corne & other provissions for them, till they 
could reap a crope which was long before. Those that 
came in May were thus maintained upward of 16. or 18. 
months, before they had any harvest of their owne, & 
y e other by proportion. And all they could doe in y e 
mean time was to gett them some housing, and prepare 
them grounds to plant on, against the season. And 
this charg of maintaining them all this while was litle 
less then y e former sume. These things I note more 
perticulerly, for sundry regards. First, to shew a rare 
example herein of brotherly love, and Christian care 
in performing their promises and covenants to their 
bretheren, too, & in a sorte beyonde their power; 
that they should venture so desperatly to ingage them 
selves to accomplish this thing, and bear it so cheer- 
fully; for they never demanded, much less had, any 
repaymente of all these great sumes thus disbursed. 
2 ly . It must needs be that ther was more then of man 
in these acheevements, that should thus readily stire up 


y e harts of shuch able frinds to joyne in partnership 
with them in shuch a case, and cleave so faithfullie 
to them as these did, in so great adventures ; and the 
more because the most of them never saw their faces 
to this day ; ther being neither kindred, aliance, or 
other acquaintance or relations betweene any of them, 
then hath been before mentioned; it must needs be 
therfore the spetiall worke and hand of God. 3 ly . 
That these poore people here in a wilderness should, 
notwithstanding, be inabled in time to repay all these 
ingagments, and many more unjustly brought upon 
them through the unfaithfullnes of some, and many 
other great losses which they sustained, which will be 
made manifest, if y e Lord be pleased to give life and 
time. In y e mean time, I cannot but admire his ways 
and workes towards his servants, and humbly desire 
to blesse his holy name for his great mercies hithertoo. 
[166] The Ley den people being thus come over, and 
sundry of y e generalise seeing & hearing how great y e 
charg was like to be that was that way to be expended, 
they begane to murmure and repine at it, notwith- 
standing y e burden lay on other mens shoulders ; 
espetially at y e paying of y e 3. bushells of corne 
a year, according to y e former agreemente, when y e 
trad was lett for y e 6. years aforesaid. But to give 
them contente herein allso, it was promised them, that 
if they could doe it in y e time without it, they would 
never demand it of them; which gave them good con- 


tente. And indeed it never was paid, as will appeare 
by y e sequell. 

Concerning M r . Allertons proceedings about y e in- 
larging & confirming of their patent, both y* at home 
& Kenebeck, will best appere by another leter of 
M r . Sherleys; for though much time & money was 
expended aboute it, yet he left it unaccomplisht this 
year, and came without it. See M r . Sherleys letter. 

Most worthy & loving freinds, &c. 

Some of your letters I received in July, & some since 
by M r . Peirce, but till our maine bussines, y e patent, was 
granted, I could not setle my mind nor pen to writing. M r . 
Allerton was so turrrnoyled about it, as verily I would not 
nor could not have undergone it, if I might have had a 
thousand pounds ; but y e Lord so blessed his labours (even 
beyond expectation in these evill days) as he obtained y e 
love & favore of great men in repute & place. He got 
granted from y e Earle of Warwick & S r . Ferdinando Gorge 
all that M r . Winslow desired in his letters to me, & more 
also, which I leave to him to relate. Then he sued to y e 
king to confirme their grante, and to make you a corporation, 
and so to inable you to make & execute lawes, in such 
large & ample maner as y e Massachusett plantation hath it ; 
which y e king graciously granted, referring it to y e Lord 
Keeper to give order to y e solisiter to draw it up, if ther 
were a presidente for it. So y e Lord Keeper furthered it all 
he could, and allso y e solissiter ; but as Festus said to Paule, 
With no small s'ume of money obtained I this freedom ; for 
by y e way many ridells must be resolved, and many locks 
must be opened with y e silver, ney, y e golden key. Then 
it was to come to y e Lord Treasurer, to have his warrente 


for freeing y e custume for a certaine time ; but he would 
not doe it, but refferd it to y e Counsell table. And ther 
M r . Allerton atended day by day, when they sate, but could 
not gett his petition read. And by reason of M r . Peirce 
his staying with all y e passengers at Bristoll, he was forct 
to leave y e further prosecuting of it to a solissiter. But ther 
is no fear nor doubte but it will be granted, for he hath y e 
cheefe of them to freind; yet it will be marvelously need- 
full for him to returne by y e first ship y* comes from thence ; 
for if you had this confirmed, then were you compleate, 
and might bear such sway & goverment as were fitt for 
your ranke & place y* God hath called you unto ; and stope 
y e moueths of base and scurrulous fellowes, y* are ready 
to question & threaten you in every action you [167] doe. 
And besids, if you have y e custome free for 7. years inward, 
& 21. outward, y e charge of y e patent will be soone re- 
covered, and ther is no fear of obtaining* it. But such 
things must work by degrees ; men cannot hasten it as they 
would ; werefore we (I write in behalfe of all our partners 
here) desire you to be ernest with M r . Allerton to come, 
and his wife to spare him this one year more, to finish this 
great & waighty bussines, which we conceive will be much 
for your good, & I hope for your posteritie, and for many 
generations to come. 

Thus much of this letter. It was dated y e 19. March, 

By which it appears what progress was made herein, 
& in part what charge it was, and how left unfinished, 
and some reason of y e same ; but in truth (as was 

* This word is here substituted for recovering in the manuscript, on the 
authority of Bradford's Letter-Book. 

302 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

afterwards appehended) the meaine reason was M r . 
Allerton's policie, to have an opportunitie to be sent 
over againe, for other regards; and for that end pro- 
cured them thus to write. For it might then well 
enough have been finshed, if not with y* clause aboute 
y e custumes, which was M r . Allertons & M r . Sherleys 
device, and not at all thought on by y e colony here, 
nor much regarded, yet it might have been done with- 
out it, without all queston, having passed y e kings hand ; 
nay it was conceived it might then have beene done 
with it, if he had pleased ; but covetousnes never brings 
ought home, as y e proverb is, for this oppertunytie 
being lost, it was never accomplished, but a great deale 
of money veainly & lavishly cast away aboute it, as 
doth appear upon their accounts. But of this more in 
its place. 

M r . Alerton gave them great and just ofence in this 
(which I had omited * and almost forgotten), in 
bringing over this year, for base gaine, that unworthy 
man, and instrumente of mischeefe, Morton, who was 
sent home but y e year before for his misdemenors. He 
not only brought him over, but to y e towne (as it were 
to nose them), and lodged him at his owne house, and 
for a while used him as a scribe to doe his bussines, 
till he was caused to pack him away. So he wente to 
his old nest in y e Massachusets, wher it was not long 

* This paragraph is written on the reverse of the page immediately pre- 
ceding, in the original manuscript. 


but by his miscariage he gave them just occation to 
lay hands on him; and he was by them againe sent 
prisoner into England, wher he lay a good while in 
Exeter Jeole. For besids his miscariage here, he was 
vemently suspected for y e murder of a man that had 
adventured moneys with him, when he came first into 
New-England. And a warrente was sente from y e Lord 
Cheefe Justice to apprehend him, by vertue wherof he 
was by the Gov r of y e Massachusets sent into England ; 
and for other his misdeinenors amongst them, they 
demolisht his house, that it might be no longer a roost 
for shuch unclaine birds to nestle in. Yet he got free 
againe, and write an infamouse & scurillous booke 
against many godly & cheefe men of y e cuntrie ; full 
of lyes & slanders, and fraight with profane callumnies 
against their names and persons, and y e ways of 
God. After sundry years, when y e warrs were hott 
in England, he came againe into y e cuntrie, and was 
imprisoned at Boston for this booke and other things, 
being grown old in wickednes. 

Concerning y e rest of M r . Allertons instructions, in 
which they strictly injoyned him not to exceed above 
y* 50 U . in y e goods before mentioned, not to bring any 
but trading comodities, he followed them not at all, 
but did the quite contrarie ; bringing over many other 
sorts of retaile goods, selling what he could by the 
way on his owne accounte, and delivering the rest, 
which he said to be theirs, into y e store; and for 


trading goods brought but litle in comparison ; excusing 
the matter, they had laid out much about y e Laiden 
people, & patent, &c. And for other goods, they had 
much of them of ther owne dealings, without present 
disbursemente, & to like effect. And as for passing 
his bounds & instructions, he laid it on M r . Sherley, 
&c., who, he said, they might see his mind in his 
leters ; also that they had sett out Ashley at great 
charg; but next year they should have what trading 
goods they would send for, if things were now well 
setled, &c. And thus were they put ofl'; indeed M r . 
Sherley write things tending this way, but it is like he 
was overruled by M r . Allerton, and barkened more to 
him then to their letters from hence. 

Thus he further writs in y e former leter. 

I see what you write in your leters concerning y e over- 
coming & paying of our debts, which I confess are great, 
and had need be carf ully looked unto ; yet no doubt but 
we, joyning in love, may soone over-come them ; but we 
must follow it roundly & to purposs, for if we pedle out 
y e time of our trad, others will step in and nose us. But 
we know y l you have y l aquaintance & experience in y e coun- 
trie, as none have the like ; wherfore, freinds & partners, be 
no way discouraged with y e greatnes of y e debt, &c., but let 
us not fulfill y e proverbe, to bestow 12 d . on a purse, and put 
6 d . [168] in it; but as you and we have been at great charg, 
and undergone much for setling you ther, and to gaine ex- 
perience, so as God shall enable us, let us make use of it. 
And think not with 50 li . pound a yeare sent you over, to 
rayse shuch means as to pay our debts. We see a possi- 


billitie of good if you be well supplied, and fully furnished ; 
and cheefly if you lovingly agree. I know I write to godly 
and wise men, such as have lerned to bear one an others 
infirmities, and rejoyce at any ones prosperities ; and if 
I were able I would press this more, because it is hoped 
by some of your enimies, that you will fall out one with 
another, and so over throw your hopfull bussines. Nay, 
I have heard it crediblie reported, y 4 some have said, that 
till you be disjoynted by discontents & factions * amongst 
your sellves, it bootes not any to goe over, in hope of getting 
or doing good in those parts. But we hope beter things of 
you, and that you will not only bear one with another, but 
banish such thoughts, and not suffer them to lodg in your 
brests. God grant you may disappointe y e hopes of your 
foes, and procure y e hartie desire of your selves & freinds 
in this perticuler. 

By this it appears that ther was a kind of concurrance 
betweene M r . Allerton and them in these things, and 
that they gave more regard to his way & course in 
these things, then to y e advise from hence ; which made 
him bould to presume above his instructions, and to 
rune on in y c course he did, to their greater hurt after- 
wards, as will appear. These things did much trouble 
them hear, but they well knew not how to help it, 
being loath to make any breach or contention hear 
aboute ; being so premonished as before in y e leter 
above recited. An other more secrete cause was here- 
with concurrente; M r . Allerton had maried y c daughter 
of their Reverend Elder, M r . Brewster (a man beloved 

Fractions in the manuscript. 


& honoured amongst them, and who tooke great paines 
in teaching & dispenceing y e word of God unto them), 
whom they were loath to greeve or any way offend, 
so as they bore with much in that respecte. And with 
all M r . Allerton carried so faire with him, and procured 
such leters from M r . Sherley to him, with shuch ap- 
plause of M r . Allertons wisdom, care, and faithfullnes, 
in y e bussines ; and as things stood none were so fitte 
to send aboute them as he ; and if any should suggest 
other wise, it was rather out of en vie, or some other 
sinister respecte then other wise. Besids, though pri- 
vate gaine, I doe perswade my selfe, was some cause 
to lead M r . Allerton aside in these beginings, yet I 
thinke, or at least charitie caries me to hope, that he 
intended to deale faithfully with them in y e maine, and 
had such an opinion of his owne abillitie, and some 
experience of y e benefite that he had made in this 
singuler way, as he conceived he might both raise him 
selfe an estate, and allso be a means to bring in such 
profite to M r . Sherley, (and it may be y e rest,) as 
might be as lickly to bring in their moneys againe 
with advantage, and it may be sooner then from the 
generall way; or at least it was looked upon by some 
of them to be a good help ther unto ; and that neither 
he nor any other did intend to charge y e generall 
accounte with any thing that rane in perticuler ; or 
y 4 M r . Sherley or any other did purposs but y 1 y e 
general! should be first & fully supplyed. I say charitie 


makes me thus conceive ; though things fell out other 
wise, and they missed of their aimes, and y e generall 
suffered abundantly hereby, as will afterwards apear. 

[169] Togeither herewith sorted an other bussines 
contrived by M r . Allerton and them ther, w th out any 
knowledg of y e partners, and so farr proceeded in as 
they were constrained to allow therof, and joyne in 
y e same, though they had no great liking of it, but 
feared what might be y e evente of y e same. I shall 
relate it in a further part of M r . Sherley's leter as 

I am to aquainte you that we have thought good to joyne 
with one Edward Ashley (a man I thinke y l some of you 
know) ; but it is only of y 4 place wherof he hath a patente 
in M r . Beachamps name ; and to that end have furnished 
him with larg provissions, &c. Now if you please to be 
partners with us in this, we are willing you shall ; for after 
we heard how forward Bristoll men (and as I hear some 
able men of his owne kindricl) have been to stock & sup- 
ply him, hoping of profits, we thought it fitter for us to lay 
hould of such an opportunitie, and to keep a kind of riming 
plantation, then others who have not borne y e burthen of 
setling a plantation, as we have done. And he, on y e other 
side, like an understanding yonge man, thought it better to 
joyne with those y* had means by a plantation to supply 
& back him ther, rather then strangers, that looke but only 
after profile. Now it is not kuowne that you are partners 
with him; but only we 4., M r . Andrews, M r . Beachamp, my 
selfe, & M r . Hatherley, who desired to have y e patente, in 
consideration of our great loss we have allready sustained 
in setling y e first plantation ther ; so we agreed togeather to 


take it in our names. And now, as I said before, if you 
please to joyne with us, we are willing you should. M r . 
Allerton had no power from you to make this new con- 
tracte, neither was he willing to doe any thing therin with- 
out your consente & approbation. M r . William Peirce is 
joyned with us in this, for we thought it very conveniente, 
because of landing Ashley and his goods ther, if God please ; 
and he will bend his course accordingly. He hath a new 
boate with him, and boards to make another, with 4. or 5. 
lustie fellowes, wherof one is a carpenter. Now in case 
you are not willing in this perticuler to joyne with us, fear- 
ing y e charge & doubting y e success, yet thus much we in- 
treate of you, to afford him all the help you can, either by 
men, commodities, or boats ; yet not but y* we will pay 
you for any thing he hath. And we desire you to keep 
y e accounts apart, though you joyne with us; becase ther 
is, as you see, other partners in this then y e other ; so, for 
all mens wages, boats-hire, or comodities, which we shall 
have of you, make him debtore for it; and what you shall 
have of him, make y e plantation or your selves debtore 
for it to him, and so ther will need no mingling of y e ac- 

And now, loving freinds & partners, if you joyne in Ashles 
patent & bussines, though we have laid out y e money and 
taken up much to stock this bussines & the other, yet I 
thinke it conscionable and reasonable y 4 you should beare 
your shares and proportion of y e stock, if not by present 
money, yet by securing us for so much as it shall come 
too ; for it is not barly y e interest y 4 is to be alowed & con- 
sidered of, but allso y e adventure ; though I hope in God, 
by his blessing & your honest indeavors, it may soon be 
payed ; yet y e years y* this partnership holds is not long, 
nor many ; let all therfore lay it to harte, and make y e best, 
use of y e time that possiblie we cann, and let every man 


put too his shoulder, and y e burthen will be the lighter. 
I know you are so honest & conscionable men, as you will 
consider hereof, [170] and returne shuch an answer as may 
give good satisfaction. Ther is none of us that would ven- 
ture as we have done, were it not to strengthen & setle you 
more then our owne perticuler profite. 

Ther is no liclyhood of doing any good in buying y e debte 
for y e purchas. I know some will not abate y e interest, and 
therfore let it rune its course ; they are to be paied yearly, 
and so I hope they shall, according to agreemente. The 
Lord grant y* our loves & affections may still be united, 
and knit togeither ; and so we rest your ever loving friends, 


Bristoll, March 19. 1629. 

This mater of y e buying y e debts of y e purchass 
was parte of M r . Allertons instructions, and in many 
of them it might have been done to good profite for 
ready pay (as some were) ; but M r . Sherley had no 
mind to it. But this bussines aboute Ashley did not 
a litie trouble them ; for though he had wite & abillitie 
enough to menage y e bussines, yet some of them knew 
him to be a very profane yonge man ; and he had for 
some time lived amonge y e Indeans as a savage, & 
wente naked amongst them, and used their manors (in 
w ch time he got their language), so they feared he 
might still rune into evill courses (though he prom- 
ised better), and God would not prosper his ways. 
As soone as he was landed at y place intended, caled 
Penobscote, some 4. score leagues from this place, he 

310 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

write (& afterwards came) for to desire to be sup- 
plyed with Wampampeake, corne against winter, and 
other things. They considered these were of their 
cheefe comodities, and would be continually needed by 
him, and it would much prejudice their owne trade 
at Kenebeck if they did not joyne with him in y e 
ordering of things, if thus they should supply him ; 
and on y e other hand, if they refused to joyne with 
him, and allso to afford any supply unto him, they 
should greatly offend their above named friends, and 
might hapily lose them hereby ; and he and M r . Aller- 
ton, laying their craftie wits togither, might gett sup- 
plies of these things els wher; besids, they considered 
that if they joyned not in y e bussines, they knew M r . 
Allerton would be with them in it, & so would swime, 
as it were, betweene both, to y e prejudice of boath, 
but of them selves espetially. For they had reason 
to thinke this bussines was cheefly of his contriving, 
and Ashley was a man fitte for his turne and dealings. 
So they, to prevente a worse mischeefe, resolved to 
joyne in y e bussines, and gave him supplies in what 
they could, & overlooked his proceedings as well as 
they could ; the which they did y e better, by joyning 
an honest yonge man,* that came from Ley den, with 
him as his fellow (in some sorte), and not merely as 
a servante. Which yonge man being discreete, and 
one whom they could trust, they so instructed as 

* Thomas Willett. 


keept Ashley in some good mesure within bounds. 
And so they returned their answer to their freinds 
in England, that they accepted of their motion, and 
joyned with them in Ashleys bussines ; and yet with- 
all tould them what their fears were concerning 

But when they came to have full notice of all y e 
goods brought them that year, they saw they fell very 
short of trading goods, and Ashley farr better sup- 
pleyed then [171] themselves; so as they were forced 
to buy of the fisher men to furnish them selves, yea, 
& cottens & carseys & other such like cloath (for 
want of trading cloath) of M r . Allerton himselfe, and 
so to put away a great parte of their beaver, at under 
rate, in the countrie, which they should have sente 
home, to help to discharge their great ingagementes ; 
which was to their great vexation ; but M r . Allerton 
prayed them to be contente, and y e nexte yere they 
might have what they would write for. And their in- 
gagmentes of this year were great indeed when they 
came to know them, (which was not wholy till 2. 
years after) ; and that which made them y e more, M r . 
Allerton had taken up some large sumes at Bristoll at 
50. f> r cent, againe, which he excused, that he was 
forcte to it, because other wise he could at y e spring 
of year get no goods transported, such were their 
envie against their trade. But wheither this was any 
more then an excuse, some of them doubted ; but how- 


ever, y e burden did lye on their backs, and they must 
bear it, as they did many heavie loads more in y e 

This paying of 50. p r cent, and dificulty of having 
their goods trasported by y e fishing ships at y e first 
of y e year, (as was beleeved,) which was y e cheefe 
season for trade, put them upon another projecte. M r . 
Allerton, after y e fishing season was over, light of a 
bargan of salte, at a good fishing place, and bought 
it; which came to aboute 113 11 . ; and shortly after he 
might have had 30 H . cleare profite for it, without any 
more trouble aboute it. But M r . Winslow coming that 
way from Kenebeck, & some other of ther partners 
with him in y e barke, they mett with M r . Allerton, 
and falling into discourse with him, they stayed him 
from selling y e salte ; and resolved, if it might please 
y e rest, to keep it for them selves, and to hire a ship 
in y e west cuntrie to come on fishing for them, on 
shares, according to y e coustome ; and seeing she might 
have her salte here ready, and a stage ready builte 
& fitted wher the salt lay safely landed & housed. 
In stead of bringing salte, they might stowe her full 
of trading goods, as bread, pease, cloth, &c., and so 
they might have a full supply of goods without paing 
fraight, and in due season, which might turne greatly to 
their advantage. Coming home, this was propounded, 
and considered on, and aproved by all but y e Gov r , 
who had no mind to it, seeing they had allway lost 


by fishing; but y e rest were so ernest, as thinkeing 
that they might gaine well by y e fishing in this way ; 
and if they should but save, yea, or lose some thing 
by it, y e other benefite would be advantage inough ; 
so, seeing their ernestnes, he gave way, and it was 
referd to their freinds in England to alow, or disalow 
it. Of which more in its place. 

Upon y e consideration of y e bussines about y e paten, 
& in what state it was left, as is before remembred, 
and M r . Sherleys ernest pressing to have M r . Allerto 
to come over againe to finish it, & perfect y e accounts, 
&c., it was concluded to send him over this year 
againe ; though it was w r ith some fear & jeolocie ; yet 
he gave them fair words and promises of well perform- 
ing all their bussineses according to their directions, 
and to mend his former errors. So he was accordingly 
sent with full instructions for all things, with large let- 
ters to M r . Sherley & y e rest, both aboute Ashley s 
bussines and their owne suply with trading comodities, 
and how much it did concerne them to be furnished 
therwith, & what y e had suffered for wante therof ; and 
of what litle use other goods were [172] in com- 
parison therof; and so likewise aboute this fishing ship, 
to be thus hired, and fraught with trading goods, 
which might both supply them & Ashley, and y e 
benefite therof; which was left to their consideration 
to hire & set her out, or not; but in no case not to 
send any, exepte she was thus fraighte with trading 


goods. But what these things came too will appere 
in y e next years passages. 

I had like to have omited an other passage that 
fell out y e begining of this year. Ther was one M r . 
Ealfe Smith, & his wife & familie, y 1 came over into 
y e Bay of y e Massachusets, and sojourned at presente 
with some stragling people that lived at Natascoe ; here 
being a boat of this place putting in ther on some 
occasion, he ernestly desired that they would give him 
& his, passage for Plimoth, and some such things as 
they could well carrie ; having before heard -y* ther was 
liklyhood he might procure house-roome for some time, 
till he should resolve to setle ther, if he might, or 
els-wher as God should disposs ; for he was werie of 
being in y* uncoth place, & in a poore house y i would 
neither keep him nor his goods drie. So, seeing him to 
be a grave man, & understood he had been a minister, 
though they had no order for any such thing, yet they 
presumed and brought him. He was here accordingly 
kindly entertained & housed, & had y e rest of his goods 
& servants sente for, and exercised his gifts amongst 
them, and afterwards was chosen into y e ministrie, and 
so remained for sundrie years. 

It was before noted that sundry of those that came 
from Ley den, came over in the ships y* came to Salem, 
wher M r . Endecott had cheefe comand ; and by infection 
that grue amonge y e passengers at sea, it spread also 
among them a shore, of which many dyed, some of y e 


scurvie, other of an infectious feaoure, which continued 
some time amongst them (though our people, through 
Gods goodnes, escaped it). Upon which occasion he 
write hither for some help, understanding here was one 
that had some skill y* way, & had cured diverse of y e 
scurvie, and others of other diseases, by letting blood, 
& other means. Upon which his request y e Gov r hear 
sent him unto them, and also write to him, from whom 
he received an answere ; the which, because it is breefe, 
and shows y e begining of their aquaintance, and closing 
in y e truth & ways of God, I thought it not unmeete, 
nor without use, hear to inserte it ; and an other show- 
ing y e begining of their fellowship & church estate ther. 
Being as followeth. 

Right worthy S r : 

It is a thing not usuall, that servants to one m r . and of y e 
same houshold should be strangers ; I assure you I desire it 
not, nay, to speake more plainly, I cannot be so to you. 
Gods people are all marked with one and y e same marke, 
and sealed with one andy e same seale, and have for y e maine, 
one & y e same harte, guided by one & same spirite of 
truth ; and wher this is, ther can be no discorde, nay, here 
must needs be sweete harmonic. And y e same request (with 
you) I make unto y e Lord, that we may, as Christian 
breethren, be united by a heavenly & unfained love ; bend- 
ing all our harts and forces in furthering a worke be- 
yond our strength, with reverence & fear, fastening our eyse 
allways on him that only is able to clirecte and prosper all 
our ways. I acknowledge my selfe much bound to you for 
your kind love and care in sending M r . Fuller among us, 


and rejoyce much y { I am by him satisfied touching your 
judgments of y e outward forme of Gods worships. It is, as 
farr as [173] I can yet gather, no other then is warrented 
by y e evidence of truth, and y e same which I have proffessed 
and maintained 1 ever since y e Lord in mercie revealed him 
selfe unto me ; being farr from y e commone reporte that 
hath been spread of you touching that perticuler. But Gods 
children must not looke for less here below, and it is y e 
great mercie of God, that he strengthens them to goe through 
with it. I shall not neede at this time to be tedious unto 
you, for, God willing, I purpose to see your face shortly. 
In y e mean time, I humbly take my leave of you, comiting 
you to y e Lords blessed protection, & rest, 

Your assured loving friend, 

Naumkeak, May 11. Au. 1629. 

This second leter sheweth ther proceedings in their 
church affaires at Salem, which was y e 2. church erected 
in these parts ; and afterwards y e Lord established many 
more in sundrie places. 

S r : I make bould to trouble you with a few lines, for to 
certifie you how it hath pleased God to deale with us, since 
you heard from us. How, notwithstanding all opposition 
that hath been hear, & els wher, it hath pleased God to lay 
a foundation, the which I hope is agreeable to his word in 
every thing. The 20. of July, it pleased y e Lord to move 
y e hart of our Gov r to set it aparte for a solemne clay of 
humilliation for y e choyce of a pastor & teacher. The former 
parte of y e day being spente in praier & teaching, the later 
parte aboute y e election, which was after this maner. The 
persons thought on (who had been ministers in England) 


were demanded concerning their callings ; they acknowledged 
ther was a towfould calling, the one an inward calling, 
when y e Lord moved y e harte of a man to take y l calling 
upon him, and fitted him with guiftes for y e same ; the 
second was an outward calling, which was from y e people, 
when a company of beleevers are joyned togither in cove- 
nante, to walke togither in all y e ways of God, and every 
member (being men) are to have a free voyce in y e choyce 
of their officers, &c. Now, we being perswaded that these 
2. men were so quallified, as y e apostle speaks to Timothy, 
wher he saith, A bishop must be blamles, sober, apte to 
teach, &c., I thinke I may say, as y e eunuch said unto 
Philip, What should let from being baptised, seeing ther 
was water? and he beleeved. So these 2. servants of God, 
clearing all things by their answers, (and being thus fitted,) 
we saw noe reason but we might freely give our voyces for 
their election, after this triall. So M r . Skelton was chosen 
pastor, and M r . Higgison to be teacher ; and they accepting 
y e choyce, M r . Higgison, with 3. or 4. of y e gravest mem- 
bers of y e church, laid their hands on M r . Skelton, using 
prayer therwith. This being done, ther was imposission of 
hands on M r . Higgison also. And since that time, Thursday 
(being, as I take it, y e 6. of August) is appoynted for 
another day of humilliation, for y e choyce of elders & 
deacons, & ordaining of them. 

And now, good S r , I hope y* you & y e rest of Gods people 
(who are aquainted with the ways of God) with you, will 
say that hear was a right foundation layed, and that these 2. 
blessed servants of y e Lord came in at y e dore, and not at y e 
window. Thus I have made bould to trouble you with these 
few lines, desiring you to remember us, &c. And so rest, 
At your service in what I may, 


Salem, July 30. 1629. 


[174] Anno .Dom: 1630. 

ASHLEY, being well supplyed, had quickly gathered 
a good parcell of beaver, and like a crafty pate he 
sent it all home, and would not pay for y e goods he 
had had of y e plantation hear, but lett them stand still 
on y e score, and tooke up still more. Now though 
they well enough knew his aime, yet they let him goe 
on, and write of it into England. But partly y e beaver 
they received, & sould, (of which they weer sencible,) 
and partly by M r . Allertons extolling of him, they cast 
more how to supplie him then y e plantation, and some- 
thing to upbraid them with it. They were forct to 
buy him a barke allso, and to furnish her w th a m r . & 
men, to transporte his corne & provissions (of which 
he put of much) ; for y e Indeans of those parts have 
no corne growing, and at harvest, after corne is ready, 
y e weather grows foule, and y e seas dangerous, so as 
he could doe litle good with his shallope for y 1 pur- 

They looked ernestly for a timely supply this spring, 
by the fishing ship which they expected, and had been 
at charg to keepe a stage for her ; but none came, nor 
any supply heard of for them. At length they heard 
sume supply was sent to Ashley by a fishing ship, at 
which they something marvelled, and the more y* they 
had no letters either from M r . Allerton or M r . Sherley ; 
so they went on in their bussines as well as y e could. 


At last they heard of M r . Peirce his arivall in y e Bay 
of y e Massachusetts, who brought passengers & goods 
thither. They presently sent a shallop, conceiving they 
should have some thing by him. But he tould them 
he had none ; and a ship was sett out on fishing, but 
after 11. weeks beating at sea, she mett with shuch 
ibull weather as she was forcte back againe for Eng- 
land, and, y e season being over, gave off y e vioage. 
Neither did he hear of much goods in her for y e plan- 
tation, or y 1 she did belong to them, for he had heard 
some thing from M r . Allerton tending that way. But 
M r . Allerton had bought another ship, and was to 
come in her, and was to fish for bass to y e east- 
ward, and to bring goods, &c. These things did much 
trouble them, and half astonish them. M r . Winslow 
haveing been to y e eastward, brought nuese of the like 
things, w th some more perticulers, and y 4 it was like 
M r . Allerton would be late before he came. At length 
they, having an oppertunitie, resolved to send M r . 
Winslow, with what beaver they had ready, into Eng- 
land, to see how y e squars wente, being very jeolouse 
of these things, & M r . Allertons courses ; and writ 
shuch leters, and gave him shuch instructions, as they 
thought meet ; and if he found things not well, to dis- 
charge M r . Allerton for being any longer agent for 
them, or to deal any more in y e bussines, and to see 
how y e accounts stood, &c. 

Aboute y e midle of somer arrives M r . Hatherley in 


y c Bay of y e Massachusetts, (being one of y e part- 
ners,) and came over in y e same ship that was set 
out on fhishing (called y e Frendship). They presently 
sent to him, making no question but now they had 
goods come, and should know how all things stood. 
But they found [175] the former news true, how this 
ship had been so long at sea, and spente and spoyled 
her provissions, and overthrowne y e viage. And he 
being sent over by y e rest of y e partners, to see how 
things wente hear, being at Bristoll with M r . Allerton, 
in y e shipe bought (called y e White- Angell), ready to 
set sayle, over night came a messenger from Bastable 
to M r . Allerton, and tould him of y e returne of y e 
ship, and what had befallen. And he not knowing 
what to doe, having a great chareg under hand, y e 
ship lying at his rates, and now ready to set sayle, 
got him to goe and discharg y e ship, and take order 
for y e goods. To be short, they found M r . Hatherley 
some thing reserved, and troubled in him selfe, (M r . 
Allerton not being ther,) not knowing how to dispose 
of y c goods till he came ; but he heard he was arived 
with y e other ship to y e eastward, and expected his 
coming. But he tould them ther was not much for 
them in this ship, only 2. packs of Bastable ruggs, and 
2. hoggsheads of meatheglin, drawne out in wooden 
flackets (but when these flackets came to be received, 
ther was left but 6. gallons of y e 2. hogsheads, it be- 
ing drunke up under y e name leackage, and so lost). 


But the ship was filled with goods for sundrie gentle- 
men, & others, that were come to plant in y e Mas- 
sachusets, for which they payed fraight by y e tun. 
And this was all the satisfaction they could have at 
presente, so they brought this small parcell of goods 
& returned with this nues, and a letter as obscure ; 
which made them much to marvell therat. The letter 
was as folio weth. 

Gentle-men, partners, and loving friends, &c. 

Breefly thus : wee have this year set forth a fishing ship, 
and a trading ship, which later we have bought ; and so 
have disbursed a great deale of money, as may and will 
appeare by y e accounts. And because this ship (called y e 
White Angell) is to acte 2. parts, (as I may say,) fishing 
for bass, and trading ; and that while M r . Allerton was im- 
ployed aboute y e trading, the fishing might suffer by car- 
lesnes or neglecte of y e sailors, we have entreated your and 
our loving friend, M r . Hatherley, to goe over with him, 
knowing he will be a comforte to M r . Allerton, a joye to 
you, to see a carfull and loving friend, and a great stay to 
y e bussines ; and so great contente to us, that if it should 
please God y e one should faile, (as God forbid,) yet y e other 
would keepe both recconings, and things uprighte. For we 
are now out great sumes of money, as they will acquainte 
you withall, &c. When we were out but 4. or 5. hundred 
pounds a peece, we looked not much after it, but left it to 
you, & your agente, (who, without flaterie, deserveth infinite 
thanks & comendations, both of you & us, for his pains, 
&c.) ; but now we are out double, nay, trible a peece, some 
of us, &c. ; which maks us both write, and send over our 
friend, M r . Hatherley, whom we pray you to entertaine kindly, 
of which we doubte not of. The main end of sending him 


is to see y e state and accounte of all y e bussines, of all which 
we pray you informe him fully, though y e ship & bussines 
wayte for it and him. For we should take it very unkindly 
that we should intreat him to take such a journey, and that, 
when it pleaseth God he returnes, he could not give us con- 
tente & satisfaction in this perticuler, through defaulte of 
any of you. [176] But we hope you will so order bussines, 
as neither he nor we shall have cause to complaine, but to 
doe as we ever have done, thinke well of you all, &c. I 
will not promise, but shall indeaour & hope to effecte y e full 
desire and grant of your patente, & that ere it be longe. 
I would not have you take any thing unkindly. I have 
not write out of jeolocie of any unjuste dealing. Be you 
all kindly saluted in y e Lord, so I rest, 

Yours in what I may, 

March 25. 1630. 

It needs not be thought strange, that these things 
should amase and trouble them ; first, that this fishing 
ship should be set out, ancl fraight with other mens 
goods, & scarce any of theirs ; seeing their ruaine end 
was (as is before remembred) to bring them a full 
supply, and their speatiall order not to sett out any 
excepte this was done. And now a ship to come on 
their accounte, clean contrary to their both end & order, 
was a misterie they could not understand ; and so much 
y e worse, seeing she had shuch ill success as to lose 
both her vioage & provissions. The 2. thing, that 
another ship should be bought and sente out on new 
designes, a thing not so much as once thought on by 


any here, much less, not a word intimated or spoaken 
of by any here, either by word or letter, neither could 
they imagine why this should be. Bass fishing was 
never lookt at by them, but as soone as ever they 
heard on it, they looked at it as a vaine thing, that 
would certainly turne to loss. And for M r . Allerton 
to follow any trade for them, it was never in their 
thoughts. And 3 ly , that their frieds should complaine 
of disbursements, and yet rune into such great things, 
and charge of shiping & new projects of their owne 
heads, not only without, but against, all order & advice, 
was to them very strang. And 4 ly , that all these mat- 
ters of so great charg & imployments should be thus 
wrapped up in a breefe and obscure letter, they knew 
not what to make of it. But amids all their doubts 
they must have patience till M r . Allerton & M r . 
Hatherley should come. In y e mean time M r . Winslow 
was gone for England; and others of them were forst 
to folow their imployments with y e best means they 
had, till they could hear of better. 

At length M r . Hatherley & M r . Allerton came unto 
them, (after they had delivered their goods, ) and find- 
ing them strucken with some sadnes aboute these 
things, M r . Allerton tould them that y e ship Whit- 
Angele did not belong to them, nor their accounte, 
neither neede they have any thing to doe with her, 
excepte they would. And M r . Hatherley confirmed y e 
same, and said that they would have had him to have 


had a parte, but he refused ; but he made question 
whether they would not turne her upon y e generall 
accounte, if ther came loss (as he now saw was like), 
seeing M r . Allerton laid downe this course, and put 
them on this projecte. But for y e fishing ship, he tould 
them they need not be so much troubled, for he had 
her accounts here, and showed them that her first set- 
ing out came not much to exceed 600 U . as they might 
see by y e accounte, which he showed them; and for 
this later viage, it would arrise to profite by y c fraight 
of y e goods, and y e salle of some katle which he shiped 
and had allready sould, & was to be paid for partly 
here & partly by bills into England, so as they should 
not have this put on their acounte at all, except they 
[178] * would. And for y e former, he had sould so 
much goods out of her in England, and imployed y e 
money in this 2. viage, as it, togeither with such goods 
& implements as M r . Allerton must need aboute his 
fishing, would rise to a good parte of y e money ; for he 
must have y e sallt and nets, allso spiks, nails, &c. ; 
all which would rise to nere 400*. ; so, with y e bearing 
of their parts of y e rest of y e loses (which would not 
be much above 200 U .), they would clear them of this 
whole accounte. Of which motion they were glad, not 
being willing to have any accounts lye upon them; but 
aboute their trade, which made them willing to harken 
therunto, and demand of M r . Hatherley how he could 

* 177 is omitted in MS. 


make this good, if they should agree their unto, he 
tould them he was sent over as their agente, and had 
this order from them, that whatsoever he and M r . 
Allerton did togeather, they would stand to it; but 
they would not alow of what M r . Allerton did alone, 
except they liked it ; but if he did it alone, they would 
not gaine say it. Upon which they sould to him & M r . 
Allerton all y e rest of y e goods, and gave them present 
possession of them; and a writing was made, and con- 
firmed under both M r . Hatherleys and M r . Allertons 
hands, to y e efiecte afforesaide. And M r . Allertone, 
being best aquainted w th y e people, sould away presenly 
all shuch goods as he had no need of for y e fishing, 
as 9. shallop sails, made of good new canvas, and y e 
roads for them being all new, with sundry such usefull 
goods, for ready beaver, by M r . Hatherleys allowance. 
And thus they thought they had well provided for 
them selvs. Yet they rebuked M r . Allerton very much 
for runing into these courses, fearing y e success of them. 
M r . Allerton & M r . Hatherley brought to y e towne with 
them (after he had sould what he could abroad) a great 
quantity of other goods besids trading comodities ; as 
linen cloath, bedticks, stockings, tape, pins, ruggs, &c., 
and tould them they were to have them, if they would; 
but they tould M r . Allerton that they had forbid him 
before for bringing any such on their accounte ; it 
would hinder their trade and returnes. But he & M r . 
Hatherley said, if they would not have them, they 

326 HISTOKY or [BOOK n. 

would sell them, them selves, and take corne for what 
they could not otherwise sell. They tould them they 
might, if they had order for it. The goods of one 
sorte & other came to upward of 500 li . 

After these things, M r . Allerton wente to y e ship 
aboute his bass fishing; and M r . Hatherley, (according 
to his order,) after he tooke knowledg how things stood 
at y e plantation, (of all which they informed him 
fully,) he then desired a boate of them to goe and 
visite y e trading houeses, both Kenebeck, and Ashley 
at Penobscote ; for so they in England had injoyned 
him. They accordingly furnished him with a boate & 
men for y e viage, and aquainted him plainly & thorowly 
with all things ; by which he had good contente and. 
satisfaction, and saw plainly y* M r . Allerton plaid his 
owne game, and rane a course not only to y e great 
wrong & detrimente of y e plantation, who imployed & 
trusted him, but abused them in England also, in pos- 
sessing them with prejudice against y e plantation ; as 
y* they would never be able to repaye their moneys 
(in regard of their great charge), but if [179] they 
would follow his advice and projects, he & Ashley 
(being well supplyed) would quickly bring in their 
moneys with good advantage. M r . Hatherley disclosed 
also a further projecte aboute y e setting out of this 
ship, y e White-angell ; how, she being wel fitted with 
good ordnance, and known to have made a great fight 
at sea (when she belongd to Bristoll) and caried away 


y e victory, they had agreed (by M r . Allerton's means) 
that, after she had brought a fraight of goods here into 
y e countrie, and fraight her selfe with fish, she should 
goe from hence to Port of porte,* and ther be sould, 
both ship, goods, and ordenance ; and had, for this 
end, had speech with a factore of those parts, before- 
hand, to whom she should have been consigned. But 
this was prevented at this time, (after it was known,) 
partly by y e contrary advice given by their freinds 
hear to M r . Allerton & M r . Hatherley, showing how it 
might insnare their friends in England, (being men 
of estate,) if it should come to be knowne ; and for 
y e plantation, they did and would disalow it, and pro- 
test against it; and partly by their bad viage, for 
they both came too late to doe any good for fishing, 
and allso had such a wicked and drunken company as 
neither M r . Allerton nor any els could rule ; as M r . 
Hatherley, to his great greefe & shame, saw, & be- 
held, and all others that came nere them. 

Ashley likwise was taken in a trape, (before M r . 
Hatherley returned,) for trading powder < shote with 
y e Indeans ; and was ceased upon by some in author- 
itie, who allso would have confiscated above a thousand 
weight of beaver; but y e goods were freed, for y e 
Gov r here made it appere, by a bond under Ashleys 
hand, wherin he was bound to them in 500 11 . not to 
trade any munition with y e Indeans, or other wise 

* Oporto, called by the Dutch Port a port. 

328 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

to abuse him selfe ; it was also manifest against him 
that he had comited uncleannes with Indean women, 
(things that they feared at his first imployment, which 
made them take this strict course with him in y e be- 
gining) ; so, to be shorte, they gott their goods freed, 
but he was sent home prisoner. And that I may make 
an end concerning him, after some time of imprison- 
mente in y e Fleet, by y e means of friends he was set 
at liberty, and intended to come over againe, but y e 
Lord prevented it; for he had a motion made to him, 
by some marchants, to goe into Kussia, because he had 
such good skill in y e beaver trade, 'the which he ac- 
cepted of, and in his returne home was cast away at 
sea ; this was his end. 

M r . Hatherley, fully understanding y e state of all 
things, had good satisfaction, and could well informe 
them how all things stood betweene M r . Allerton and 
y e plantation. Yea, he found y 1 M r . Allerton had gott 
within him, and [180] got all y e goods into his owne 
hands, for which M r . Hatherley stood joyntly ingaged 
to them hear, aboute y e ship-Freidship, as also most 
of y e fraigte money, besids some of his owne perticuler 
estate ; about w ch more will appear here after. So he 
returned into England, and they sente a good quantity 
of beaver with him to y e rest of y e partners ; so both 
he and it was very wellcome unto them. 

M r . Allerton followed his affaires, & returned with 
his White Angell, being no njore imployed by y e plan- 


tation ; but these bussinesses were not ended till many 
years after, nor well understood of a longe time, but 
foulded up in obscuritie, & kepte in y e clouds, to y e 
great loss & vexation of y e plantation, who in y e end 
were (for peace sake) forced to bear y e unjust burthen 
of them, to their allmost undoing, as will appear, if 
God give life to finish this history. 

They sent their letters also by M r . Hatherley to y e 
partners ther, to show them how M r . Hatherley & 
M r . Allerton had discharged them of y e Friendships 
accounte, and that they boath affirmed y* the White- 
Angell did not at all belong to them; and therfore 
desired that their accounte might not be charged ther- 
with. Also they write to M r . Winslow, their agente, 
that he in like maner should (in their names) protest 
against it, if any such thing should be intended, for 
they would never yeeld to y e same. As allso to sig- 
nifie to them that they renounsed M r . Allerton wholy, 
for being their agente, or to have any thing to doe in 
any of their bussines. 

This year John Billinton y e elder (one that came 
over with y e first) was arrained, and both by grand 
& petie jurie found guilty of willfull murder, by plaine 
& notorious evidence. And was for the same accord- 
ingly executed.* This, as it was y e first execution 

Hubbard, on page 101, notices the execution of Billington as taking 
place "about September" of this year. "The murtherer expected that, 
either for want of power to execute for capital offences, or for want of 

330 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

amongst them, so was it a mater of great sadnes unto 
them. They used all due means about his triall, and 
tooke y e advice of M r . Winthrop and other y e ablest 
gentle-men in y e Bay of y e Massachusets, that were 
then new-ly come over, who concured with them y* he 
ought to dye, and y e land to be purged from blood. 
He and some of his had been often punished for mis- 
cariags before, being one of y e profanest families amongst 
them. They came from London, and I know not by 
what freinds shufled into their company. His facte was, 
that he way-laid a yong-man, one John New-comin, 
(about a former quarell,) and shote him with a gune, 
wherof he dyed.* 

Having by a providence a letter or to y t came to 
my hands concerning the proceedings of their Re d : 
freinds in y e Bay of y e Massachusets, who were latly 
come over, I thought it not amise here to inserte 
them, (so farr as is pertenente, and may be usefull 
for after times,) before I conclude this year. 

S r : Being at Salem y e 25. of July, being y e saboath, after 
y e eveing exercise, M r . Johnson received a letter from y e 

people to increase the plantation, he should have his life spared; but jus- 
tice otherwise determined, and rewarded him, the first murtherer of his neigh- 
bour there, with the deserved punishment of death, for a warning to others." 
The first offence committed in the colony was by Billington, in 1621, who, 
for contempt of the Captain's lawful command, with opprobrious speeches, 
was adjudged to have his neck and heels tied together. Prince, I. 103, from 
Bradford's pocket-book. 

* This paragraph was written on the reverse of page 180 of the original 
manuscript, near this place. 


Gov r , M r . John Winthrop, manifesting y e hand of God to 
be upon them, and against them at Charles-towne, in visit- 
ing them with sicknes, and taking diverse from amongst 
them, not sparing y e righteous, but partaking with y e wicked 
in these bodily judgments. It was therfore by his desire 
taken into y e Godly consideration of y e best hear, what was 
to be done to pacific y e Lords wrath, &c. Wher it was con- 
cluded, that the Lord was to be sought in righteousnes ; and 
to that end, y e 6. day (being Friday) of this present weeke, 
is set aparte, that they may humble them selves before God, 
and seeke him in his ordenances ; and that then also such 
godly persons that are amongst them, and know each to 
other, may publickly, at y e end of their exercise, make 
known their Godly desire, and practise y e same, viz. solemly 
to enter into [181] covenante with y e Lord to walke in his 
ways. And since they are so disposed of in their outward 
estats, as to live in three distinct places, each having men 
of abilitie amongst them, ther to observe y e day, and be- 
come 3. distincte bodys ; not then intending rashly to pro- 
ceed to y e choyce of officers, or y e admitting of any other 
to their societie then a few, to witte, such as are well knowue 
unto them ; promising after to receive in such by confession 
of faith, as shall appeare to be fitly qualified for y estate. 
They doe ernestly entreate that y e church of Plimoth would 
set apparte y e same day, for y e same ends, beseeching y e 
Lord, as to withdraw his hand of correction from them, so 
also to establish and direct them in his wayes. And though 
y e time be shorte, we pray you be provocked to this godly 
worke, seing y e causes are so urgente ; wherin God will be 
honoured, and they & we undoubtedly have sweete corn- 
forte. Be you all kindly saluted, &c. 

Your brethren in Christ, &c. 
Salem, July 26. 1630. 


S r : fec. The sacld news here is, that many are sicke, and 
many are dead ; y e Lord in mercie looke upon them. Some 
are here entered into church covenante ; the first were 4. 
namly, y e Gov r , M r . John Winthrop, M r . Johnson, M r . Dud- 
ley, and M r . "VVillson ; since that 5. more are joyned unto 
them, and others, it is like, will adde them selves to them 
dayly ; the Lord increase them, both in number and in holi- 
nes for his mercie sake. Here is a gentleman, one M r . Cot- 
tington, (a Boston man,) who tould me, that M p . Cottons 
charge at Hamton was, that they should take advise of 
them at Plimoth, and should doe nothing to offend them. 
Here are diverce honest Christians that are desirous to see 
us, some out of love which they bear to us, and y e good 
perswasion they have of us ; others to see whether we be so 
ill as they have heard of us. We have a name of holines, 
and love to God and his saincts ; the Lord make us more 
and more answerable, and that it may be more then a name, 
or els it will doe us no good. Be you lovingly saluted, and 
all the rest of our friends. The Lord Jesus blese us, and y e 
whole Israll of God. Amen. 

Your loving brother, &c. 

Charles- towne, Aug. 2. 1630. 

Thus out of smalle beginings greater things have been 
prodused by his hand y l made all things of nothing, 
and gives being to all things that are ; and as one 
small candle may light a thousand, so y e light here 
kindled hath shone to many, yea in some sorte to our 
whole nation ; let y e glorious name of Jehova have all 
y e praise. 


[182] ^l/iTio Dom: 1631. 

ASHLEY being thus by y e hand of God taken away, 
and M r . Allerton discharged of his imploymente for 
them, their bussines began againe to rune in one 
chanell, and them selves better able to guide the same, 
Penobscote being wholy now at their disposing. And 
though M r . William Peirce had a parte ther as is before 
noted, yet now, as things stood, he was glad to have 
his money repayed him, and stand out. M r . Winslow, 
whom they had sent over, sent them over some supply 
as soone as he could; and afterwards when he came, 
which was something longe by reason of bussines, he 
brought a large supply of suitable goods with him, 
by which ther trading was well carried on. But by 
no means either he, or y e letters y ey write, could take 
oft' M r . Sherley & y e rest from putting both y e Friend- 
ship and Whit-Angeil on y e generall accounte ; which 
caused continuall contention betweene them, as will 
more appeare. 

I shall inserte a leter of M r . Winslow's about these 
things, being as foloweth. 

S r : It fell out by Gods providence, y* I received and 
brought your leters p r M r . Allerton from Bristoll, to London ; 
and doe much feare what will be y e event of things. M r . 
Allerton intended to prepare y e ship againe, to set forth 
upon fishing. M r . Sherley, M r . Beachamp, & M r . Andrews, 
they renounce all perticulers, protesting but for us they 

334 HISTOEY or [BOOK n. 

would never have adventured one penie into those parts ; 
M r . Hatherley stands inclinable to either. And wheras you 
write that he and M r . Allerton have taken y e Whit-Angell 
upon them, for their partners here, they professe they neiver 
gave any such order, nor will make it good ; if them selves 
will cleare y e accounte & doe it, all shall be well. What 
y e evente of these things will be, I know not. The Lord 
so directe and assiste us, as he may not be dishonoured by 
our divissions. I hear (p r a freind) that I was much blamed 
for speaking w l * I heard in y e spring of y e year, concerning 
y e buying & setting forth of y 4 ship ; f sure, if I should not 
have tould you what I heard so peremtorly reported (which 
report I offered now to prove at Bristoll), I should have 
been unworthy my imploymente. And concerning y e comis- 
sion so long since given to M r . Allerton, the truth is, the 
thing we feared is come upon us ; for M r . Sherley & y e rest 
have it, and will not deliver it, that being y e ground of our 
agents credite to procure shuch great sumes. But I looke 
for bitter words, hard thoughts, and sower looks, from 
sundrie, as well for writing this, as reporting y e former. 
I would I had a more thankfull imploymente ; but I hope 
a good conscience shall make it comefortable, &c. 

Thus farr he. Dated Nov : 16. 1631. 

The comission above said was given by them under 
their hand and scale, when M r . Allerton was first 
imployed by them, and redemanded of him in y e year 
29. when they begane to suspecte his course. He 
tould them it was amongst his papers, but he would 
seeke it out & give it them before he wente. But he 

W* in manuscript. 

f This was about y e selling y e ship in Spaine. 


being ready to goe, it was demanded againe. He said 
he could not find it, but it was amongst his papers, 
which he must take w th him, [183] and he would send 
it by y e boat from y e eastward; but ther it could not 
be had neither, but he would seeke it up at sea. But 
whether M r . Sherley had it before or after, it is not cer- 
taine ; but having it, he would not let it goe, but keeps 
it to this day. Wherfore, even amongst freinds, men 
had need be carfull whom they trust, and not lett 
things of this nature lye long unrecaled. 

Some parts of M r . Sherley's letters aboute these things, in 
which y e truth is best manifested. 

S r : Yours I have received by our loving friends, M r . Aller- 
ton & M r . Hatherley, who, blesed be God, after a long & 
dangerous passage with y e ship Angell, are safely come to 
Bristoll. M r . Hatherley is come up, but M r . Allerton I have 
not yet seen. We thanke you, and are very glad you have 
disswaded him from his Spanish viage, and y* he did not 
goe on in these designes he intended; for. we did all uterly 
dislick of that course, as allso of y e fishing y* y e Freindship 
should have performed ; for we wished him to sell y e salte, 
and were unwilling to have him undertake so much bussines, 
partly for y e ill success we formerly had in those affairs, and 
partly being loath to disburse so much money. But he per- 
swaded us this must be one way y 1 must repay us, for y e 
plantation would be long in doing of it ; ney, to my reraem- 
berance, he doubted you could not be able, with y e trade 
ther, to maintaine your charge & pay us. And for this very 
cause he brought us on y' bussines with Ed : Ashley, for he 
was a stranger to us, &c. 

336 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

For y e fishing ship, we are sorie it proves so heavie, and 
will be willing to bear our parts. What M r . Hatherley & 
M r . Allerton have done, no doubt but them selves will make 
good ; * we gave them no order to make any composition, 
to seperate you and us in this or any other. And I thinke 
you have no cause to forsake us, for we put you upon no 
new thing, but what your agent perswaded us to, & you by 
your letters desired. If he exceede your order, I hope you 
will not blame us, much less cast us of, when our moneys 
be layed out, &c. But I fear neither you nor we have been 
well delte withall, for sure, as you write, halfe 4000 H ., nay, a 
quarter, in fitting comodities, and in seasonable time, would 
have furnished you beter then you were. And yet for all 
this, and much more I might write, I dare not but thinke 
him honest, and that his desire and intente was good ; but y e 
wisest may faile. Well, now y 4 it hath pleased God to give 
us hope of meeting, doubte not but we will all indeavore 
to perfecte these accounts just & right, as soone as possibly 
we can. And I supposs you sente over M r . Winslow, and we 
M r . Hatherley, to certifie each other how y e state of things 
stood. We have received some contente upon M r . Hath- 
erley's returne, and I hope you will receive good contente 

* They were too short in resting on M r . Hatherleys honest word, for his 
order to discharg them from y e Friendship's accounte, when he and M r . 
Allerton made y e bargane with them, and they delivered them the rest of y e 
goods; and therby gave them oppertunitie also to receive all the fraight 
of boath viages, without seeing an order (to have such power) under their 
hands in writing, which they never doubted of, seeing he affirmed he had 
power; and they both knew his honestie, and y 4 he was spetially imployed 
for their agente at this time. And he was as shorte in resting on a verball 
order from them; which was now denyed, when it came to a perticuler of 
loss; but he still affirmed the same. But they were both now taught how 
to deale in y e world, espetially with marchants, in such cases. But in y e end 
this light upon these here also, for M r . Allerton had gott all into his owne 
hand, and M r . Hatherley was not able to pay it, except they would have 
uterlie undon him, as y e sequell will manifest. 


upon M r . Winslow's returne. Now I should come to answer 
more perticulerly your letter, but herin I shall be very breefe. 
The coming of y e White Angele on your accounte could not 
be more strang to you, then y e buying of her was to us ; 
for you gave him comission * that what he did you would 
stand too ; we gave him none, and yet for his credite, and 
your saks, payed what bills he charged on us, &c. For y* 
I write she was to acte tow parts, fishing & trade ; beleeve 
me, I never so much as thought of any perticuler trade, 
nor will side with any y 4 doth, if I conceive it may wrong 
you ; for I ever was against it, useing these words : They 
will eate up and destroy y e generall. 

Other things I omite as tedious, and not very perte- 
nente. This was dated Nov r . 19. 1631. 

In an other leter bearing date y e 24. of this month, 
being an answer to y e generall order, he hath these 
words : 

[184] For y e White Angell, against which you write so 
ernestly, and say we thrust her upon you, contrary to y e 
intente of y e buyer, herin we say you forgett your selves, 
and doe us wrong. We will not take uppon us to devine 
what y e thougts or intents of y e buyer was, but what he 
spack we heard, and that we will afflrme, and make good 
against any y l oppose it; which is, y* unles shee were 
bought, and shuch a course taken, Ashley could not be 
supply ed ; and againe, if he weer not supply ed, we could 
not be satisfied what we were out for you. And further, 
you were not able to doe it ; and he gave some reasons 

* This comission is abused ; he never had any for shuch end, as they well 
knew, nether had they any to pay this money, nor would have paid a peny, 
if they had not pleased for some other respecte. 

338 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

which we spare to relate, unless by your unreasonable re- 
fusall you will force us, and so hasten y l fire which is a 
kindling too fast allready, &c. 

Out of another of his, bearing date Jan. 2. 1631. 

We purpose to keep y e Freidship and y e Whit Angell, 
for y e last year viages, on the generall accounte, hoping 
togeither they will rather produse profite then loss, and 
breed less confution in our accounts, and less disturbance 
in our affections. As for y e White Angell, though we layed 
out y e money, and tooke bills of salle in our owne names, 
yet none of us had so much as a thought (I dare say) of 
deviding from you in any thing this year, because we would 
not have y e world (I may say Bristoll) take notice of any 
breach betwixte M r . Allerton and you, and he and us ; and 
so disgrace him in his proceedings on * in his intended viage. 
We have now let him y e ship at 30 li . p r month, by charter- 
partie, and bound him in a bond of a 1000 H . to performe 
covenants, and bring her to London (if God please). And 
what he brings in her for you, shall be marked w th your 
marke, and bils of laden taken, & sent in M r . Winslows 
letter, who is this day riding to Bristoll about it. So in 
this viage, we deale & are with him as strangers. He hath 
brought in 3. books of accounts, one for y e company, an 
other for Ashley's bussines, and y e third for y e Whit-Augell 
and Freidship. The books, or coppies, we purpose to send 
you, for you may discover y e errours in them better then 
we. We can make it appear how much money he hath had 
of us, and you can charg him with all y e beaver he hath 
had of you. The totall sume, as he hath put it, is 7103. 17. 1. 
Of this he hath expended, and given to M*. Vines & others, 
aboute 543 li . ode money, and then by your books you will 

* o in MS. 


find whether you had such, & so much goods, as he charge th 
you with all ; and this is all that I can say at presente con- 
cerning these accounts. He thought to dispatch them in 
a few bowers, but he and Straton & Fogge were above 
a month aboute them ; but he could not stay till we had 
examined them, for losing his fishing viage, which I fear he 
hath allready done, &c. 

We blese God, who put both you & us in mind to send 
each to other, for verily had he rune on in that desperate 
& chargable course one year more, we had not been able to 
suport him ; nay, both he and we must have lyen in y e 
ditch, and sunck under y e burthen, &c. Had ther been 
an orderly course taken, and your bussines better managed, 
assuredly (by y c blessing of God) you had been y e ablest 
plantation that, as we think, or know, hath been under- 
taken by Englishmen, &c. 

Thus farr of these letters of M r . Sherley's.* 
[185] A few observations from y e former letters, 
and then I shall set downe the simple truth of y e 
things (thus in controversie betweene them), at least 
as farr as by any good evidence it could be made to 
appeare ; and so labotire to be breefe in so tedious 
and intricate a bussines, which hunge in expostulation 
betweene them many years before y e same was ended. 
That though ther will be often occasion to touch these 
things about other passages, yet I shall not neede to 
be large therin; doing it hear once for all. 

First, it seemes to appere clearly that Ashley's 
bussines, and y e buying of this ship, and y e courses 

* The last two words not found in the MS. but obviously intended. 

340 HISTORY OF . [BOOK ii. 

framed ther upon, were first contrived and proposed 
by M r . Allerton, as also y* the pleaes and pretences 
which he made, of y e inablitie of y e plantation to 
repaye their moneys, &c., and y e hops he gave them 
of doing it with profite, was more beleeved & rested 
on by them (at least some of them) then any thing 
y e plantation did or said. 

2. It is like, though M r . Allerton might thinke not 
to wrong y e plantation in y e rnaine, yet his owne 
gaine and private ends led him a side in these things ; 
for it came to be knowne, and I have it in a letter 
under M r . Sherley's hand, that in y e first 2. or 3. 
years of his imploymente, he had cleared up 400 11 . and 
put it into a brew-house of M r . Colliers in London, 
at first under M r . Sherley's name, &c. ; besids what 
he might have other wise. Againe, M r . Sherley and 
he had perticuler dealings in some things ; for he 
bought up y e beaver that sea-men & other passengers 
brought over to Bristoll, and at other places, and 
charged y e bills to London, which M r . Sherley payed ; 
and they got some time 50 U . a peece in a bargen, as 
was made knowne by M r . Hatherley & others, besids 
what might be other wise ; which might make M r . 
Sherley harken unto him in many things ; and yet 
I beleeve, as he in his forementioned leter write, 
he never would side in any perticuler trade w ch he 
conceived would wrong y e plantation, and eate up & 
destroy y e generall. 


3 ly . It may be perceived that, seeing they had done 
so much for y e plantation, both in former adventures 
and late disbursements, and allso that M r . Allerton 
was y e first occasioner of bringing them upon these 
new designes, which at first seemed faire & profitable 
unto them, and unto which they agreed; but now, 
seeing them to turne to loss, and decline to greater 
intanglments, they thought it more meete for y e plan- 
tation to bear them, then them selves, who had borne 
much in other things allready, and so tooke advan- 
tage of such comission & power as M r . Allerton had 
formerly had as their agente, to devolve these things 
upon them. 

4 ly . With pitie and compassion (touching M r . Aller- 
ton) I may say with y e apostle to Timothy, 1. Tim. 
6. 9. They that will be rich fall into many temtations 
and snares, <#c., and pearce them selves throw with 
many sorrows, &c. ; for the love of money is y e roote of 
all evill, v. 10. God give him to see y e evill in his 
failings, that he may find mercie by repentance for y e 
wrongs he hath done to any, and this pore plantation 
in spetiall. They that doe such things doe not only 
bring them selves into snares, and sorrows, but many 
with them, (though in an other kind,) as lamentable 
experience shows ; and is too manifest in this bussines. 

[186] Now about these ships & their setting forth, 
the truth, as farr as could be learned, is this. The 
motion aboute setting forth y e fishing ship (caled y e 


Frindship) came first from y e plantation, and y e rea- 
sons of it, as is before remembered ; but wholy left to 
them selves to doe or not to doe, as they saw cause. 
But when it fell into consideration, and y e designe was 
held to be profitable and hopefull, it was propounded 
by some of them, why might not they doe it of them 
selves, seeing they must disburse all y e money, and 
what need they have any refferance to y e plantation 
in y*; they might take y e profite them selves, towards 
other losses, & need not let y e plantation share therin ; 
and if their ends were other wise answered for their 
supplyes to come too them in time, it would be well 
enough. So they hired her, & set her out, and 
fraighted her as full as she could carry with passen- 
gers goods y 1 belonged to y e Massachussets, which rise 
to a good sume of money ; intending to send y e plan- 
tations supply in y e other ship. The eflfecte of this 
M r . Hatherley not only declared afterward upon occa- 
sion, but affirmed upon othe, taken before y e Gov r & 
Dep: Gov r of y e Massachusets, M r . Winthrop & M r . 
Dudley : That this ship-Frindship was not sett out nor 
intended for y e joynt partnership of y e plantation, but 
for y e perticuler accounte of M r . James Sherley, M r . 
Beachampe, M r . Andrews, M r . Allerton, & him selfe. 
This deposition was taken at Boston y e 29. of Aug : 
1639. as is to be seen under their hands ; besids some 
other concurente testimonies declared at severall times 
to sundrie of them. 


About y e Whit-Angell, though she was first bought, 
or at least the price beaten, by M r . Allerton (at Bris- 
toll), yet that had been nothing if M r . Sherley had 
not liked it, and disbursed y e money. And that she 
was not intended for y e plantation appears by sun- 
drie evidences ; * as, first, y c bills of sale, or charter- 
parties, were taken in their owne names, without any 
mention or refferance to y e plantation at all; viz. M r . 
Sherley, M r . Beachampe, M r . Andrews, M r . Denison, 
and M r . Allerton; for M r . Hatherley fell off, and 
would not joyne with them in this. That she was 
not bought for their accounte, M r . Hatherley tooke 
his oath before y e parties afforesaid, y e day and year 
above writen. 

M r . Allerton tooke his oath to like effecte concerning 
this ship, the Whit-Angell, before y e Gov r & Deputie, 
the 7. of Sep : 1639. and likewise deposed, y e same 
time, that M r . Hatherley and him selfe did, in the 
behalfe of them selves and y e said M r . Sherley, M r . 
Andrews, & M r . Beachamp, agree and undertake to 
discharge, and save harmless, all y e rest of y c partners 
& purchasers, of and from y e said losses of Freindship 
for 200 W ., which was to be discounted therupon ; as by 
ther depossitions (which are in writing) may appeare 
more at large, and some other depositions & other 

* About y e Whit-Angell they all mette at a certaine taverne in London, 
wher they "had a diner prepared, and had a conference with a factore aboute 
selling of her in Spaine, or at Port a porte, as hath been before mentioned; 
as M r . Hatherley manifested, & M r . Allerton could not deney. 


testemonies by- M r . Winslow,* &c. But I suppose 
these may be sufficente to evince the truth in these 
things, against all pretences to y e contrary. And yet 
the burthen lay still upon y e plantation ; or, to speake 
more truly and rightly, upon those few that were 
ingaged for all, for they were faine to wade through 
these things without any help from any. 

[187] Concerning M r . Allerton's accounts, they were 
so larg and intrecate, as they could not well understand 
them, much less examine & correcte them, without a 
great deale of time & help, and his owne presence, 
which was now hard to gett amongst them ; and it was 
2. or 3. years before they could bring them to any 
good pass, but never make them perfecte. I know 
not how it came to pass, or what misterie was in it, 
for he tooke upon him to make up all accounts till 
this time, though M r . Sherley was their agente to buy 
& sell their goods, and did more then he therin ; yet 
he past in accounts in a maner for all disbursments, 
both concerning goods bought, which he never saw, 

* M r . Winslow deposed, y e same time, before y e Gov r afore said, &c. that 
when he came into England, and y e partners inquired of y e success of y e 
Whit Angell, which should have been laden w th bass and so sent for Port, 
of Porting-gall, and their ship & goods to be sould; having informed them 
that they were like to faile in their lading of bass, that then M r . James 
Sherley used these termes: Feck, we must make one accounte of all; and 
ther upon presed him, as agente for y e partners in Neu-England, to accepte 
y e said ship Whit- Angell, and her accounte, into y e joynte partner-ship ; Avhich 
he refused, for many reasons ; and after received instructions from New-Engl : 
to refuse her if she should be offered, which instructions he shewed them; 
and wheras he was often pressed to accept her, he ever refused her, &c. 


but were done when he was hear in y e cuntrie or at 
sea ; and all y e expences of y e Leyden people, done 
by others in his absence ; the charges aboute y e patente, 
&c. In all which he made them debtore to him above 
300 11 . and demanded paimente of it. But when things 
came to scaning, he was found above 2000 y . debtore 
to them, (this wherin M r . Hatherley & he being joyntly 
ingaged, which he only had, being included,) besids 
I know not how much y* could never be cleared; and 
interest moneys which ate them up, which he never 
accounted. Also they were faine to alow such large 
bills of charges as were intolerable; the charges of y e 
patent came to above 500*. and yet nothing done in it 
but what was done at first without any confirmation ; 
30 H . given at a clape, and 50 11 . spent in a journey. No 
marvell therfore if M r . Sherley said in his leter, if their 
bussines had been better managed, they might have 
been y e richest plantation of any English at y 1 time. 
Yea, he scrued up his poore old father in law's accounte 
to above 200*. and brought it on y e gene rail accounte, 
and to befreind him made most of it to arise out of 
those goods taken up by him at Bristoll, at 50. per 
cent., because he knew they would never let it lye 
on y e old man, when, alass ! he, poore man, never 
dreamte of any such thing, nor y* what he had could 
arise nere y* valew ; but thought that many of them 
had been freely bestowed on him & his children by 
M r . Allerton. Nither in truth did they come nere y* 


valew in worth, but y 1 sume was blowne up by interest 
& high prises, which y e company did for y e most parte 
bear, (he deserving farr more,) being most sory that 
he should have a name to have much, when he had in 
effecte litle. 

This year also M r . Sherley sent over an accounte, 
which was in a maner but a cash accounte what M r . 
Allerton had had of them, and disbursed, for which 
he referd to his accounts ; besids an account of beaver 
sould, which M r . Winslow & some others had carried 
over, and a large supply of goods which M r . Winslow 
had sent & brought over, all which was comprised in y* 
accounte, and all y e disbursments aboute y e Freindship, 
& Whit-Angell, and what concerned their accounts 
from first to last; or any thing else he could charg 
y e partners with. So they were made debtor in y e 
foote of that accounte 4770*. 19. 2.* besids lOOO 1 '. still 
due for y e purchase yet unpayed; notwithstanding all 
y c beaver, and returnes that both Ashley & they had 
made, which were not small. 

[188] In these accounts of M r . Sherley's some things 
were obscure, and some things twise charged, as a 100. 

* So as a while before, wheras their great care was how to pay the pur- 
chase, and those other few debts which were upon them, now it was with 
them as it was some times with Saule's father, who left careing for y e Asses, 
and sorrowed for his sonn. 1. Sam. 10. 2. So that which before they looked 
at as a heavie burthen, they now esteeme but a small thing and a light 
mater, in comparison of what was now upon them. And thus y e Lord 
oftentimes deals with his people to teach them, and humble them, that he 
may doe them good in y e later end. 


of Bastable ruggs which came in y e Freindship, & cost 
75 a ., charged before by M r . Allerton, and now by him 
againe, with other perticulers of like nature doubtfull, 
to be twise or thrise charged; as also a sume of 600 U . 
which M r . Allerton deneyed, and they could never un- 
derstand for what it was. They sent a note of these 
& such like things afterward to M r . Sherley by M r . 
Winslow; but (I know not how it came to pass) could 
never have them explained. 

Into these deepe sumes had M r . Allerton rune them 
in tow years, for in y e later end of y e year 1628. all 
their debts did not amounte to much above 400 M ., as 
was then noted ; and now come to so many thousands. 
And wheras in y e year 1629. M r . Sherley & M r . Hath- 
erley being at Bristoll, and write a large letter from 
thence, in which they had given an account of y e debts, 
and what sumes were then disbursed, M r . Allerton 
never left begging & intreating of them till they had 
put it out. So they bloted out 2. lines in y 1 leter in 
which y e sumes were contained, and write upon it so 
as not a word could be perceived; as since by them 
was confessed, and by y e leters may be seene. And 
thus were they kept hoodwinckte, till now they were 
so deeply ingaged. And wheras M r . Sherley did so 
ernestly press y* M r . Allerton might be sent over to 
finish y e great bussines aboute y e patente, as may 
be seen in- his leter write 1629. as is before recorded, 
and y* they should be ernest w th his wife to suffer him 

348 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

to goe, c., he hath since confessed by a letter under 
my hands, that it was M r . Allerton's owne doings, and 
not his, and he made him write his words, & not his 
owne. The patent was but a pretence, and not y e 
thing. Thus were they abused in their simplicitie, 
and no beter then bought & sould, as it may seeme. 

And to mend y e matter, M r . Allerton doth in a sorte 
wholy now deserte them; having brought them into y e 
briers, he leaves them to gett out as they can. But 
God crost him mightily, for he having hired y e ship 
of M r . Sherly at 30". a month, he set forth againe 
with a most wicked and drunken crue, and for covet- 
ousnes sake did so over lade her, not only filling her 
hould, but so stufed her betweene decks, as she was 
walte, and could not bear sayle, and they had like to 
have been cast away at sea, and were forced to put 
for Millford Havene, and new-stow her, & put some 
of ther ordnance & more heavie goods in y e botome ; 
which lost them time, and made them come late into 
y e countrie, lose ther season, and made a worse viage 
then y e year before. But being come into y e countrie, 
he sells trading comodities to any y* will buy, to y e 
great prejudice of y e plantation here ; but that which 
is worse, what he could not sell, he trustes; and sets 
up a company of base felows and maks them traders, 
to rune into every hole, & into y e river of Kenebeck, 
to gleane away y e trade from y e house ther, aboute 
y e patente & priviledge wherof he had dasht away so 


much money of theirs here ; [189] and now what in 
him lay went aboute to take away y e benefite therof, 
and to overthrow them. Yea, not only this, but he 
furnishes a company, and joyns with some consorts, 
(being now deprived of Ashley at Penobscote,) and 
sets up a trading house beyoned Penobscote, to cute 
of y e trade from thence also. But y e French perceiv- 
ing that that would be greatly to their damage allso, 
they came in their begiuing before they were well 
setled, and displanted them, slue 2. of their men, and 
tooke all their goods to a good valew, y e loss being 
most, if not all, M r . Allerton's ; for though some of 
them should have been his partners, yet he trusted 
them for their partes ; the rest of y e men were sent 
into France, and this was the end of y* projecte. The 
rest of those he trusted, being lose and drunken fel- 
lows, did for y e most parte but coussen & cheate him 
of all they got into their hands ; that howsoever he 
did his friends some hurte hereby for y e presente, yet 
he gate litle good, but wente by y e loss by Gods just 
hand. After in time, when he came to Plimoth, y e 
church caled him to accounte for these, and other his 
grosse miscarrages ; he confessed his faulte, and prom- 
ised better walking, and that he would wind him selfe 
out of these courses as soone as he could, &c. 

This year also M r . Sherley would needs send them 
over a new-acountante ; he had made mention of such 
a thing y c year before, but they write him word, that 

350 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

their charge was great allready, and they neede not 
increase it, as this would ; but if they were well delte 
with, and had their goods well sent over, they could 
keep their accounts hear them selves. Yet he now 
sente one, which they did not refuse, being a yonger 
brother of M r . Winslows, whom they had been at 
charge to instructe at London before he came. He 
came over in the White Angell with M r . Allerton, 
and ther begane his first imploymente ; for though 
M r . Sherley had so farr befreinded M r . Allerton, as 
to cause * M r . Winslow to ship y c supply sente to y e 
partners here in this ship, and give him 4 U . p r tune, 
wheras others carried for 3. and he made them pay 
their fraight ready downe, before y e ship wente out of 
y e harbore, wheras others payed upon certificate of y e 
goods being delivered, and their fraight came to up- 
ward of 6. score pounds, yet they had much adoe to 
have their goods delivered, for some of them were 
chainged, as bread & pease ; they were forced to take 
worse for better, neither could they ever gett all. 
And if Josias Winslow had not been ther, it had been 
worse ; for he had y e invoyce, and order to send them 
to y e trading houses. 

This year their house at Penobscott was robed by y e 
French, and all their goods of any worth they carried 
away, to y e value of 400. or 500*. as y e cost first peny 
worth; in beaver 300*. waight; and y e rest in trading 

* This word is obscure in MS. 


goods, as coats, ruggs, blankett, biskett, &c. It was 
in this maner. The m 1 . of y e house, and parte of y e 
company with him, were come with their vessell to y e 
westward to fecth a supply of goods which was brought 
over for them. In y e mean time comes a smale French 
ship into y e harbore (and amongst y e company was a 
false Scott) ; they pretended they were nuly come from 
y e sea, and knew not wher they were, and that their 
vesell was very leake, and desired they might hale her 
a shore and stop their leaks. And many French com- 
plements they used, and congees they made ; and in 
y e ende, seeing but 3. or 4. simple men, y* were ser- 
vants, and by this Scoth-man understanding that y e 
maister & ye rest of y e company were gone from 
home, they fell of comending their gunes and muskets, 
that lay upon racks by y e wall side, and tooke them 
downe to looke on them, asking if they were charged. 
And when they were possesst of them, one presents 
a peece ready charged against y e servants, and another 
a pistoll ; and bid them not sturr, but quietly deliver 
them their goods, and carries some of y e men aborde, 
& made y e other help to carry away y e goods. And 
when they had tooke what they pleased, they sett them 
at liberty, and wente their way, with this mocke, bid- 
ing them tell their m r . when he came, that some of 
y e lie of Rey gentlemen had been ther.* 

* The above paragraph was written on the reverse of page 188 of the 
original manuscript. 

352 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

* This year, on S r Christopher Gardener, being, as 
him selfe said, descended of y* house y 1 the Bishop of 
Winchester came of (who was so great a persecutor 
of Gods saincts in Queene Maries days), and being a 
great traveler, received his first honour of knighthood 
at Jerusalem, being made Knight of y e Sepulcher ther. 
He came into these parts under pretence of forsaking 
y e world, and to live a private life, in a godly course, 
not unwilling to put him selfe upon any meane imploy- 
ments, and take any paines for his living ; and some 
time offered him selfe to joyne to y e churchs in sundry 
places. He brought over with him a servante or 2. 
and a comly yonge woman, whom be caled his cousin, 
but it was suspected, she (after y e Italian maner) was 
his concubine. Living at y c Massachusets, for some 
miscariages which he should have answered, he fled 
away from authority, and gott amonge y e Indeans of 
these parts ; they sent after him, but could not gett 
him, and promissed some reward to those y 1 should 
find him. The Indeans came to y e Gov r here, and 
tould wher he was, and asked if they might kill him ; 
he tould them no, by no means, but if they could take 
him and bring him hither, they should be payed for 
their paines. They said he had a gune & a rapier, 
& he would kill them if y ey went aboute it; and y e 

* The following account of Sir Christopher Gardiner, with the documents 
accompanying it, extending to page 357, does not appear in the text of the 
original manuscript, having been perhaps inadvertently omitted, but was 
written on the reverse of pages 189-191. 


Massachuset Indeans said they might kille him. But 
y e Gov r tould them no, they should not kill him, but 
watch their opportunitie, & take him. And so they 
did, for when they light of him by a river side, he 
got into a canowe to get from them, & when they 
came nere him, whilst he presented his peece at them 
to keep them of, the streame carried y e canow against 
a rock, and tumbled both him & his peece & rapier 
into y e water; yet he got out, and having a litle 
dagger by his side, they durst not close with him, but 
getting longe pols they soone beat his dagger out of 
his hand, so he was glad to yeeld; and they brought 
him to y e Gov r . But his hands and armes were swolen 
& very sore with y e blowes they had given him. So 
he used him kindly, & sent him to a lodging wher his 
armes were bathed and anoynted, and he was quickly 
well againe, and blamed y e Indeans for beating him 
so much. They said that they did but a litle whip 
him with sticks. In his lodging, those y* made his 
bed found a litle note booke that by accidente had 
slipt out of his pockett, or some private place, in 
which was a memoriall what day he was reconciled 
to y e pope & church of Rome, and in what universitie 
he tooke his scapula, and such & such degrees. It 
being brought to y e Gov r , he kept it, and sent y e 
Gov r of y e Massachusets word of his taking, who sent 
for him. So y e Gov r sent him and these notes to y e 
Gov r ther, who tooke it very thankfuly; but after he 


gott for England, he shewed his malice, but God pre- 
vented him. 

See y e Gov r leter on y e other side.* 

S r : It hath pleased God to bring S r . Christopher Gardener 
safe to us, with thos that came with him. And howsoever I 
never intended any hard measure to him, but to respecte and 
use him according to his qualitie, yet I let him know your 
care of him, and y 4 he shall speed y e better for your medi- 
ation. It was a spetiall providence of God to bring those 
notes of his to our hands ; I desire y* you will please to 
speake to all y' are privie to them, not to discovere them 
to any one, for y* may frustrate y e means of any further 
use to be made of them. The good Lord our God who hath 
allways ordered things for y e good of his poore churches 
here, directe us in this arighte, and dispose it to a good 
issue. I am sorie we put you to so much trouble about this 
gentleman, espetialy at this time of great imploymente, but 
I know not how to avoyed it. I must againe intreate you, 
to let me know what charge & troble any of your people 
have been at aboute him, y* it may be recompenced. So 
with the true affection of a frind, desiring all happines to 
your selfe & yours, and to all my worthy friends with you 
(whom I love in y e Lord), I comende you to his grace & 
good providence, & rest 

Your most assured friend, 


Boston, May 5. 1631. 

By occation wherof I will take a litle libertie to 
declare what fell out by this mans means & malice, 

* That is, in the original manuscript. 


complying with others. And though I doubt not but 
it will be more fully done by my honourd friends, 
whom it did more directly concerne, and have more 
perticuler knowledg of y e matter, yet I will here give 
a hinte of y e same, and Gods providence in preventing 
y e hurte that might have come by y e same. The 
intelligence I had by a letter from my much hon d 
and beloved freind, M r . John Winthrop, Gov r of y e 

S r : Upon a petition exhibited by S r . Christo : Gardner, S r . 
Ferd : Gorges, Captaine Masson, &c., against you and us, the 
cause was heard before y e lords of y e Privie Counsell, and 
after reported to y e king, the sucsess wherof maks it evi- 
dent to all, that y e Lord hath care of his people hear. The 
passages are admirable, and too long to write. I hartily 
wish an opportunitie to imparte them unto you, being may 
sheets of paper. But y e conclusion was (against all mens 
expectation) an order for our incouragmente, and much blame 
and disgrace upon y e adversaries, w ch calls for much thank- 
fullnes from us all, which we purpose (y e Lord willing) to 
express in a day of thanks-giving to our mercifull God, 
(I doubt not but you will consider, if it be not fitt for you 
to joyne in it,) who, as he hath humbled us by his late cor- 
rection, so he hath lifted us up, by an abundante rejoysing, 
in our deliverance out of so desperate a danger ; so as that 
w ch our enemies builte their hopes upon to mine us by, He 
hath mercifully disposed to our great advantage, as I shall 
further aquainte you, when occasion shall serve. 

The coppy of y e order follows. 


At y e courte at Whit-hall y e 19. Jan : 1632. 


Sigillum Lord Privie Seale Lord Cottinton 

Ea: of Dorsett M r . Tre r 

Lo: Vi: Falkland M r . Vic Chamb r 

Lo : Bp : of London M r . Sec : Cooke 

Maister Sec : "Wiudebanck 

Wheras his Ma tie hath latly been informed of great dis- 
traction and much disorder in y* plantation in y e parts of 
America called New-England, which, if they be true, & suf- 
fered to rune on, would tende to y e great dishonour of this 
kingdome, and utter ruine of that plantation. For pre- 
vention wherof, and for y e orderly settling of goverment, 
according to y e intention of those patents which have been 
granted by his Ma tie and from his late royall father king 
James, it hath pleased his Ma tie that y e lords & others of his 
most honourable Privie Counsell, should take y e same into 
consideration. Their lordships in y e first place thought fitt 
to make a comitie of this bord, to take examination of y e 
matters informed ; which comitties having called diverse of 
y e principall adventurers in y* plantation, and heard those 
that are complanants against them, most of the things in- 
formed being deneyed, and resting to be proved by parties 
that must be called from y 4 place, which required a long 
expence of time ; and at presente their lordships finding the 
adventurers were upon dispatch of men, victles, and mar- 
chandice for y* place, all which would be at a stand, if y e 
adventurers should have discouragmente, or take suspition 
that the state hear had no good opinion of y 4 plantation ; 
their lordships, not laying the faulte or fancies (if any be) 
of some perticuler men upon the generall govermente, or 
principall adventurers, (which in due time is further to be 


inquired into,) have thought fitt in y e meane time to declare, 
that the appearences were so faire, and hopes so greate, y* 
the countrie would prove both beneficiall to this kingdom, 
and profitable to the perticuler adventurers, as y l the ad- 
venturers had cause to goe on cherfully with their under- 
takings, and rest assured, if things were carried as was 
pretended when y e patents were granted, and accordingly as 
by the patentes it is appointed, his Majestic would not only 
maintaine the liberties & privileges heretofore granted, but 
supply any thing further that might tend to the good gover- 
mente, prosperitie, and comforte of his people ther of that 
place, &c. 


Anno Dom: 1632. 

M R . ALLEKTON, returning for England, litle regarded 
his bound, of a 1000 U . to performe covenants ; for 
wheras he was bound by y e same to bring y e ship to 
[190] London, and to pay 30 lj . per month for her hire, 
he did neither of boath, for he carried her to Bristoll 
againe, from whence he intended to sett her out againe, 
and so did y e 3. time, into these parts (as after will 
appear) ; and though she had been 10. months upon 
y e former viage, at 30". p r month, yet he never payed 
peney for hire. It should seeme he knew well enough 
how to deale with M r . Sherley. And M r . Sherley, 
though he would needs tye her & her accounte upon 
y e generall, yet he would dispose of her as him selfe 
pleased; for though M r . Winslow had in their names 
protested against y e receiving her on y* accounte, or if 

358 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

ever they should hope to preveile in shuch a thing, yet 
never to suffer M r . Allerton to have any more to doe 
in her, yet he y e last year let her wholy unto him, 
and injoyned them to send all their supply e in her to 
their prejudice, as is before noted. And now, though 
he broke his bonds, kepte no covenante, paid no hire, 
nor was ever like to keep covenants, yet now he goes 
and sells him all, both ship, & all her accounts, from 
first to last (and in effecte he might as well have given 
him y e same) ; and not only this, but he doth as 
good as provide a sanctuary for him, for he gives him 
one years time to prepare his accounte, and then to 
give up y e same to them here ; and then another year 
for him to make paymente of what should be due upon 
y* accounte. And in y e mean time writs ernestly to 
them not to interupte or hinder him from his bussines, 
or stay him aboute clearing accounts, &c. ; so as he 
in y e mean time gathers up all monies due for fraighte, 
and any other debtes belonging either to her, or y e 
Frindship's accounts, as his owne perticuler ; and after, 
sells ship, & ordnans, fish, & what he had raised, in 
Spaine, according to y e first designe, in effecte ; and 
who had, or what became of y e money, he best knows. 
In y e mean time their hands were bound, and could doe 
nothing but looke on, till he had made all away into 
other mens hands (save a few catle & a litle land & 
some small maters he had here at Plimoth), and so in 
y e end removed, as he had allready his person, so all 


his from hence. This will better appere by M r . Sher- 

ley's leter. 


S r : These few lines are further to give you to understand, 
that seeing you & we, that never differed yet but aboute y e 
White- Angell, which somewhat troubleth us, as I perceive 
it doth you. And now M r . Allerton beeing here, we have 
had some confferance with him about her, and find him very 
willing to give you & us all contente y 4 possiblie he can, 
though he burthen him selfe. He is contente to take y e 
White-Angell wholy on him selfe, notwithstanding he mett 
with pirates nere y e coast of lerland, which tooke away his 
best sayles & other provissions from her ; so as verily if we 
should now sell her, she would yeeld but a small price, 
besids her ordnance. And to set her forth againe with fresh 
money we would not, she being now at Bristoll. Wherfore 
we thought it best, both for you & us, M r . Allerton being 
willing to take her, to accepte of his bond of tow thousand 
pounds, to give [191] you a true & perfecte accounte, and 
take y e whole charge of y e Whit- Angell wholy to him selfe, 
from y e first to y e last. The accounte he is to make and 
perfecte within 12. months from y e date of this letter, and 
then to pay you at 6. and 6. months after, what soever shall 
be due unto you and us upon the foote of y e accounte. 
And verily, notwithstanding all y e disasters he hath had, 
I am perswaded he hath enough to pay all men here and 
ther. Only they must have patience till he can gather in 
what is due to him ther. I doe not write this slightly, but 
upon some ground of what I have seen (and perhaps you 
know not of) under y e hands & seals of some, &c. I rest 
Your assured friend, 


Des: 6. 1632. 

360 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

But heres not a word of y e breach of former bonds 
& covenants, or paimente of y c ships hire ; this is 
passt by as if no such thing had been ; besids what 
bonds or obligments so ever they had of him, ther 
never came any into y e hands or sight of y e partners 
here. And for this y 1 M r . Sherley seems to intimate 
(as a secrete) of his abilitie, under y e hands & seals 
of some, it was but a trick, having gathered up an 
accounte of what was owing form such base fellows as 
he had made traders for him, and other debts ; and 
then got M r . Mahue, & some others, to affirme under 
their hand & scale, that they had seen shuch accounts 
y 1 were due to him. 

M r . Hatherley came over againe this year, but upon 
his owne occasions, and begane to make preparation 
to plant & dwell in y e countrie. He with his former 
dealings had wound in what money he had in y e patner- 
ship into his owne hands, and so gave off all partner- 
ship (excepte in name), as was found in y e issue of 
things ; neither did he medle, or take any care aboute 
y e same; only he was troubled about his ingagmente 
aboute y e Friendship, as will after appeare. And now 
partly aboute y* accounte, in some reconings betweene 
M r . Allerton and him, and some debts y* M r . Allerton 
otherwise owed him upon dealing between them in 
perticuler, he drue up an accounte of above 2000 li ., 
and would faine have ingaged y e partners here with it, 
because M r . Allerton had been their agent. But they 


tould him they had been fool'd longe enough with such 
things, and shewed him y* it no way belonged to 
them ; but tould him he must looke to make good his 
ingagment for y e Freindship, which caused some trouble 
betweene M r . Allerton and him. 

M r . William Peirce did y e like, M r . Allerton being 
wound into his debte also upon particuler dealings ; 
as if they had been bound to make good all mens 
debts. But they easily shooke off these things. But 
M r . Allerton her by rane into much trouble & vexation, 
as well as he had troubled others, for M r . Denison sued 
him for y e money he had disbursed for y e 6. part of 
y e Whit-Angell, & recovered y e same with damages. 

Though y e partners were thus pluged into great in- 
gagments, & oppresed with unjust debts, yet y e Lord 
prospered their trading, that they made yearly large 
returnes, and had soone wound them selves out of all, 
if yet they had otherwise been well delt with all; as 
will more appear here after. [192] Also y e people 
of y e plantation begane to grow in their owtward 
estats, by reason * of y e flowing of many people into 
y e cuntrie, espetially into y e Bay of y e Massachusets ; 
by which means come & catle rose to a great prise, 
by w ch many were much inriched, and coinodities grue 
plentiful 1 ; and yet in other regards this benefite turned 
to their hurte, and this accession of strength to their 
weaknes. For now as their stocks increased, and y e 

* Rea- in the manuscript. 

362 HISTOKY or [BOOK n. 

increse vendible, ther was no longer any holding them 
togeather, but now they must of necessitie goe to their 
great lots ; they could not other wise keep their katle ; 
and having oxen growne, they must have land for 
plowing & tillage. And no man now thought he could 
live, except he had catle and a great deale of ground 
to keep them ; all striving to increase their stocks. 
By which means they were scatered all over y e bay, 
quickly, and y e towne, in which they lived compactly 
till now, was left very thine, and in a short time 
allmost desolate. And if this had been all, it had 
been less, thoug to much ; but y e church must also be 
devided, and those y* had lived so long togeather in 
Christian & comfortable fellowship must now part and 
suffer many divissions. First, those that lived on their 
lots on y e other side of y e bay (called Duxberie) they 
could not long bring their wives & children to y e 
publick worship & church meetings here, but with such 
burthen, as, growing to some competente number, they 
sued to be dismissed and become a body of them 
selves; and so they were dismiste (about this time), 
though very unwillingly. But to touch this sadd 
matter, and handle things together that fell out after- 
ward. To prevent any further scatering from this 
place, and weakning of y e same, it was thought best to 
give out some good farms to spetiall persons, y l would 
promise to live at Plimoth, and lickly to be helpfull 
to y e church or comonewelth, and so tye y e lands to 


Pliraoth as farmes for the same ; and ther they might 
keepe their catle & tillage by some servants, and re- 
taine their dwellings here. And so some spetiall lands 
were granted at a place generall, called Greens Harbor, 
wher no allotments had been in y e former divission, a 
plase very weell meadowed, and fitt to keep & rear 
catle, good store. But alass ! this remedy proved worse 
then y e disease; for w th in a few years those that had 
thus gott footing ther rente them selves away, partly 
by force, and partly wearing y e rest with importunitie 
and pleas of necessitie, so as they must either suffer 
them to goe, or live in continuall opposition and con- 
tention. And others still, as y ey conceived them selves 
straitened, or to want accomodation, break away under 
one pretence or other, thinking their owne conceived 
necessitie, and the example of others, a warrente suffi- 
cente for them. And this, I fear, will be y e mine of 
New-England, at least of y e churches of God ther, & 
will provock y e Lords displeasure against them. 

[193] This year, M r . William Perce came into y e 
cuntry, & brought goods and passengers, in a ship 
caled y e Lyon, which belonged cheefly to M r . Sherley, 
and y c rest of y e London partners, but these hear had 
nothing to doe with her. In this ship (besides beaver 
which they had sent home before) they sent upwards 
of 800 U . in her, and some otter skines; and also y e 
coppies of M r . Allertons accounts, desiring that they 
would also peruse & examene them, and rectifie shuch 

364 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

things as they should find amise in them ; and rather 
because they were better aequaynted with y e goods 
bought ther, and y e disbursments made, then they 
could bee here ; yea, a great part were done by them 
selves, though M r . Allerton brougt in y e accounte, 
and sundry things seemed to them obscure and had 
need of clearing. Also they sente a booke of excep- 
tions against his accounts, in such things as they could 
manifest, and doubted not but they might adde more 
therunto. And also shewed them how much M r . Aller- 
ton was debtor to y e accounte ; and desired, seeing 
they had now put y e ship White- Angell, and all, 
wholy into his power, and tyed their hands here, that 
they could not call him to accounte for any thinge, till 
y e time was expired which they had given him, and 
by that time other men would get their debts of him, 
(as sume had done already by suing him,) and he 
would make all away here quickly out of their reach; 
and therfore prayed them to looke to things, and gett 
paymente of him ther, as it was all y e reason they 
should, seeing they keept all y e bonds & covenants 
they made with him in their owne hands ; and here 
they could doe nothing by y e course they had taken, 
nor had any thing to show if they should goe aboute 
it. But it pleased God, this ship, being first to goe 
to Verginia before she wente home, was cast away on 
y* coast, not farr from Virginia, and their beaver was 
all lost (which was y e first loss they sustained in that 


kind) ; but M r . Peirce & y e men saved their lives, 
and also their leters, and gott into Virginia, and so 
safly home. Y e accounts were now sent from hence 
againe to them. And thus much of y e passages of this 

A part of M r . Peirce his leter * from Virginia. 
It was dated in Des : 25. 1632. and came to their 
hand y e 7. of Aprill, before they heard any thing from 

Dear freinds, &c. Y e bruit of this fatall stroke that y e 
Lord hath brought both on me and you all will come to your 
ears before this cometh to your hands, (it is like,) and ther- 
fore I shall not need to inlarg in perticulers, &c. My whole 
estate (for y e most parte) is taken away ; and so yours, in 
a great measure, by this and your former losses [he means 
by y e French & M r . Allertonj. It is time to looke aboute 
us, before y e wrath of y e Lord breake forth to utter destruc- 
tion. The good Lord give us all grace to search our harts 
and trie our ways, and turne unto y e Lord, and humble our 
selves under his mightie hand, and seeke atonemente, &c. 
Dear freinds, you may know y* all your beaver, and y e books 
of your accounts, are swallowed up in y e sea ; your letters 
remaine with me, and shall be delivered, if God bring me 
home. But what should I more say? Have we lost our 
outward estates? yet a hapy loss if our soules may gaiue ; 
ther is yet more in y e Lord Jehova than ever we had yet 
in y e world. Oh that our foolish harts could yet be wained 
from y c things here below, which are vanity and vexation 

* This letter was written on the reverse of folio 192 of the original manu- 
script, and may properly be inserted here. 


of spirite; and yet we fooles catch after shadows, y* flye 
away, & are gone in a momente, &c. Thus with my con- 
tinuall remembrance of you in my poore desires to y e throne 
of grace, beseeching God to renew his love & favoure towards 
you all, in & through y e Lord Jesus Christ, both in spirituall 
& temporall good things, as may be most to the glory & praise 
of his name, and your everlasting good. So I rest, 
Your afflicted brother in Christ, 

Virginia, Des: 25. 1632. 

Anno Dom: 1633. 

THIS year M r . Ed: Winslow was chosen Governor. 

By the first returne this year, they had leters from 
M r . Sherley of M r . Allertons further ill success, and 
y e loss by M r . Peirce, with many sadd complaints ; 
but litle hope of any thinge to be gott of M r . Aller- 
ton, or how their accounts might be either eased, or 
any way rectified by them ther ; but now saw plainly 
y* the burthen of all would be cast on their backs. 
The spetiall passages of his letters I shall here inserte, 
as shall be pertinente to these things ; for though I am 
weary of this tedious & uncomfortable subjecte, yet 
for y e clearing of y e truth I am compelled to be more 
larg in y e opening of these matters, upon w ch [194] 
so much trouble hath insued, and so many hard cen- 
sures have passed on both sids. I would not be par- 
tiall to either, but deliver y e truth in all, and, as nere 
as I can, in their owne words and passages, and so 
leave it to the impartiall judgment of any that shall 



come to read, or veiw these things. His leters are as 
Mow, dated June 24. 1633. 

Loving friends, my last* was sente in y e Mary & John, 
by M r . William Collier, &c. I then certified you of y e great, 
& uncomfortable, and unseasonable loss you & we had, in 
y e loss of M r . Peirce his ship, y e Lyon ; but y e Lords holy 
name be blessed, who gives & taks as it pleaseth him ; his 
will be done, Amen. I then related unto you y l fearfull 
accidente, or rather judgmente, y e Lord pleased to lay on 
London Bridge, by fire, and therm gave you a touch of my 
great loss ; the Lord, I hope, will give me patience to bear 
it, and faith to trust in him, & not in these slipery and un- 
certaine things of this world. 

I hope M r . Allerton is nere upon sayle with you by this ; 
but he had many disasters here before he could gett away ; 
yet y e last was a heavie one ; his ship, going out of y e har- 
bor at Bristol], by stormie weather was so farr driven on y e 
shore, as it cost him above 100 li . before shee could be gott 
off againe. Verily his case was so lamentable as I could 
not but afford him some help therin (and so did some were 
strangers to him) ; besids, your goods were in her, and if 
he had not been supported, he must have broke off his 
viage, and so loss could not have been avoyded on all 
sides. When he first bought her, I thinke he had made 
a saving match, if he had then sunck her, and never set 
her forth. I hope he sees y e Lords hand against him, 
and will leave of these viages. I thinke we did well in 
parting with her; she would have been but a clogge to 
y e accounte from time to time, and now though we shall 
not gett much by way of satisfaction, yet we shall lose 
no more. And now, as before I have writte, I pray you 
finish all y e accounts and reconings with him there ; for here 

March 22. 

368 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

he hath nothing, but many debtes that he stands ingaged 
to many men for. Besids, here is not a man y* will spend 
a day, or scarce an hower, aboute y e accounts but my selfe, 
and y 4 bussines will require more time and help then I can 
afford. I shall not need to say any more ; I hope you will 
doe y* which shall be best & just, to which adde mercie, 
and consider his intente, though he failed in many perticu- 
lers, which now cannot be helped, &c. 

To morrow, or next day at furthest, we are to pay 300 li . 
and M r . Beacharnp is out of y e towne, yet y e bussines I 
must doe. Oh the greefe & trouble y* man, M r . Allerton, 
hath brought upon you and us ! I cannot forgett it, and 
to thinke on it draws many a sigh from my harte, and 
teares from my eyes. And now y e Lord hath visited me 
with an other great loss, yet I. can undergoe it with more 
patience. But this I have follishly pulled upon my selfe, 
&c. [And in another, he hath this passage :] By M r . Aller- 
tons faire propositions and large [195] promises, I have 
over rune my selfe ; verily, at this time greefe hinders me 
to write, and tears will not suffer me to see ; wherfore, as 
you love those that ever loved you, and y 1 plantation, thinke 
upon us. Oh what shall I say of that man, who hath abused 
your trust and wronged our loves ! but now to cornplaine is 
too late, nither can I complaine of your backwardnes, for 
I am perswaded it lys as heavie on your harts, as it doth 
on our purses or credites. And had y e Lord sent M r . 
Peirce safe home, we had eased both you and us of some 
of those debts ; the Lord I hope will give us patience to 
bear these crosses ; and that great G-od, whose care & 
providence is every where, and spetially over all those that 
desire truly to fear and serve him, direct, guid, prosper, 
& blesse you so, as y 1 you may be able (as I perswade 
my selfe you are willing) to discharge & take off this great 
& heavie burthen which now lyes upon me for your saks ; 
and I hope in y e ende for y e good of you, and many thou- 


sands more ; for had not you & we joyned & continued 
togeather, New-England might yet have been scarce knowne, 
I am perswaded, not so replenished & inhabited with honest 
English people, as it now is. The Lord increase & blesse 
them, &c. So, with my continuall praiers for you all, I rest 
Your assured loving friend, 

June 24. 1633. 

By this it apperes when M r . Sherly sould him y e ship 
& all her accounts, it was more for M r . Allertons ad- 
vantage then theirs ; and if they could get any there, 
well & good, for they were like to have nothing here. 
And what course was held to hinder them there, hath 
aliready beene manifested. And though M r . Sherley 
became more sinsible of his owne condition, by these 
losses, and therby more sadly & plainly to complaine 
of M r . Allerton, yet no course was taken to help them 
here, but all left unto them selves ; not so much as to 
examene & rectifie y e accounts, by which (it is like) 
some hundereds of pounds might have been taken off. 
But very probable it is, the more they saw was taken 
off, y e less might come unto them selves. But I leave 
these maters, & come to other things. 

M r . Roger Williams (a man godly & zealous, having 
many precious parts, but very unsettled in judgmente) 
came over first to y e Massachusets, but upon some dis- 
contente left y 1 place, and came hither, (wher he was 
friedly entertained, according to their poore abilitie,) 
and exercised his gifts amongst them, & after some 

370 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

time was admitted a member of y e church ; and his 
teaching well approoved, for y e benefite wherof I still 
blese God, and am thankfull to him, even for his 
sharpest admonitions & reproufs, so farr as they agreed 
with truth. He this year begane to fall into some 
strang oppilons, and from opinion to practise ; which 
caused some controversie betweene y e church & him, 
and in y e end some discontente on his parte, by occa- 
sion wherof he left them some thing abruptly. Yet 
after wards sued for his dismission to y e church of 
Salem, which was granted, with some caution to them 
concerning him, and what care they ought to have of 
him. But he soone fell into more things ther, both 
to their and y e governments troble and [196] disturb- 
ance. I shall not need to name perticulers, they are 
too well knowen now to all, though for a time y e 
church here wente under some hard censure by his 
occasion, from some that afterwards smarted them 
selves. But he is to be pitied, and prayed for, and 
so I shall leave y e matter, and desire y e Lord to shew 
him his errors, and reduse him into y e way of truth, 
and give him a setled judgment and constancie in y e 
same ; for I hope he belongs to y e Lord, and y l he 
will shew him mercie. 

Having had formerly converse and famliarity with 
y e Dutch, (as is before remembred,) they, seeing them 
seated here in a barren quarter, tould them of a river 
called by them y e Fresh Eiver, but now is known 


by y e name of Conightecute-River, which they often 
contended unto them for a fine place both for plantation 
and trade, and wished them to make use of it. But 
their hands being full otherwise, they let it pass. But 
afterwards ther coming a company of banishte Indeans 
into these parts, that were drivene out from thence by 
the potencie of y e Pequents, which usurped upon them, 
and drive them from thence, they often sollisited them to 
goe thither, and they should have much trad, espetially 
if they would keep a house ther. And having now 
good store of comodities, and allso need to looke out 
wher they could advantage them selves to help them 
out of their great ingagments, they now begane to send 
that way to discover y e same, and trade with y e natives. 
They found it to be a fine place, but had no great 
store of trade ; but y e Indeans excused y e same in re- 
gard of y e season, and the fear y e Indans were in of 
their enemise. So they tried diverce times, not with 
out profite, but saw y e most certainty would be by 
keeping a house ther, to receive y e trad when it came 
down out of y e inland. These Indeans, not seeing 
them very forward to build ther, solisited them of y e 
Massachusets in like sorte (for their end was to be 
restored to their countrie againe) ; but they in y e Bay 
being but latly come, were not fitte for y e same ; but 
some of their cheefe made a motion to joyne w th the 
partners here, to trad joyntly with them in y* river, 
the which they were willing to imbrace, and so they 


should have builte, and put in equall stock togeather. 
A time of meeting was appointed at y e Massachusets, 
and some of y e cheefe here was appointed to treat with 
them, and went accordingly ; but they cast many fears 
of deanger & loss and the like, which was perceived 
to be the maine obstacles, though they alledged they 
were not provided of trading goods. But those hear 
offered at presente to put in sufficiente for both, pro- 
vided they would become ingaged for y e halfe, and 
prepare against y e nexte year. They conffessed more 
could not be offered, but thanked them, and tould them 
they had no mind to it. They then answered, they 
hoped it would be no offence unto [197] them, if them 
sellves wente on without them, if they saw it meete. 
They said ther was no reason they should ; and thus 
this treaty broake of, and those here tooke conveniente 
time to made a begining ther ; and were y e first English 
that both discovered that place, and built in y e same, 
though they were litle better then thrust out of it after- 
ward as may appeare. 

But y e Dutch begane now to repente, and hearing 
of their purpose & preparation, indeoured to prevente 
them, and gott in a litle before them, and made a 
slight forte, and planted 2. peeces of ordnance, threten- 
ing to stopp their passage. But they having made 
a smale frame of a house ready, and haveing a great 
new-barke, they stowed their frame in her hold, & 
bords to cover & finishe it, having nayles & all other 


provisions fitting for their use. This they did y e rather 
that they might have a presente defence against y e 
Indeans, who weare much offended that they brought 
home & restored y e right Sachem of y e place (called 
Natawanute) ; so as they were to incounter with a duble 
danger in this attempte, both y e Dutch and y e Indeans. 
When they came up y e river, the Dutch demanded 
what they intended, and whither they would goe ; they 
answered, up y e river to trade (now their order was 
to goe and seat above them). They bid them strike, 
& stay, or els they would shoote them ; & stood by 
ther ordnance ready fitted. They answered they had 
comission from y e Gov r of Plimoth to goe up y e river 
to such a place, and if they did shoote, they must obey 
their order and proceede; they would not molest them, 
but would goe one. So they passed along, and though 
the Dutch threatened them hard, yet they shoot not. 
Coming to their place, they clapt up their house 
quickly, and landed their provissions, and left y e com- 
panie appoynted, and sent the barke home ; and after- 
wards palisadoed their house aboute, and fortified them 
selves better. The Dutch sent word home to y e Mon- 
hatas what was done: and in proces of time, they, sent 
a band of aboute 70. men, in warrlike maner, with 
collours displayed, to assaulte them; but seeing them 
strengtened, & that it would cost blood, they came 
to parley, and returned in peace. And this was their 
enterance ther, who deserved to have held it, and not 


by freinds to have been thrust out, as in a sorte they 
were, as will after appere. They did y e Dutch no 
wrong, for they took not a foote of any land they 
bought, but went to y e place above them, and bought 
that tracte of land which belonged to these Indeans 
which they carried with them, and their friends, with 
whom y e Dutch had nothing to doe. But of these 
matters more in another place. 

It pleased y e Lord to visite them this year with an 
infectious fevoure, of which many fell very sicke, and 
upward of 20. persons dyed, men and women, besids 
children, and sundry of them of their anciente friends 
which had lived in Holand ; as Thomas Blossome, 
Richard Masterson, with sundry [198] others, and in 
y e end (after he had much helped others) Samuell 
Fuller, who was their surgeon & phisition, and had 
been a great help and comforte unto them ; as in his 
facultie, so otherwise, being a deacon of y e church, 
a man godly, and forward to doe good, being much 
missed after his death ; and he and y e rest of their 
brethren much lamented by them, and caused much 
sadnes & mourning amongst them ; which caused them 
to humble them selves, & seeke y e Lord ; and towards 
winter it pleased the Lord y e sicknes ceased. This 
disease allso swept away many of y e Indeans from 
all y e places near adjoyning; and y e spring before, 
espetially all y e month of May, ther was such a 
quantitie of a great sorte of flies, like (for bignes) 


to wasps, or bumble-bees, which came out of holes in 
y e ground, and replenished all y e woods, and eate y e 
green-things, and made such a constante yelling noyes, 
as made all y e woods ring of them, and ready to deafe 
y e hearers. They have not by y e English been heard 
or seen before or since. But y e Indeans tould them 
y* sicknes would follow, and so it did in June, July, 
August, and y e cheefe heat of somer. 

It pleased y e Lord to inable them this year to send 
home a great quantity of beaver, besids paing all their 
charges, & debts at home, which good returne did 
much incourage their freinds in England. They sent 
in beaver 3366 H . waight, and much of it coat beaver, 
which yeeled 20 s . p r pound, & some of it above ; and 
of otter-skines * 346. sould also at a good prise. And 
thus much of y e affairs of this year. 

Anno Dom: 1634. 

THIS year M r . Thomas Prence was chosen Gov r . 

M r . Sherleys letters were very breefe in answer of 
theirs this year. I will forbear to coppy any part 
therof, only name a head or 2. therin. First, he 
desirs they will take nothing ill in what he formerly 
write, professing his good affection towards them as 
before, &c. 2 ly . For M r . Allertons accounts, he is 
perswaded they must suffer, and y* in no small sumes ; 

* The skin was sold at H s . and 15. y e pound. 


and that they have cause enough to complaine, but it 
was now too late. And that he had failed them ther, 
those here, and him selfe in his owne aimes. And 
that now, having thus left them here, he feared God 
had or would leave him, and it would not be strang, 
but a wonder if he fell not into worse things, &c. 3 ly . 
He blesseth God and is thankfull to them for y e good 
returne made this year. This is y e effecte of his 
letters, other things being of more private nature. 

I am now to enter upon one of y e sadest things that 
befell them since they came ; but before I begine, it 
will be needfull to premise such parte of their patente 
as gives them right and priviledge at Kenebeck; as 
followeth : 

[199] The said Counsell hath further given, granted, bar- 
ganed, sold, infeoffed, allotecl, assigned, & sett over, and 
by these presents doe clearly and absolutly give, grante, 
bargaue, sell, alliene, enffeofe, allote, assigne, and confirme 
unto y e said William Bradford, his heires, associates, and 
assignes, All that tracte of land or part of New-England 
in America afforesaid, which lyeth within or betweene, and 
extendeth it selfe from y e utmost limits of Cobiseconte, which 
adjoyneth to y e river of Kenebeck, towards the westerne 
ocean, and a place called y e falls of Nequamkick in America, 
aforsaid ; and y e space of 15. English myles on each side 
of y e said river, commonly called Kenebeck River, and all y e 
said river called Kenebeck that lyeth within the said limits 
& bounds, eastward, westward, northward, & southward, last 
above mentioned ; and all lands, grounds, soyles, rivers, 
waters, fishing, &c. And by vertue of y e authority to us de- 


rived by his said late Ma tis Lres patents, to take, apprehend, 
seise, and make prise of all such persons, their ships and 
goods, as shall attempte to inhabite or trade with y e savage 
people of that countrie within y e severall precincts and limits 
of his & their severall plantations, &c. 

Now it so fell out, that one Hocking, belonging to 
y e plantation of Pascataway, wente with a barke and 
comodities to trade in that river, and would needs 
press into their limites ; and not only so, but would 
needs goe up y e river above their house, (towards y e 
falls of y e river,) and intercept the trade that should 
come to them. He that was cheefe of y e place forbad 
them, and prayed him that he would not offer them 
that injurie, nor goe aboute to infring their liberties, 
which had cost them so dear. But he answered he 
would goe up and trade ther in dispite of them, and 
lye ther as longe as he pleased. The other tould him 
he must then be forced to remove him from thence, or 
make seasure of him if he could. He bid him doe his 
worste, and so wente up, and anchored ther. The 
other tooke a boat & some men & went up to him, 
when he saw his time, and againe entreated him to 
departe by what perswasion he could. But all in 
vaine : he could gett nothing of him but ill words. 
So he considred that now was y e season for trade 
to come downe, and if he should suffer him to lye, 
& take it from them, all ther former charge would be 
lost, and they had better throw up all. So, con- 


suiting with his men, (who were willing thertoe,) he 
resolved to put him from his anchores, and let him 
drive downe y e river with y e streame ; but comanded y e 
men y* none should shoote a shote upon any occasion, 
except he comanded them. He spoake to him againe, 
but all in vaine ; then he sente a cuple in a canow to 
cutt his cable, the which one of them performes ; but 
Hocking taks up a pece which he had layed ready, 
and as y e barke shered by y e canow, he shote [200] 
him close under her side, in y e head, (as I take it,) 
so he fell downe dead instantly. One of his fellows 
(that loved him well) could not hold, but with a 
muskett shot Hocking, who fell downe dead and never 
speake word. This was y e truth of y e thing. The 
rest of y e men carried home the vessel 1 and y e sad 
tidings of these things. Now y e Lord Saye & y e Lord 
Brooks, with some other great persons, had a hand in 
this plantation ; they write home to them, as much as 
they could to exasperate them in y e matter, leaveing 
out all y e circomstances, as if he had been kild without 
any offenc of his parte, conceling y 1 he had kild another 
first, and y e just occasion that he had given in offering 
such wrong ; at w ch their Lords ps were much offended, 
till they were truly informed of y e mater. 

The bruite of this was quickly carried all aboute, 
(and y* in y e worst maner,) and came into y e Bay 
to their neighbours their. Their owne barke coming 
home, and bringing a true relation of y e matter, sundry 


were sadly affected with y e thing, as they had cause. 
It was not long before they had occasion to send their 
vessell into y e Bay of y e Massachusetts ; but they were 
so prepossest with this matter, and affected with y e 
same, as they comited M r . Alden to prison, who was 
in y e bark, and had been at Kenebeck, but was no 
actore in y e bussines, but wente to carie them supply. 
They dismist y e barke aboute her bussines, but kept 
him for some time. This was thought strang here, 
and they sente Capten Standish to give them true in- 


formation, (togeather with their letters,) and y e best 
satisfaction they could, and to procure M r . Alden's 
release. I shall recite a letter or 2. which will show 
the passages of these things, as folloeth. 

Good S r : 

I have received your Ire 8 by Captaine Standish, & am 
unfainedly glad of Gods mercie towards you in y e recovery 
of your health, or some way thertoo. For y e bussines you 
write of, I thought meete to answer a word or 2. to your 
selfe, leaving the answer of your Gov r Ire to our courte, to 
whom y e same, together with iny selfe is directed. I conceive 
(till I hear new matter to y e contrary) that your patente may 
warrente your resistance of any English from trading at 
Kenebeck, and y* blood of Hocking, and y e partie he slue, 
will be required at his hands. Yet doe I with your selfe & 
others sorrow for their deaths. I thinke likewise y 4 your 
generall Ires will satisfie our courte, and make them cease 
from any further inter medling in y e mater. I have upon 
y e same Ire sett M r . Alden at liberty, and his sureties, and 
yet, least I should seeme to neglecte y e opinion of our court 


& y e frequente speeches of others with us, I have bound 
Captaine Standish to appeare y e 3. of June at our nexte 
courte, to make affidavid for y e coppie of y e patente, and 
to manifest the circumstances of Hockins provocations ; both 
which will tend to y e clearing of your inocencie. If any 
unkiudnes hath ben taken from what we have done, let it 
be further & better considred of, I pray you ; and I hope y e 
more you thinke of it, the lesse blame you will impute to us. 
At least you ought to be just in differencing them, whose 
opinions concurr [201] with your owne, from others who 
were opposites ; and yet I may truly say, I have spoken w" 1 
no man in y e bussines who taxed you most, but they are 
such as " have many wayes heretofore declared ther good 
affections towards your plantation. I further referr my selfe 
to y e reporte of Captaine Standish & M r . Allden ; leaving 
you for this presente to Gods blessing, wishing unto you 
perfecte recovery of health, and y e long continuance of it. 
I desire to be lovingly remembred to M r . Prence, your Grov r , 
M r . Winslow, M r . Brewster, whom I would see if I knew 
how. The Lord keepe you all. Amen. 

Your very loving freind in our Lord Jesus, 

New-towne, y e 22. of May, 1634. 

Another of his about these things as followeth. 

S r : I am right sorrie for y e news that Captaine Standish & 
other of your neigbours and my beloved freinds will bring 
now to Plimoth, wherin I suffer with you, by reason of my 
opinion, which differeth from others, who are godly & wise, 
amongst us here, the reverence of whose judgments causeth 
me to suspecte myne owne ignorance ; yet must I remaine 
in it untill I be convinced therof. I thought not to have 
shewed your letter written to me, but to have done my best 


to have reconciled differences in y e best season & maner I 
could ; but Captaine Standish requiring an answer therof 
publickly in y e courte, I was forced to produce it, and that 
made y e breach soe wide as he can tell you. I propounded 
to y e courte, to answer M r . Prences Ire, your Gov r , but our 
courte said it required no answer, it selfe being an answer 
to a former Ire of ours. I pray you certifie M r . Prence so 
much, and others whom it concereth, that no neglecte or ill 
maiiers be imputed to me theraboute. The late ires I received 
from England wrought in me divere fears * of some trials 
which are shortly like to fall upon us ; and this unhappie 
contention betweene you and us, and between you & Pas- 
cattaway, will hasten them, if God with an extraordinarie 
hand doe not help us. To reconcile this for y e presente 
will be very difficulte, but time cooleth distempers, and a 
comone danger to us boath approaching, will necessitate our 
uniting againe. I pray you therfore, S r . set your wisdom 
& patience a worke, and exhorte others to y e same, that 
things may not proceede from bad to worse, so making our 
contentions like y e barrs of a pallace, but that a way of 
peace may be kepte open, wherat y e God of peace may have 
enterance in his owne time. If you suffer wrong, it shall 
be your honor to bear it patiently ; but I goe to farr in 
needles putting you in mind of these things. God hath done 
great things for you, and I desire his blessings may be 
multiplied upon you more & more. I will commite no more 
to writing, but comending my selfe to your prayers, doe rest, 
Your truly loving freind in our Lord Jesus, 

June 4. 1634. 

* Ther was cause enough of these feares, which arise by y e underworking 
of some enemies to y e churches here, by which this Comission following was 
procured from his Ma tie . (See this paper in appendix, No. 11.) 

382 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

By these things it appars what troubls rise her- 
upon, and how hard they were to be reconciled; for 
though they hear were hartily sorrie for what was 
fallen out, yet they conceived they were unjustly 
injuried, and provoked to what was done ; and that 
their neigbours (haveing no jurisdiction over them) 
did more then was mete, thus to imprison one of 
theirs, and bind them to [202] their courte. But 
yet being assured of their Christian love, and per- 
swaded what was done was out of godly zeale, that 
religion might not suffer, nor sine any way covered 
or borne with, espetially y e guilte of blood, of which 
all should be very consciencious in any whom soever, 
they did indeavore to appease & satisfie them y e best 
they could ; first, by informing them y e truth in all 
circomstances aboute y e matter ; 2 ly , in being willing to 
referr y e case to any indifferante and equall hearing 
and judgmente of the thing hear, and to answere it 
els wher when they should be duly called therunto ; 
and further they craved M r . Winthrops, & other of y e 
reve d magistrats ther, their advice & direction herein. 
This did mollifie their minds, and bring things to a 
good & comfortable issue in y e end. 

For they had this advice given them by M r . Win- 
throp, & others concurring with him, that from their 
courte, they should write to the neigboure plantations, 
& espetially- that of y e lords, at Pascataway, and 
theirs of y e Massachusets, to appointe some to give 


them meeting at some fitt place, to consulte & deter- 
mine in this matter, so as y e parties meeting might 
have full power to order & bind, &c. And that noth- 
ing be done to y e infringing or prejudice of y e liber- 
ties of any place. And for y e clearing of conscience, 
y e law of God is, y* y e preist lips must be consulted 
with, and therfore it was desired that y e ministers 
of every plantation might be presente to give their 
advice in pointe of conscience. Though this course 
seemed dangerous to some, yet they were so well 
assured of y e justice of their cause, and y e equitie 
of their freinds, as they put them selves upon it, & 
appointed a time, of which they gave notice to y e 
severall places a month before hand ; viz. Massachu- 
sets, Salem, & Pascataway, or any other y 1 they 
would give notice too, and disired them to produce 
any evidence they could in y e case. The place for 
meeting was at Boston. But when y e day & time 
came, none apered, but some of y e magistrats and 
ministers of y e Massachusets, and their owne. Seeing 
none of Passcataway or other places came, (haveing 
been thus desired, & conveniente time given them for 
y* end,) M r . Winthrop & y e rest said they could doe 
no more then they had done thus to requeste them, 
y e blame must rest on them. So they fell into a fair 
debating of things them selves ; and after all things 
had been fully opened & discussed, and y e opinione 
of each one demanded, both magistrats, and ministers, 


though they all could have wished these things had 
never been, yet they could not but lay y e blame & 
guilt on Hockins owne head ; and withall gave them 
such grave & godly exhortations and advice, as they 
thought meete, both for y e presente & future ; which 
they allso imbraced with love & thankfullnes, prom- 
ising to indeavor to follow y e same. And thus was 
this matter ended, and ther love and concord re- 
newed ; and also M r . Winthrop & M r . Dudley write 
in their behalfes to y e Lord Ssay & other gentl-men 
that were interesed in y* plantation, very effectually, 
w th which, togeather with their owne leters, and M r . 
Winslows furder declaration of things unto them, they 
rested well satisfied. 

[203] M r . Winslow was sente by them this year 
into England, partly to informe and satisfie y e Lord 
Say & others, in y e former matter, as also to make 
answer and their just defence for y e same, if any 
thing should by any be prosecuted against them at 
Counsell-table, or els wher; but this matter tooke 
end, without any further trouble, as is before noted. 
And partly to signifie unto y e partners in England, 
that the terme of their trade with y e company here 
was out, and therfore he was sente to finishe y e 
accounts with them, and to bring them notice how 
much debtore they should remaine on y t accounte, 
and that they might know what further course would 
be best to hold. But y e issue of these things will 


appear in y e next years passages. They now sente 
over by him a great returne, which was very accep- 
table unto them ; which was in beaver 3738*. waight, 
(a great part of it, being coat-beaver, sould at 20 s . 
p r pound,) and 234. otter skines ; * which alltogeather 
rise to a great sume of money. 

This year (in y e foreparte of y e same) they sente 
forth a barke to trad at y e Dutch-Plantation ; and 
they mette ther with on Captaine Stone, that had 
lived in Christophers, one of y e West-Ende Hands, 
and now had been some time in Virginia, and came 
from thence into these parts. He kept company with 
y e Dutch Gove r , and, I know not in what drunken 
fitt, he gott leave of y e Gov r to ceaise on their barke, 
when they were ready to come away, and had done 
their markett, haveing y e valew of 500 U . worth of 
goods abord her; having no occasion at all, or any 
collour of ground for such a thing, but having made 
y e Gov r drunck, so as he could scarce speake a right 
word ; and when he urged him hear aboute, he answered 
him, Als 'I u beleeft.] So he gat abord, (the cheefe of 
their men & marchant being ashore,) and with some 
of his owne men, made y e rest of theirs waigh an- 
chor, sett sayle, & carry her away towards Virginia. 
But diverse of y e Dutch sea-men, which had bene often 
at Plimoth, and kindly entertayned ther, said one to 
another, Shall we suffer our freinds to be thus abused, 

* And y s ki n at u. f That is, "If you please." 

386 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

and have their goods carried away, before our faces, 
whilst our Gov r is drunke? They vowed they would 
never suffer it; and so gott a vessell or 2. and pur- 
sued him, & brought him in againe, and delivered 
them their barke & goods againe. 

After wards Stone came into y e Massachusets, and 
they sent & commensed suite against him for this 
facte ; but by mediation of freinds it was taken up, 
and y e suite lett fall. And in y e company of some 
other gentle-men Stone came afterwards to Plimoth, 
and had freindly & civill entertainmente amongst them, 
with y e rest ; but revenge boy led within his brest, 
(though concelled,) for some conceived he had a pur- 
pose (at one time) to have staped the Gov r , and put 
his hand to his dagger for that end, but by Gods 
providence and y e vigilance of some was prevented. 
He afterward returned to Virginia, in a pinass, with 
one Captaine Norton & some others ; and, I know not 
for what occasion, they would needs goe up Coonigte- 
cutt River; and how they carried themselves I know 
not, but y e Indeans knoct him in y e head, as he lay 
in his cabine, and 'had thrown y e covering over his 
face (whether out of fear or desperation is uncer- 
taine) ; this was his end. They likewise killed all y e 
rest, but Captaine Norton defended him selfe a long 
time against them all in y e cooke-roome, till by acci- 
dente the gunpowder tooke fire, which (for ready nes) 
he had sett in an open thing before him, which did 



so burne, & scald him, & blind his eyes, as he could 
make no longer resistance, but was slaine also by 
them, though they much comended his vallour. And 
having killed y e men, they made a pray of what they 
had, and chafe red away some of their things to y e 
Dutch that lived their. But it was not longe before 
a quarell fell betweene the Dutch & them, and they 
would have cutt of their bark ; but they slue y e cheef 
sachem w th y e shott of a murderer.* 

I am now to relate some strang and remarkable pas- 
sages. Ther was a company of people lived in y e 
country, up above in y e river of Conigtectit, a great 
way from their trading house ther, and were enimise 
to those Indeans which lived aboute them, and of 
whom they stood in some fear (bing a stout people). 
About a thousand of them had inclosed them selves 
in a forte, which they had strongly palissadoed about. 
3. or 4. Dutch men went up in y e begining of winter 
to live with them, to gett their trade, and prevente 
them for bringing it to y e English, or to fall into 
amitie with them ; but at spring to bring all downe 
to their place. But their enterprise failed, for it 
pleased God to visite these Indeans with a great sick- 
nes, and such a mortalitie that of a 1000. above 900. 
and a halfe of them dyed, and many of them did rott 
above ground for want of buriall, and y e Dutch men 

* The two paragraphs above were written on the reverse of folios 202 and 
203 of the original manuscript, under this year. 

388 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

allmost starved before they could gett away, for ise 
and snow. But about Feb : they got with much diffi- 
cultie to their trading house ; whom they kindly re- 
lee ved, being allmost spente with hunger and could. 
Being thus refreshed by them diverce days, they got 
to their owne place, and y e Dutch were very thankfull 
for this kindnes. 

This spring, also, those Indeans that lived aboute 
their trading house there fell sick of y e small poxe, 
and dyed most miserably ; for a sorer disease cannot 
befall them ; they fear it more then y e plague ; for 
usualy they that have this disease have them in abun- 
dance, and for wante of bedding & lining and other 
helps, they fall into a lamentable condition, as they 
lye on their hard matts, y e poxe breaking and matter- 
ing, and runing one into another, their skin cleaving 
(by reason therof) to the matts they lye on ; when 
they turne them, a whole* side will flea of at once, 
[204] (as it were,) and they will be all of a gore 
blood, most fearfull to behold ; and then being very 
sore, what with could and other distempers, they dye 
like rotten sheep. The condition of this people was 
so lamentable, and they fell downe so generally of 
this diseas, as they were (in y e end) not able to help 
on another; no, not to make a fire, nor to fetch a 
litle water to drinke, nor any to burie y e dead ; but 
would strivie as long as they could, and when they 
could procure no other means to make fire, they 


would burne y e woden trayes & dishes they ate their 
meate in, and their very bowes & arrowes ; & some 
would crawle out on all foure to gett a litle water, 
and some times dye by y e way, & not be able to gett 
in againe. But those of y e English house, (though 
at first they were afraid of y e infection,) yet seeing 
their woefull and sadd condition, and hearing their 
pitifull cries and lamentations, they had compastion 
of them, and dayly fetched them wood & water, and 
made them fires, gott them victualls whilst they lived, 
and buried them when they dyed. For very few of 
them escaped, notwithstanding they did what they 
could for them, to y e haszard of them selvs. The 
cheefe Sachem him selfe now dyed, & allmost all his 
freinds & kinred. But by y e marvelous goodnes & 
providens of God not one of y e English was so much 
as sicke, or in y e least measure tainted with this dis- 
ease, though they dayly did these offices for them for 
many weeks togeather. And this mercie which they 
shewed them was kindly taken, and thankfully ac- 
knowledged of all y e Indeans that knew or heard of 
y e same ; and their m rs here did much comend & re- 
ward them for y e same. \/ 

Anno Dom: 1635. 

M R . WINSLOW was very wellcome to them in Eng- 
land, and y e more in regard of y e large returne he 
brought with him, which came all safe to their hands, 

390 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

and was well sould. And he was borne in hand, (at 
least he so apprehended,) that all accounts should be 
cleared before his returne, and all former differences 
ther aboute well setled. And so he writ over to 
them hear, that he hoped to cleare y e accounts, and 
bring them over with him ; and y* the accounte of 
y e White Angele would be taken of, and all things 
fairly ended. But it came to pass [205] that, being 
occasioned to answer some complaints made against 
the countrie at Counsell bord, more cheefly concerning 
their neigbours in y e Bay then them selves hear, the 
which he did to good efiecte, and further prosecuting 
such things as might tend to y e good of y e whole, as 
well them selves as others, aboute y e wrongs and in- 
croachments that the French & other strangers both 
had and were like further to doe unto them, if not 
prevented, he prefered this petition following to their 
Hon rs that were deputed Comissioners for y e Planta- 

To y e right honorable y e Lords Comissioners for y e Plan- 
tations in America. 

The bumble petition of Edw : Winslow, on y e behalfe of 
y e plantations in New-England, 

Humbly sheweth unto your Lordships, y l wheras your peti- 
tioners have planted them selves in New England under his 
Ma tis most gratious protection ; now so it is, right Hon bl , 
that y e French & Dutch doe indeaouer to devide y e land 
betweene them ; for which purpose y e French have, on y e 
east side, entered and seased upon one of our houses, and 


carried away the goods, slew 2. of y e men in another place, 
and tooke y e rest prisoners with their goods. And y e Dutch, 
on y e west, have also made entrie upon Conigtecute River, 
within y e limits of his Maj ts Irs patent, where they have 
raised a forte, and threaten to expell your petitioners thence, 
who are also planted upon y e same river, maintaining posses- 
sion for his Ma tie to their great charge, & hazard both of lives 
& goods. 

In tender consideration hereof your petitioners humbly pray 
that your Lo pps will either procure their peace w th those foraine 
states, or else to give spetiall warrante unto your petitioners 
and y e English Collonies, to right and defend them selves 
against all foraigne eniniies. And your petitioners shall 
pray, &c. 

This petition found good acceptation with most of 
them, and M r . Winslow was heard sundry times by 
them, and appointed further to attend for an answer 
from their Lo pps , espetially, having upon conferance 
with them laid downe a way how this might be doone 
without any either charge or trouble to y e state ; only 
by furnishing some of y e cheefe of y e cuntry hear 
with authoritie, who would undertake it at their owne 
charge, and in such a way as should be without any 
publick disturbance. But this crossed both S r Ferdi- 
nandos Gorges' & Cap : Masons designe, and y e arch- 
bishop of Counterberies by them ; for S r Ferd : Gorges 
(by y e arch-pps favore) was to have been sent over 
generall Gov 1 into y e countrie, and to have had means 
from y e state for y 4 end, and was now upon dispatch 
and conclude of y e bussines. And y e arch-bishops 


purposs & intente was, by his means, & some he 
should send with him, (to be furnished with Episco- 
pall power,) [206] to disturbe y e peace of y e churches 
here, and to overthrow their proceedings and further 
growth, which was y e thing he aimed at. But it so 
fell out (by Gods providence) that though he in y e 
end crost this petition from taking any further effecte 
in this kind, yet by this as a cheefe means the plotte 
and whole bussines of his & S r Ferdinandos fell to y e 
ground, and came to nothing. When M r . Winslow 
should have had his suit granted, (as indeed upon y e 
pointe it was,) and should have been confirmed, the 
arch-bishop put a stop upon it, and M r . Winslow, 
thinking to gett it freed, went to y e bord againe ; but 
y e bishop, S r Ferd : and Captine Masson, had, as it 
seernes, procured Morton (of whom mention is made 
before, & his base carriage) to complaine ; to whose 
complaints M r . Winslow made answer to y e good sat- 
isfaction of y e borde, who checked Morton and re- 
buked him sharply, & allso blamed S r Fer d Gorges, 
& Masson, for countenancing him. But y e bish : had 
a further end & use of his presence, for he now be- 
gane to question M r . Winslow of many things ; as 
of teaching in y e church publickly, of which Morton 
accused him, and gave evidence that he had seen and 
heard him doe it ; to which M r . Winslow answered, 
that some time (wanting a minster) he did exercise 
his giffce to help y e edification of his breethren, when 


they wanted better means, w ch was not often. Then 
aboute mariage, the which he also confessed, that, 
haveing been called to place of magistracie, he had 
sometimes maried some. And further tould their 
lord ps y* mariage was a civille thinge, & he found no 
wher in y e word of God y* it was tyed to ministrie. 
Again, they were necessitated so to doe, having for 
a long time togeather at first no minister; besids, it 
was no new-thing, for he had been so maried him 
selfe in Holand, by y e magistrats in their Statt-house. 
But in y e end (to be short), for these things, y e 
bishop, by vemente importunity, gott y e bord at last 
to consente to his comittemente ; so he was comited 
to y e Fleete, and lay ther 17. weeks, or ther aboute, 
before he could gett to be released. And this was y e 
end of this petition, and this bussines ; only y e others 
designe was also frustrated hereby, with other things 
concurring, which was no smalle blessing to y e people 

But y e charge fell heavie on them hear, not only in 
M r . Winslows expences, (which could not be smale,) 
but by y e hinderance of their bussines both ther and 
hear, by his personall imploymente. For though this 
was as much or more for others then for them hear, 
and by them cheefly he was put on this bussines, 
(for y e plantation kewe nothing of it till they heard 
of his imprisonmente,) yet y e whole charge lay on 

394 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Now for their owne bussines ; whatsoever M r . Sher- 
leys mind was before, (or M r . Winslow apprehension 
of y e same,) he now declared him selfe plainly, that 
he would neither take of y e White-Angell from y e 
accounte, nor [207] give any further accounte, till he 
had received more into his hands ; only a prety good 
supply of goods were sent over, but of y e most, no 
note of their prises, or so orderly an invoyce as for- 
merly ; which M r . Winslow said he could not help, 
because of his restrainte. Only now M r . Sherley & 
M r . Beachamp & M r . Andrews sent over a letter of 
atturney under their hands & seals, to recovere what 
they could of M r . Allerton for y e Angells accounte ; 
but sent them neither y e bonds, nor covenants, or such 
other evidence or accounts, as they had aboute these 
matters. I shall here inserte a few passages out of 
M r . Sherley s letters aboute these things. 

Your leter of y e 22. of July, 1634, by your trustie and our 
loving friend M r . Winslow, I have received, and your larg 
parcell of beaver and otter skines. Blessed be our God, 
both he and it came safly to us, and we have sould it in 
tow parcells ; y e skin at 14 s . H. & some at 16. ; y e coate at 
20 8 . y e pound. The accounts I have not sent you them this 
year, I will referr you to M r . "Winslow to tell you y e reason 
of it; yet be assured y* none of you shall suffer by y e not 
having of them, if God spare me life. And wheras you say 
y e 6. years are expired y' y e peopl put y e trad into your & 
our hands for, for y e discharge of y 4 great debte w ch M r . 
Allerton needlesly & unadvisedly ran you & us into ; yet it 
was promised it should continue till our disbursrnents & in- 


gagements were satisfied. You conceive it is done ; we feele 
& know other wise, &c. I doubt not but we shall lovingly 
agree, notwithstanding all y* hath been writen, on boath sids, 
aboute y e Whit-Angell. We have now sent you a letter of 
atturney, therby giving you power in our names (and to 
shadow it y e more we say for our uses) to obtaine what may 
be of M r . Allerton towards y e satisfing of that great charge 
of y e White Angell. And sure he hath bound him selfe, 
(though at present I cannot find it,) but he hath often 
affirmed, with great protestations, y l neither you nor we 
should lose a peny by him, and I hope you shall find enough 
to discharg it, so as we shall have no more contesting 
aboute it. Yet, notwithstanding his "unnaturall & unkind 
dealing with you, in y e midest of justice remember mercie, 
and doe not all you may doe, &c. Set us out of debte, and 
then let us recone & reason togeither, &c. M r . Winslow 
hath undergone an unkind imprisonment, but I am perswaded 
it will turne much to all 'your good. I leave him to relate per- 
ticuleres, &c. 

Your loving freind, 

London, Sep : 7. 1635. 

This year they sustained an other great loss from y e 
French. Monsier de Aulnay coming into y e harbore of 
Penobscote, and having before gott some of y e cheefe 
y* belonged to y e house abord his vessell, by sutlty 
coming upon them in their shalop, he gott them to 
pilote him in ; and after getting y e rest into his power, 
he tooke possession of y e house in y e name of y e king 
of France ; and partly by threatening, & other wise, 
made Mr. Willett (their agente ther) to approve of 


y e sale of y e goods their unto him, of which he sett 
y e price him selfe [208] in effecte, and made an in- 
ventory therof, (yett leaving out sundry things,) but 
made no paymente for them ; but tould them in con- 
venient time he would doe it if they came for it. For 
y e house & fortification, &c. he would not alow, nor 
accounte any thing, saing that they which build on 
another mans ground doe forfite y e same. So thus 
turning them out of all, (with a great deale of com- 
plemente, and many fine words,) he let them have 
their shalop and some victualls to bring them home. 
Coming home and relating all the passages, they here 
were much troubled at it, & haveing had this house 
robbed by y e French once before, and lost then above 
500 ti . (as is before remembred), and now to loose 
house & all, did much move them. So as they re- 
solved to consulte with their freinds in y e Bay, and 
if y ey approved of it, "(ther being now many ships 
ther,) they intended to hire a ship of force, and seeke 
to beat out y e Frenche, and recover it againe. Ther 
course was well approved on, if them selves could bear 
y e charge; so they hired a fair ship of above 300. 
tune, well fitted with ordnance, and agreed with y e 
m r . (one Girling) to this effect : that he and his com- 
pany should deliver them y e house, (after they had 
driven out, or surprised y e French,) and give them 
peacable possession therof, and of all such trading 
comodities as should ther be found ; and give y e 


French fair quarter & usage, if they would yeeld. In 
consideration wherof he was to have 700 ti . of beaver, 
to be delivered him ther, when he had done y e thing; 
but if he did not accomplish it, he was to loose his 
labour, and have nothing. With him they also sent 
their owne bark, and about 20. men, with Captaine 
Standish, to aide him (if neede weer), and to order 
things, if the house was regained ; and then to pay 
him y e beaver, which they keept abord their owne 
barke. So they with their bark piloted him thither, 
and brought him safe into y e harbor. But he was so 
rash & heady as he would take no advice, nor would 
suffer Captaine Standish to have time to summone 
them, (who had comission & order so todoe,) neither 
would doe it him selfe ; the which, it was like, if it had 
been done, & they come to affaire parley, seeing their 
force, they would have yeelded. Neither would he 
have patience to bring his ship wher she might doe 
execution, but begane to shoot at distance like a 
madd man, and did them no hurte at all ; the which 
when those of y e plantation saw, they were much 
greeved, and went to him & tould him he would doe 
no good if he did not lay his ship beter to pass (for 
she might lye within pistoll shott of y e house). At 
last, when he saw his owne folly, he was pers waded, 
and layed her well, and bestowed a few shott to good 
purposs. But now, when he was in a way to doe 
some good, his powder was goone ; for though he had 


. . * peece of ordnance, it did now [209] appeare he 
had but a barrell of powder, and a peece; so he could 
doe no good, but was faine to draw of againe ; by 
which means y e enterprise was made frustrate, and y e 
French incouraged ; for all y e while that he shot so 
unadvisedly, they lay close under a worke of earth, & 
let him consume him selfe. He advised with y e Cap- 
taine how he might be supplyed with powder, for 
he had not to carie him home ; so he tould him he 
would goe to y e next plantation, and doe his indeour 
to procure him some, and so did ; but understand- 
ing, by intelligence, that he intended to ceiase on y e 
barke, & surprise y e beaver, he sent him the powder, 
and brought y e barke & beaver home. But Girling 
never assualted y e place more, (seeing him selfe dis- 
apoyented,) but went his way; and this was y e end 
of this bussines. 

Upon y e ill success of this bussines, the Grov r and 
Assistants here by their leters certified their freinds in 
y e Bay, how by this ship they had been abused and 
disapoynted, and y* the French partly had, and were 
now likly to fortifie them selves more strongly, and 
likly to become ill neigbours to y e English. Upon 
this they thus writ to them as folloeth : 

Worthy S rs : Upon y e reading of your leters, & consid- 
eration of y e waightines of y c cause therin mentioned, the 

* Blank in the original. 


courte hath joyntly expressed their willingnes to assist you 
with men & munition, for y e accomplishing of your desires 
upon y e French. But because here are none of yours y l have 
authority to conclude of any thing herein, nothing can be 
done by us for y e presente. We desire, therfore, that you 
would with all conveniente speed send some man of trust, 
furnished with instructions from your selves, to make such 
agreemente with us about this bussines as may be usefull 
for you, and equall for us. So in hast we coinite you to 
God, and remaine 

Your assured loving freinds, 







Ric : DUMER. 
New-towne, Octo r 9. 1635. 

Upon the receite of y e above mentioned, they pres- 
ently deputed 2. of theirs to treate witb them, giving 
them full power to conclude, according to the instruc- 
tions they gave them, being to this purposs : that if 
they would afford such assistance as, togeather with 
their owne, was like to effecte the thing, and allso 
bear a considerable parte of y e charge, they would goe 
on; if not, [210] they (having lost so much allready) 

400 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

should not be able, but must desiste, and waite fur- 
ther opportunitie as God should give, to help them 
selves. But this came to nothing, for when it came 
to y e issue, they would be at no charge, but sente 
them this letter, and referd them more at large to 
their owne messengers. 

S r : Having, upon y e consideration of your letter, with y e 
message you sente, had some serious consultations aboute 
y e great importance of your bussines with y e French, we 
gave our answer to those whom you deputed to conferr w** 1 
us aboute y e viage to Penobscote. We shewed our willing- 
nes to help, but withall we declared our presente condition, 
& in what state we were, for our abilitie to help ; which we 
for our parts shall be willing to improve, to procure you 
sufflciente supply of men & munition. But for matter of 
moneys we have no authority at all to promise, and if we 
should, we should rather disapoynte you, then incourage you 
by y 4 help, which we are not able to performe. We likewise 
thought it fitt to take y e help of other Esterne plantations ; 
but those things we leave to your owne wisdomes. And for 
other things we refer you to your owne coinitties, who are 
able to relate all y e passages more -at large. We salute 
you, & wish you all good success in y e Lord. 
Your faithfull & loving friend, 

In y e name of y e rest of the Comities. 

Boston, Octob r 16. 1635 . 

This thing did not only thus breake of, but some 
of their merchants shortly after sent to trad with 
them, and furnished them both with provissions, & 


poweder & shott ; and so have continued to doe till 
this day, as they have seen opportunitie for their 
profite. So as in truth y e English them selves have 
been the cheefest supporters of these French ; for 
besids these, the plantation at Pemaquid (which lyes 
near unto them) doth not only supply them with 
what y ey wante, but gives them continuall intelligence 
of all things that passes among y e English, (espetially 
some of them,) so as it is no marvell though they 
still grow, & incroach more & more upon y e English, 
and fill y e Indeans with gunes & munishtion, to y e 
great deanger of y e English, who lye open & unfor- 
tified, living upon husbandrie ; and y e other closed up 
in their forts, well fortified, and live upon trade, in 
good securitie. If these things be not looked too, and 
remeady provided in time, it may easily be conjectured 
what they may come toe ; but I leave them. 

This year, y e 14. or 15. of August (being Saturday) 
was such a mighty storine of wind & raine, as none 
living in these parts, either English or Indeans, ever 
saw. Being like (for y e time it continued) to those 
Hauricanes and Tuffons that writers make mention of 
in y e Indeas. It began in y c morning, a litle before 
day, and grue not by degrees, but came with violence 
in y e begining, to y e great amasrnente of many. It 
blew downe sundry [211] houses, & uncovered others ; 
diverce vessells were lost at sea, and many more in ex- 
treme danger. It caused y e sea to swell (to y e south- 


ward of this place) above 20. foote, right up & downe, 
and made many of the Indeans to clime into trees for 
their saftie ; it tooke of y e horded roofe of a house 
which belonged to the plantation at Manamet, and 
noted it to another place, the posts still standing in 
y e ground ; and if it had continued long without y e 
shifting of y e wind, it is like it would have drouned 
some parte of y e cuntrie. It blew downe many hun- 
dered thowsands of trees, turning up the stronger by 
the roots, and breaking the hiegher pine trees of in 
the midle, and y e tall yonge oaks & walnut trees of 
good biggnes were wound like a withe, very strang 
& fearfull to behould. It begane in y e southeast, and 
parted toward y e south & east, and vered sundry ways ; 
but y e greatest force of it here was from y e former 
quarters. It continued not (in y e extremitie) above 
5. or 6. houers, but y e violence begane to abate. The 
signes and marks of it will remaine this 100. years in 
these parts wher it was sorest. The moone suffered 
a great eclips the 2. night after it. 

Some of their neighbours in y e Bay, hereing of y e 
fame of Conightecute River, had a hankering mind 
after it, (as was before noted,) and now understanding 
that y e Indeans were swepte away with y e late great 
mortalitie, the fear of whom was an obstacle unto 
them before, which being now taken away, they be- 
gane now to prosecute it with great egernes. The 
greatest differances fell betweene those of Dorchester 


plantation and them hear; for they set their minde 
on that place, which they had not only purchased of 
y e Indeans, but wher they had builte ; intending only 
(if they could not remove them) that they should have 
but a smale moyety left to y e house, as to a single 
family ; whose doings and proceedings were conceived 
to be very injurious, to attempte not only to intrude 
them selves into y e rights & possessions of others, but 
in effect to thrust them out of all. Many were y e 
leters & passages that went betweene them hear aboute, 
which would be to long here to relate. 

I shall here first inserte a few lines that was write 
by their own agente from thence. 

S r : &c. Y e Masschuset men are coming almost dayly, some 
by water, & some by land, who are not yet determined wher 
to setle, though some have a great mind to y e place we are 
upon, and which was last bought. Many of them look at 
that which this river will not afford, excepte it be at this 
place which we have, namly, to be a great towne, and have 
comodious dwellings for many togeather. So as what they 
will doe I cannot yet resolve you ; for this place ther is none 
of them say any thing to me, but what I hear from their 
servants (by whom I perceive their minds) . I shall doe what 
I can to withstand them. I hope they will hear reason ; as 
that we were here first, and entred with much difficulty and 
danger, [212] both in regard of y e Dutch & Indeans, and 
bought y e land, (to your great charge, allready disbursed,) 
and have since held here a chargable possession, and kept 
y e Dutch from further incroachiug, which would els long be- 
fore this day have possessed all, and kept out all others, &c. 


I hope these & such like arguments will stoppe them. It was 
your will we should use their persons & messengers kindly, 
& so we have clone, and doe dayly, to your great charge; 
for y e first company had well nie starved had it not been for 
this house, for want of victuals ; I being forced to supply 
12. men for 9. days togeather; and those which came last, 
I entertained the best we could, helping both them (& y e 
other) with canows, & guids. They gott me to goe with 
them to y e Dutch, to see if I could procure some of them 
to have quiet setling nere them ; but they did peremtorily 
withstand them. But this later company did not once speak 
therof, &c. Also I gave their goods house roome according 
to their ernest request, and M r . Pinchons letter in their be- 
halfe (which I thought good to send you, here inclosed). 
And what trouble & charge I shall be further at I know 
not ; for they are coming dayly, and I expecte these back 
againe from below, whither they are gone to veiw y e couutrie. 
All which trouble & charg we under goe for their occasion, 
may give us just cause (in y e judgmente of all wise & un- 
derstanding men) to hold and keep that we are setled upon. 
Thus with my duty remembred, &c. I rest 
Yours to be comanded 


Matianuck, July 6. 1635. 

Amongst y e many agitations that pased betweene 
them, I shal note a few out of their last letters, & for 
y e present omitte y e rest, except upon other occasion 
I may have fitter opportunity. After their thorrow 
veiw of y e place, they began to pitch them selves upon 
their land & near their house ; which occasioned much 
expostulation betweene them. Some of which are such 
as follow. 


Brethren, having latly sent 2. of our body unto you, to 
agitate & bring to an issue some maters in difference be- 
tweene us, about some lands at Conightecutt, unto which you 
lay challeng ; upon which God by his providence cast us, 
and as we conceive in a faire way of providence tendered 
it to us, as a meete place to receive our body, now upon 
re mo vail. 

We shall not need to answer all y e passages of your larg 
letter, &c. But wheras you say God in his providence cast 
you, &c., we tould you before, and (upon this occasion) 
must now tell you still, that our mind is other wise, and 
y' you cast rather a partiall, if not a covetous eye, upon 
that w ch is your neigbours, and not yours ; and in so doing, 
your way could not be faire unto it. Looke y 4 you abuse 
not Gods providence in such allegations. 


Now allbeite we at first judged y e place so free y e we might 
with Gods good leave take & use it, without just offence to 
any man, it being the Lords [213] wast, and for y e presente 
altogeather voyd of inhabitants, that indeede minded y e im- 
ploymente therof, to y e right ends for which land was created, 
Gen: 1. 28. and for future intentions of any, & uncertaiue 
possibilities of this or that to be done by any, we judging 
them (in such a case as ours espetialy) not meete to be 
equalled with presente actions (such as ours was) much less 
worthy to be prefered before them ; and therfore did we 
make some weake beginings in that good worke, in y e place 

Ans : Their answer was to this effecte. That if it 
was y e Lords wast, it was them selves that found it so, 
& not they ; and have since bought it of y e right 


oweners, and maintained a chargable possession upon 
it al this while, as them selves could not but know. 
And because of present ingagments and other hinder- 
ances which lay at presente upon them, must it ther- 
fore be lawfull for them to goe and take "it from 
them ? It was well known that they are upon a barren 
place, wher they were by necessitie cast ; and neither 
they nor theirs could longe continue upon y e same ; 
and why should they (because they were more ready, 
& more able at presente) goe and deprive them of 
that which they had w th charg & hazard provided, & 
intended to remove to, as soone as they could & were 

They had another passage in their letter; they had 
rather have to doe with the lords in England, to 
whom (as they heard it reported) some of them should 
say that they had rather give up their right to them, 
(if they must part with it,) then to y e church of 
Dorchester, &c. And that they should be less fearfull 
to offend y e lords, then they were them. 

Ans : Their answer was, that what soever they had 
heard, (more then was true,) yet y e case was not so 
with them that they had need to give away their rights 
& adventurs, either to y e lords, or them ; yet, if they 
might measure their fear of offence by their practise, 
they had rather (in that poynte) they should deal with 
y c lords, who were beter able to bear it, or help them 
selves, then they were. 


But least I should be teadious, I will forbear other 
things, and come to the conclusion that was made in 
y e endd. To make any forcible resistance was farr 
from their thoughts, (they had enough of y* about 
Kenebeck,) and to live in continuall contention with 
their freinds & brethren would be uncomfortable, and 
too heavie a burden to bear. Therfore for peace sake 
(though they conceived they suffered much in this 
thing) they thought it better to let them have it upon 
as good termes as they could gett ; and so they fell to 
treaty. The first thing y* (because they had made so 
many & long disputs aboute it) they would have them 
to grante was, y t they had right too it, or ells they 
would never treat aboute it. The * which being ac- 
knowledged, & yeelded unto by them, this was y e con- 
clusion they came unto in y e end after much adoe : 
that they should retaine their house, and have the 16. 
parte of all they had bought of y e Indeans ; and y e 
other should have all y e rest of y e land ; leaveing such 
a moyety to those [214] of New-towne, as they re- 
served for them. This 16. part was to be taken in too 
places ; one towards y e house, the other towards New- 


townes proporrtion. Also they were to pay according 
to proportion, what had been disbursed to y e Indeans 
for y e purchass. Thus was y e controversie ended, but 
the unkindnes not so soone forgotten. They of New- 
towne delt more fairly, desireing only what they could 

* They in MS. 


conveniently spare, from a cornpetancie reserved for 
a plantation, for them selves ; which made them the 
more carfull to procure a moyety for them, in this 
agreement & distribution. 

Amongst y e other bussinesses that M r . Winslow had 
to doe in England, he had order from y e church to 
provid & bring over some able & fitt man for to 
be their minister. And accordingly he had procured 
a godly and a worthy * man, one M r . Glover ; but it 
pleased God when he was prepared for the viage, he 
fell sick of a feaver and dyed. Afterwards, when he 
was ready to come away, he became acquainted with 
M r . Norton, who was willing to come over, but would 
not ingage him selfe to this place, otherwise then he 
should see occasion when he came hear ; and if he liked 
better else wher, to repay y e charge laid out for him, 
(which came to aboute 70 11 .) and to be at his liberty. 
He stayed aboute a year with them, after he came 
over, and was well liked of them, & much desired by 
them ; but he was invited to Ipswich, wher were many 
rich & able men, and sundry of his aquaintance ; so he 
wente to them, & is their minister. Aboute half of 
y e charg was repayed, y e rest he had for y e pains he 
tooke amongst them. 

* Before this word in the margin appears a capital N. 


Anno Dom: 1636. 

M R . ED : WINSLOW was chosen Grov r this year. 

In y e former year, because they perceived by M r . 
Winslows later letters that no accounts would be 
sente, they resolved to keep y e beaver, and send no 
more, till they had them, or came to some further 
agreemente. At least they would forbear till M r . 
Winslow came over, that by more full conferance with 
him they might better understand what was meete to 
be done. But when he came, though he brought no 
accounts, yet he perswaded them to send y e beaver, 
& was confident upon y e receite of y i beaver, & his 
letters, they should have accounts y nexte year ; and 
though they thought his grounds but weake, that gave 
him this hope, & made him so confidente, yet by his 
importunitie they yeelded, & sente y e same, ther being 
a ship at y e latter end of year, by whom they sente 
1150* 1 . waight of beaver, and 200. otter skins, besids 
sundrie small furrs, as 55. minks, 2. black foxe skins, 
&c. And this year, in y e spring, came in a Dutch 
man, who thought to have traded at y e Dutch-forte ; 
[215] but they would not suffer him. He, having 
good store of trading goods, came to this place, & 
tendred them to sell ; of whom they bought a good 
quantitie, they being very good & fitte for their turne, 
as Dutch roll, ketles, &c., which goods amounted to y e 
valew of 500 11 ., for y e paymente of which they passed 


bills to M r . Sherley in England, having before sente 
y e forementioned parcell of beaver. And now this 
year (by another ship) sente an other good round 
parcell that might come to his hands, & be sould be- 
fore any of these bills should be due. The quantity 
of beaver now sent was 1809^. waight, and of otters 
10. skins, and shortly after (y e same year) was sent by 
another ship (M r . Langrume maister), in beaver 0719*. 
waight, and of otter skins 199. concerning which M r . 
Sherley thus writs. 

Your leters I have received, with 8. hoggsheads of beaver 
by Ed : Wilkinson, m r . of y e Falcon. Blessed be God for y e 
safe coming of it. I have also seen & acceped 3. bills of 
exchainge, &c. But I must now acquainte you how the Lords 
heavie hand is upon this kingdom in many places, but cheefly 
in this cittie, with his judgmente of y e plague. The last 
weeks bill was 1200. & odd, I fear this will be more ; and 
it is much feared it will be a winter sicknes. By reason 
wherof it is incredible y e number of people y* are gone into 
y e cuntry & left y e citie. I am pers waded many more then 
went out y e last sicknes ; so as here is no trading, carriers 
from most places put downe ; nor no receiving of any money, 
though long due. M r . Hall ows us more then would pay 
these bills, but he, his wife, and all, are in y e cuntrie, 60. 
miles from London. I write to him, he came up, but could 
not pay us. I am perswaded if I should offer to sell y e 
beaver at 8 s . p r pound, it would not yeeld money; but when 
y e Lord shall please to cease his hand, I hope we shall have 
better & quicker markets ; so it shall lye by. Before I ac- 
cepted y e bills, I acquainted M r . Beachamp & M r . Andrews 
with them, & how ther could be no money made nor 


received; and that it would be a great discredite to you, 
which never yet had any turned back, and a shame to us, 
haveing 1800 li . of beaver lying by us, and more oweiug 
then y e bills come too, &c. But all was nothing ; neither 
of them both will put too their finger to help. I offered to 
supply my 3. parte, but they gave me their answer they 
neither would nor could, &c. How ever, your bils shall 
be satisfied to y e parties good contente ; but I would not 
have thought they would have left either you or me at this 
time, &c. You will and may expect I should write more, 
& answer your leters, but I am not a day in y e weeke at 
home at towne, but carry my books & all to Clapham ; for 
here is y e miserablest time y* I thinke hath been known in 
many ages. I have know 3. great sickneses, but none like 
this. And that which should be a means to pacific y e Lord, 
& help us, that is taken away, preaching put downe in many 
places, not a sermone in Westminster on y e saboth, nor in 
many townes aboute us ; y e Lord in mercie looke uppon 
us. In y e begining of y e year was a great [216] drought, 
& no raine for many weeks togeather, so as all was burnte 
up, haye, at 5 U . a load ; and now all raine, so as much 
sommer come & later haye is spoyled. Thus y e Lord 
sends judgmente after judgmente, and yet we cannot see, 
nor humble our selves ; and therfore may justly fear heavier 
judgments, unless we speedy ly repente, & returne unto him, 
which y e Lord give us grace to doe, if it be his blessed 
will. Thus desiring you to remember us in your prayers, 
I ever rest Your loving friend, 

Sep': 14. 1636. 

This was all y e answer they had from M r . Sherley, 
by which M r . Winslow saw his hops failed him. So 
they now resoloved to send no more beaver in y* way 


which they had done, till they came to some issue or 
other aboute these things. But now came over let- 
ters from M r . Andrews & M r . Beachamp full of com- 
plaints, that they marveled y* nothing was sent over, 
by which any of their moneys should be payed in ; 
for it did appear by y e accounte sente in An 1631. 
that they were each of them out, aboute a leven 
hundered pounds a peece, and all this while had not 
received one penie towards y e same. But now M r . 
Sherley sought to draw more money from them, and 
was offended because they deneyed him ; and blamed 
them hear very much that all was sent to M r . Sher- 
ley, & nothing to them. They marvelled much at this, 
for they conceived that much of their moneis had been 
paid in, & y 1 yearly each of them had received a pro- 
portionable quantity out of y e larg returnes sent home. 
For they had sente home since y* accounte was re- 
ceived in An 1631. (in which all & more then all 
their debts, w th y i years supply, was charged upon 
them) these sumes following. 

is. An 1631. By M r . Peirce 0400*. waight of beaver, & otters 20. 

July 13. An 1632. By M r . Griffin 1348*. beaver, & otters . . 147. 

An 1633. By M r . Graves 3366*. bever, & otters . ' . 346. 

An 1634. By M r . Andrews 3738*. beaver, & otters . . 234. 

An 1635. By M r . Babb 1150 beaver, & otters . . 200. 

June 24. An 1636. By M r . Willkinson 1809. beaver, & otters . . 010. 

Ibidem. By M r . Langrume 0719 H . beaver, & otters . . 199. 

12150".* 1156. 
* Not correctly cast; it should be 12530*. 


All these sumes were safly rceived & well sould, 
as appears by leters. The coat beaver usualy at 20 s . 
p r pound, and some at 24 s . ; the skin at 15. & some- 
times 16. I doe not remember any under 14. It 
may be y e last year might be something lower, so 
also ther were some small furrs that are not recconed 
in this accounte, & some black beaver at higer rates, 
to make up y e defects. [217] It was conceived that 
y e former parcells of beaver came to litle less then 
10000". sterling, and y e otter skins would pay all y e 
charge, & they w th other furrs make up besids if any 
thing wanted of y e former sume. When y e former 
accounte was passed, all their debts (those of White- 
Angelle & Frendship included) came but to 4770*. 
And they could not estimate that all y e supplies since 
sent them, & bills payed for them, could come to 
above 2000 U . so as they conceived their debts had 
been payed, with advantage or intrest. But it may 
be objected, how comes it that they could not as well 
exactly sett downe their receits, as their returnes, but 
thus estimate it. I answer, 2. things were y e cause 
of it ; the first & principall was, that y e new ac- 
countante, which they in England would needs presse 
upon them, did wholy faile them, & could never give 
them any accounte ; but trusting to his memorie, & 
lose papers, let things rune into such confusion, that 
neither he, nor any with him, could bring things to 
rights. But being often called upon to perfecte his 


accounts, he desired to have such a time, and such 
a time of leasure, and he would doe it. In y e intrhne 
he fell into a great sicknes, and in conclusion it fell 
out he could make no accounte at all. His books 
were after a litle good begining left altogeather un- 
perfect ; and his papers, some were lost, & others so 
confused, as he knew not what to make of them him 
selfe, when they came to be searched & examined. 
This was not unknowne to M r . Sherley ; and they 
came to smarte for it to purposs, (though it was not 
their faulte,) both thus in England, and also here; 
for they conceived they lost some hundreds of pounds 
for goods trusted out in y e place, which were lost for 
want of clear accounts to call them in. Another rea- 
son of this mischeefe was, that after M r . Winslow 
was sente into England to demand accounts, and to 
excepte against y e Whit-Angell, they never had any 
price sent with their goods, nor any certaine invoyce 
of them ; but all things stood in confusion, and they 
were faine to guesse at y e prises of them. 

They write back to M r . Andrews & M r . Beachamp, 
and tould them they marveled they should write they 
had sent nothing home since y e last accounts ; for 
they had sente a great deale; and it might rather be 
marveled how they could be able to send so much, 
besids defraying all charg at home, and what they 
had lost by the French, and so much cast away at 
sea, when M r . Peirce lost his ship on y e coast of Vir- 


ginia. What they had sente was to them all, and to 
them selves as well as M r . Sherley, and if they did 
not looke after it, it was their owne falts ; they must 
referr them to M r . Sherley, who had received [218] 
it, to demand it of him. They allso write to M r . 
Sherley to y e same purposs, and what the others com- 
plaints were. 

This year 2. shallops going to Coonigtecutt with 
goods from y e Massachusetts of such as removed 
theither to plante, were in an easterly storme cast 
away in coming into this harbore in y e night ; the 
boats men were lost, and y e goods were driven all 
alonge y e shore, and strowed up & downe at high- 
water marke. But y e Gov r caused them to be gath- 
ered up, and drawn togeather, and appointed some 
to take an inventory of them, and others to wash 
& drie such things as had neede therof; by which 
means most of y e goods were saved, and restored to 
y e owners. Afterwards anotheir boate of theirs (go- 
ing thither likwise) was cast away near unto Manoan- 
scusett, and such goods as came a shore were preserved 
for them. Such crosses they mette with in their be- 
ginings ; which some imputed as a correction from 
God for their intrution (to y e wrong of others) into 
y { place. But I dare not be bould with Gods judg- 
ments in this kind. 

In y e year 1634, the Pequents (a stoute and war- 
like people), who had made warrs with sundry of 


their neigbours, and puft up with many victories, 
grue now at varience with y e Narigansets, a great 
people bordering upon them. These Narigansets held 
correspondance and termes of freindship with y e Eng- 
lish of y e Massachusetts. Now y e Pequents, being con- 
scious of y e guilte of Captain-Stones death, whom they 
knew to be an-English man, as also those y 1 were 
with him, and being fallen out .with y e Dutch, least 
they should have over many enemies at once, sought 
to make freindship with y e English of y e Massachu- 
setts ; and for y* end sent both messengers & gifts 
unto them, as appears by some letters sent from y e 
Gov r hither. 

Dear & worthy S r : &c. To let you know somwhat of 
our affairs, you may understand that y e Pequents have sent 
some of theirs to us, to desire our freindship, and offered 
much wampani & beaver, &c. The first messengers were 
dismissed without answer ; with y e next we had diverce dayes 
conferance, and taking y e advice of some of our ministers, 
and seeking the Lord in it, we concluded a peace & freind- 
ship with them, upon these conditions : that they should de- 
liver up to us those men who were guilty of Stones death, 
&c. And if we desired to plant in Conightecute, they should 
give up their right to us, and so we would send to trade 
with them as our freinds (which was y e cheefe thing we 
aimed at, being now in warr with y e Dutch and y e rest of 
their neigbours). To this they readily agreed; and that 
we should meadiate a peace betweene them and the Narigan- 
setts ; for which end they were contente we should give the 
Narigansets parte of y l presente, they would bestow on us 


(for they stood [219]* so much on their honour, as they 
would not be seen to give any thing of them selves). As 
for Captein Stone, they tould us ther were but 2. left of 
those who had any hand in his death ; and that they killed 
him in a just quarell, for (say they) he surprised 2. of our 
men, and bound them, to make them by force to shew him 
y e way up y e river ;f and he with 2. other coming on shore, 
9. Indeans watched him, and when they were a sleepe in y e 
night, they kiled them, to deliver their owne men ; and some 
of them going afterwards to y e pinass, it was suddainly blowne 
up. We are now preparing to send a pinass unto them, &c. 

In an other of his, dated y e 12. of y e first month, 
he hath this. 

Our pinass is latly returned from y e Pequents ; they put 
of but litle comoditie, and found them a very false people, 
so as they mean to have no more to doe with them. I have 
diverce other things to write unto you, &c. 

Yours ever assured, 

Boston, 12. of y e 1. month, 1634. 

After these things, and, as I take, this year, John 
Oldom, (of whom much is spoken before,) being now 
an inhabitant of y e Massachusetts, went w th a small 
vessell, & slenderly mand, a trading into these south 
parts, and upon a quarell betweene him & y e Indeans 
was cutt of by them (as hath been before noted) at 
an iland called by y e Indeans Munisses, but since by 

* 119 in MS. 

f Ther is litle trust to be given to their relations in these things. 


y e English Block Hand. This, with y e former about 
the death of Stone, and the baffoyling of y e Pequents 
with y e English of y e Massachusetts, moved them to 
set out some to take revenge, and require satisfaction 
for these wrongs ; but it was done so superfitially, and 
without their acquainting of those of Conightecute & 
other neighbours with y e same, as they did litle good. 
But their neigbours had more hurt done, for some 
of y e murderers of Oldome fled to y e Pequents, and 
though the English went to y e Pequents, and had 
some parley with them, yet they did but delude 
them, & y e English returned without doing any thing 
to purpose, being frustrate of their oppertunitie by y e 
others deceite. After y e English were returned, the 
Pequents tooke their time and oppertunitie to cut of 
some of y e English as they passed in boats, and went 
on fouling, and assaulted them the next spring at 
their habytations, as will appear in its place. I doe 
but touch these things, because I make no question 
they will be more fully & distinctly handled by them 
selves, who had more exacte knowledg of them, and 
whom they did more properly concerne. 

This year M r . Smith layed downe his place of min- 
istrie, partly by his owne willingnes, as thinking it 
too heavie a burthen, and partly at the desire, and 
by y e perswasion , of others ; and the church sought 
out for [220] * some other, having often been disap- 

* 120 in MS. 


pointed in their hops and desires heretofore. And it 
pleased the Lord to send them an able and a godly 
man,* and of a meeke and humble spirite, sound in 
y e truth, and every way unreproveable in his life & 
conversation ; whom, after some time of triall, they 
chose for their teacher, the fruits of whose labours 
they injoyed many years with much comforte, in 
peace, & good agreemente. 

Anno Dom: 1637. 

IN y e fore parte of this year, the Pequents fell 
openly upon y e English at Conightecute, in y e lower 
parts of y e river, and slew sundry of them, (as they 
were at work in y e feilds,) both men & women, to 
y e great terrour of y e rest ; and wente away in great 
prid & triumph, with many high threats. They allso 
assalted a fort at y e rivers mouth, though strong and 
well defended ; and though they did not their pre- 
vaile, yet it struk them with much fear & astonish- 
mente to see their bould attempts in the face of 
danger; which made them in all places to stand 
upon their gard, and to prepare for resistance, and 
ernestly to solissite their freinds and confederats in y e 
Bay of Massachusets to send them speedy aide, for 
they looked for more forcible assaults. M r . Yane, 
being then Gov r , write from their Generall Courte 
to them hear, to joyne with them in this warr ; to 

* Mr. John Reinor. 

420 HISTOKY or [BOOK n. 

which they were cordially willing, but tooke oppor- 
tunitie to write to them aboute some former things, 
as well as presente, considerable hereaboute. The 
which will best appear in y e Gov r answer which he 
returned to y c same, which I shall here inserte. 

S r : The Lord having so disposed, as that your letters to 
our late Gov r is fallen to ray lott to make answer unto, 
I could have wished I might have been at more freedome 
of time & thoughts also, that I might have done it more to 
your & my owne satisfaction. But what shall be wanting 
now may be supplyed hereafter. For y e matters which from 
your selfe & counsell were propounded & objected to us, we 
thought not fitte to make them so publicke as y e cognizance 
of our Generall Courte. But as they have been considered 
by those of our counsell, this answer we thinke fitt to re- 
turne unto you. (1.) Wereas you signifie your willingnes 
to joyne with us in this warr against y e Pequents, though 
you cannot ingage your selves without y e consente of your 
Generall Courte, we acknowledg your good affection towards 
us, (which we never had cause to doubt of,) and are will- 
ing to attend your full resolution, when it may most season- 
ably be ripened. (2 ly .) Wheras you make this warr to be 
our peopls, and not [221] to conceirne your selves, otherwise 
then by consequence, we do in parte consente to you therin ; 
yet we suppose, that, in case of perill, you will not stand 
upon such terms, as we hope we should not doe towards 
you ; and withall we conceive that you looke at y e Pequents, 
and all other Indeaus, as a comone enimie, who, though he 
may take occasion of y e begining of his rage, from some 
one parte of y e English, yet if he prevaile, will surly pursue 
his advantage, to y e rooting out of y e whole nation. Ther- 
fore when we desired your help, we did it not without 


respecte to your owne saftie, as ours. (3 ly .) Wheras you 
desire we should be ingaged to aide you, upon all like occa- 
sions ; we are perswaded you doe not doubte of it ; yet as 
we now deale with you as a free people, and at libertie, so 
as we cannot draw you into this warr with us, otherwise 
then as reason may guid & provock you ; so we desire 
we may be at y e like freedome, when any occasion may 
call for help from us. And wheras it is objected to 
us, that we refused to aide you against y e French; we con- 
ceive y e case was not alicke ; yet we cannot wholy excuse 
our failing in that matter. (4 ly .) Weras you objecte that 
we began y e warr without your privitie, & managed it con- 
trary to your advise ; the truth is, that our first intentions 
being only against Block Hand, and y e interprice seeming 
of small difficultie, we did not so much as consider of taking 
advice, or looking out for aide abroad. And when we had 
resolved upon y e Pequents, we sent presently, or not long 
after, to you aboute it ; but y e answer received, it was not 
seasonable for us to chaing our counsells, excepte we had 
seen and waighed your grounds, which might have out wayed 
our owne. 

(5 ly .) For our peoples trading at Kenebeck, we assure 
you (to our knowledge) it hath not been by any allowance 
from us ; and what we have provided in this and like cases, 
at our last Courte, M r . E. "W. can certifie you. 

And (6 ly ) ; wheras you objecte to us y l we should hold 
trade & correspondancie with y e French, your enemise ; we 
answer, you are misinformed, for, besids some letters which 
hath passed betweene our late Gov r and them, to which we 
were privie, we have neither sente nor incouraged ours to 
trade with them ; only one vessell or tow, for y c better con- 
veace of our letters, had licens from our Gov r to sayle 

* But by this means they did furnish them, & have still continued to doe. 

422 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Diverce other things have fyeen privatly objected to us, by 
our worthy freind, wherunto he received some answer ; but 
most of them concerning y e apprehention of perticuler dis- 
curteseis, or injueries from some perticuler persons amongst 
us. It concernes us not to give any other answer to them 
then this ; that, if y e offenders shall be brought forth in a 
right way, we shall be ready to doe justice as y e case shall 
require. In the meane time, we desire you to rest assured, 
that such things are without our privity, and not a litle 
greeveous to us. 

Now for y e joyning with us in this warr, which indeed 
concerns us no other wise then it may your selves, viz. : 
the releeving of our freinds & Christian [222] breethren, 
who are now first in y e danger; though you may thinke us 
able to make it good without you, (as, if y e Lord please 
to be with us, we may,) yet 3. things we offer to your 
consideration, which (we conceive) may have some waight 
with you. (First) y* if we should sinck under this burden, 
your opportunitie of seasonable help would be lost in 3. 
respects. 1. You cannot recover us, or secure your selves 
ther, with 3. times y e charge & hazard which now y e may. 
2 ly . The sorrowes which we should lye under (if through 
your neglect) would much abate of y e acceptablenes of your 
help afterwards. 3 ly . Those of yours, who are now full of 
courage and forwardnes, would be much damped, and so 
less able to undergoe so great a burden. The (2.) thing is 
this, that it concernes us much to hasten this warr to an 
end before y e end of this somer, otherwise y e newes of it 
will discourage both your & our freinds from coming to us 
next year ; with what further hazard & losse it may expose 
us unto, your selves may judge. 

The (3.) thing is this, that if y e Lord shall please to 
blesse our endeaours, so as we end y e warr, or put it in a 
hopefull way without you, it may breed such ill thoughts 
in our people towards yours, as will be hard to entertaine 


such opinione of your good will towards us, as were fitt to 
be nurished among such neigbours & brethren as we are. 
And what ill consequences may follow, on both sids, wise 
men may fear, & would rather prevente then hope to re- 
dress. So with my harty salutations to you selfe, and all 
your cbunsell, and other our good freinds with you, I rest 
Yours most assured in y e Lord, 

Boston, y e 20. of y e 3. month, 1637. 

In y e mean time, the Pequents, espetially in y e win- 
ter before, sought to make peace with y e Narigansets, 
and used very pernicious arguments to move them 
therunto : as that y e English were stranegers and be- 
gane to overspred their countrie, and would deprive 
them therof in time, if they were suffered to grow 
& increse ; and if y e Narigansets did assist y e English 
to subdue them, they did but make way for their 
owne overthrow, for if they were rooted out, the 
English would soone take occasion to subjugate them ; 
and if they would harken to them, they should not 
neede to fear y e strength of y c English; for they 
would not come to open battle with them, but fire 
their houses, kill their katle, and lye in ambush for 
them as they went abroad upon their occasions ; and 
all this they might easily doe without any or litle 
danger to them selves. The which course being held, 
they well saw the English could not long subsiste, but 
they would either be starved with hunger, or be forced 
to forsake the countrie ; with many y e like things ; in- 

424 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

sonauch that y e Narigansets were once wavering, and 
were halfe minded to have made peace with them, and 
joyed against y e English. But againe when they con- 
sidered, how much wrong they had received from the 
Pequents, and what an oppertunitie they now had by 
y e help of y e English to right them selves, revenge 
was so sweete unto them, as it prevailed above all y e 
rest ; so as they resolved to joyne with y e English 
against them, & did. [223] The Court here agreed 
forwith to send 50. men at their owne charg; and 
w th as much speed as posiblie they could, gott them 
armed, and had made them ready under sufficiente 
leaders, and provided a barke to carrie them provisions 
& tend upon them for all occasions ; but when they 
were ready to march (with a supply from y e Bay) 
they had word to stay, for y e enimy was as good as 
vanquished, and their would be no neede. 

I shall not take upon me exactly to describe their 
proceedings in these things, because I expecte it will 
be fully done by them selves, who best know the car- 
rage & circumstances of things ; I shall therfore but 
touch them in generall. From Connightecute (who 
were most sencible of y e hurt sustained, & y e pres- 
ent danger), they sett out a partie of men, and an 
other partie mett them from y e Bay, at y e Narigansets, 
who were to joyne with them. Y e Narigansets were 
ernest to be gone before y e English were well rested 
and refreshte, espetially some of them which came last. 


It should seeme their desire was to come upon y e 
enemie sudenly, & undiscovered. Ther was a barke 
of this place, newly put in ther, which was come from 
Conightecutte, who did incourage them to lay hold of 
y e Indeans forwardnes, and to shew as great forward- 
nes as they, for "it would incorage them, and expedi- 
tion might prove to their great advantage. So they 
went on, and so ordered their march, as the Indeans 
brought them to a forte of y e enimies (in which most 
of their cheefe men were) before day. They ap- 
proached y e same with great silence, and surrounded 
it both with English & Indeans, that they might not 
breake out ; and so assualted them with great courage, 
shooting amongst them, and entered y e forte with all 
speed ; and those y* first entered found sharp resist- 
ance from the enimie, who both shott at & grapled 
with them ; others rane into their howses, & brought 
out fire, and sett them on fire, which soone tooke in 
their matts, &, standing close togeather, with y e wind, 
all was quickly on a flame, and therby more were 
burnte to death then was otherwise slain ; it burnte 
their bowstrings, and made them unservisable. Those 
y* scaped y e fire were slaine with y e sword ; some 
hewed to peeces, others rune throw with their rapiers, 
so as they were quickly dispatchte, and very few es- 
caped. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 
400. at this time. It was a fearful I sight to see 
them thus frying in y e fyer, and y e streams of blood 

426 HISTORY or [BOOK ii. 

quenching y e same, and horrible was y e stinck & 
sente ther of; but y e victory seemed a sweete sacri- 
fice, and they gave the prays therof to God, who had 
wrought so wonderfuly for them, thus to inclose their 
enimise in their hands, and give them so speedy a 
victory over so proud & insulting an enimie. The 
Narigansett Indeans, all this while, stood round aboute, 
but aloofe from all danger, and left y e whole [224] 
execution to y e English, exept it were y e stoping of 
any y* broke away, insulting over their enimies in this 
their ruine & miserie, when they saw them dancing in 
y e flames, calling them by a word in their owne lan- 
guage, signifing, O brave Pequents ! which they used 
familierly among them selves in their own prayes, in 
songs of triumph after their victories. After this ser- 
vis was thus happily accomplished, they marcht to the 
water side, wher they mett with some of their vesells, 
by which they had refreishing with victualls & other 
necessaries. But in their march y e rest of y e Pe- 
quents drew into a body, and acoasted them, thinking 
to have some advantage against them by * reason of 
a neck of land; but when they saw the English pre- 
pare for them, they kept a loofe, so as they neither 
did hurt, nor could receive any. After their refreish- 
ing & repair to geather for further counsel! & direc- 
tions, they resolved to pursue their victory, and follow 
y e warr against y e rest, but y e Narigansett Indeans 

* Be in manuscript. 


most of them forsooke them, and such of them as they 
had with them for guids, or otherwise, they found 
them very could and backward in y e bussines, ether 
out of envie, or y* they saw y e English would make 
more profite of y e victorie then they were willing 
they should, or els deprive them of such advantage as 
them selves desired by having them become tributaries 
unto them, or y e like. 

For y e rest of this bussines, I shall only relate y e 
same as it is in a leter which came from M r . Win- 
throp to y e Gov r hear, as folio weth. 

Worthy S r : I received your loving letter, and am much 
provocked to express my affections towards you, but strait- 
nes of time forbids me ; for my desire is to acquainte you 
with y e Lords greate mercies towards us, in our prevailing 
against his & our enimies ; that you may rejoyce and praise 
his name with us. About 80. of our men, haveing costed 
along towards y e Dutch plantation, (some times by water, 
but most by land,) mett hear & ther with some Pequents, 
whom they slew or tooke prisoners. 2. sachems they tooke, 
& beheaded ; and not hearing of Sassacous, (the cheefe 
sachem,) they gave a prisoner his life, to goe and find 
him out. He weute and brought them word where he was, 
but Sassacouse, suspecting him to be a spie, after he was 
gone, fled away with some 20. more to y e Mo wakes, so our 
men missed of him. Yet, deviding them selves, and rang- 
ing up & downe, as y e providence of God guided them (for 
y e Indeans were all gone, save 3. or 4. and they knew not 
whither to guid them, or els would not), upon y e 13. of this 
month, they light upon a great company of them, viz. 80. 
strong men, & 200. women & children, in a small Indean 

428 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

towne, fast by a hideous swamp, which they all slipped into 
before our men could gett to them. Our captains were not 
then come togeither, but ther was M r . Ludlow and Captaine 
Masson, with some 10. [225] of their men, & Captaine 
Patrick with some 20. or more of his, who, shooting at y e 
Indeans, Captaine Trask with 50. more came soone in at 
y e noyse. Then they gave order to surround y e swampe, it 
being aboute a mile aboute ; but Levetenante Davenporte & 
some 12. more, not hearing that comand, fell into y e swampe 
among y e Indeans. The swampe was so thicke k with shrub- 
woode, & so boggie with all, that some of them stuck 
fast, and received many shott. Levetenant Davenport was 
dangerously wounded aboute his armehole, and another shott 
in y e head, so as, fainting, they were in great danger to 
have been taken by y e Indeans. But Sargante Rigges, & 
'Jeffery, and 2. or 3. more, rescued them, and slew diverse 
of y e Indeans with their swords. After they were drawne 
out, the Indeans desired parley, & were offered (by Thomas 
Stauton, our interpretour) that, if they would come out, 
and yeeld them selves, they should have their lives, all 
that had not their hands in y e English blood. Wherupon 
y e sachem of y e place came forth, and an old man or 2. & 
their wives and children, and after that some other women 
& children, and so they spake 2. howers, till it was night. 
Then Thomas Stanton was sente into them againe, to call 
them forth; but they said they would selle their lives their, 
and so shott at him so thicke as, if he had not cried out, 
and been presently rescued, they had slaine him. Then our 
men cutt of a place of y e swampe with their swords, and 
cooped the Indeans into so narrow a compass, as they could 
easier kill them throw y e thickets. So they continued all 
y e night, standing aboute 12. foote one from an other, and 
y e Indeans, coming close up to our men, shot their arrows 
so thicke, as they pierced their hatte brimes, & their sleeves, 


& stockins, & other parts of their cloaths, yet so miracu- 
lously did the Lord preserve them as not one of them was 
wounded, save those 3. who rashly went into y e swampe. 
"When it was nere day, it grue very darke, so as those of 
them which were left dropt away betweene our men, though 
they stood but 12. or 14. foote assunder ; but were presenly 
discovered, & some killed in y e pursute. Upon searching of 
y e swampe, y e next morning, they found 9. slaine, & some 
they pulled up, whom y e Indeans had buried in y e mire, so 
as they doe thinke that, of all this company, not 20. did 
escape, for they after found some who dyed in their flight 
of their wounds received. The prisoners were devided, some 
to those of y e river, and the rest to us. Of these we send 
y e male children to Bermuda,* by M r . William Peirce, & y e 
women & maid children are disposed aboute in y e townes. 
Ther have been now slaine & taken, in all, aboute 700. 
The rest are dispersed, and the Indeans in all quarters so 
terrified as all their friends are affraid to receive them. 2. 
of y e sachems of Long Hand came to M r . Stoughton and 
tendered them selves to be tributaries under our protection. 
And 2. of y e Neepnett sachems have been with me to seeke 
our frendship. Amonge the prisoners we have y e wife & 
children of Mononotto, a womon of a very modest counte- 
nance and behaviour. It was by her mediation that thef 
2. English [226] maids were spared from death, and were 
kindly used by her ; so that I have taken charge of her. 
One of her first requests was, that the English would not 
abuse her body, and that her children might not be taken 
from her. Those which were wounded were fetched of soone 
by John Galopp, who came with his shalop in a happie 
houre, to bring them victuals, and to carrie their wounded 
men to y e pinass, wher our cheefe surgeon was, w th M r . 

* But yey were carried to y e West-Indeas. 
t They in the manuscript. 


Willson, being aboute 8. leagues off. Our people are all in 
health, (y e Lord be praised,) and allthough they had marched 
in their armes all y e day, and had been in fight all y e night, 
yet they professed they found them selves so fresh as they 
could willingly have gone to such another bussines. 

This is y e substance of that which I received, though I am 
forced to omite many considerable circomstances. So, being 
in much straitnes of time, (the ships being to departe within 
this 4. days, and in them the Lord Lee and M*. Vane,) I 
hear breake of, and with harty saints to, &c., I rest 

Yours assured, 

The 28. of y e 5. month, 1637. 

The captains reporte we have slaine 13. sachems ; but Sas- 
sacouse & Monotto are yet living. 

That I may make an end of this matter : this Sassa- 
couse (y e Pequents cheefe sachem) being fled to y* 
Mowhakes, they cutt of his head, with some other 
of y e cheefe of them, whether to satisfie y e English, or 
rather y e Narigansets, (who, as I have since heard, 
hired them to doe it,) or for their owne advantage, 
I well know not ; but thus this warr tooke end. The 
rest of y e Pequents were wholy driven from their 
place, and some of them submitted them selves to y e 
Narigansets, & lived under them ; others of them be- 
tooke them selves to y e Monhiggs, under Uncass, their 
sachem, w th the approbation of y e English of Conigh- 
tecutt, under whose protection Uncass lived, and he 
and his men had been faithful to them in this warr, 
& done them very good service. But this did so vexe 


the Narrigansetts, that they had not y e whole sweay 
over them, as they have never ceased plotting and 
contriving how to bring them under, and because they 
cannot attaine their ends, because of y e English who 
have protected them, they have sought to raise a 
generall conspiracie against y e English, as will appear 
in an other place. 

They had now letters againe out of England from 
M r . Andrews & M r . Beachamp, that M r . Sherley neither 
had nor would pay them any money, or give them any 
accounte, and so with much discontent desired them 
hear to send them some, much blaming them still, that 
they had sent all to M r . Sherley, & none to them 
selves. Now, though they might have justly referred 
them to their former answer, and insisted ther upon, 
& some wise men counselled them so to doe, yet be- 
cause they beleeved that [227] they were realy out 
round sumes of money, (espetialy M r . Andrews,) and 
they had some in their hands, they resolved to send 
them what bever they had.* M r . Sherleys letters were 
to this purpose : that, as they had left him in y e 
paiment of y e former bills, so he had tould them he 
would leave them in this, and beleeve it, they should 
find it true. And he was as good as his word, for 
they could never gett peney from him, nor bring him 
to any accounte, though M r . Beachamp sued him in y e 
Chancerie. But they all of them turned their com- 

* But staid it till y next year. 


plaints against them here, wher ther was least cause, 
and who had suffered most unjustly; first from M r . 
Allerton & them, in being charged with so much of 
y* which they never had, nor drunke for; and now 
in paying all, & more then all (as they conceived), and 
yet still thus more demanded, and that with many 
heavie charges. They now discharged M r . Sherley from 
his agencie, and forbad him to buy or send over any 
more goods for them, and prest him to come to some 
end about these things. 

Anno Dom: 1638. 

THIS year M r . Thomas Prence was chosen Gov r . 

Amongst other enormities that fell out amongst them, 
this year 3. men were (after due triall) executed for 
robery & murder which they had committed ; their 
names were these, Arthur Peach, Thomas Jackson, and 
Eichard Stinnings ; ther was a 4., Daniel Crose, who 
was also guilty, but he escaped away, and could not 
be found. This Arthur Peach was y e cheefe of them, 
and y e ring leader of all y e rest. He was a lustie 
and a desperate yonge man, and had been one of y e 
souldiers in y e Pequente warr, and had done as good 
servise as y e most ther, and one of y e forwardest in 
any attempte. And being now out of means, and loath 
to worke, and falling to idle courses & company, he 
intended to goe to y e Dutch plantation ; and had alured 
these 3., being other mens servants and apprentices, 


to goe with him. But another cause ther was allso 
of his secret going away in this maner ; he was not 
only rune into debte, but he had gott a maid with 
child, (which was not known till after his death,) a 
mans servante in y e towne, and fear of punishmente 
made him gett away. The other 3. complotting with 
him, rane away from their maisters in the night, and 
could not be heard of, for they went not y e ordinarie 
way, but shaped such a course as they thought to 
avoyd y e pursute of any [228]. But falling into y e way 
that lyeth betweene y e Bay of Massachusetts and the 
Narrigansets, and being disposed to rest them selves, 
struck fire, and took tobaco, a litle out of y e way, 
by y e way side. At length ther came a Narigansett 
Indean by, who had been in y e Bay a trading, and 
had both cloth & beads aboute him. (They had meett 
him y e day before, & he was now returning.) Peach 
called him to drinke tobaco with them, and he came 
& sate downe with them. Peach tould y e other he 
would kill him, and take what he had from him. But 
they were some thing afraid; but he said, Hang him, 
rogue, he had killed many of them. So they let him 
alone to doe as he would ; and when he saw his time, 
he tooke a rapier and rane him through the body once 
or twise, and tooke from him 5. fathume of wampam, 
and 3. coats of cloath, and wente their way, leaving 
him for dead. But he scrabled away, when they were 
gone, and made shift to gett home, (but dyed within 


a few days after,) by which means they were dis- 
covered ; and by subtilty the Indeans tooke them. For 
they desiring a canow to sett them over a water, 
(not thinking their facte had been known,) by y e 
sachems comand they were carried to Aquidnett Hand, 
& ther accused of y e murder, and were examed & 
comitted upon it by y e English ther. The Indeans sent 
for M r . Williams, & made a greeveous complain te ; his 
freinds and kinred were ready to rise in armes, and 
provock the rest therunto, some conceiving they should 
now find y e Pequents words trew : that y e English 
would fall upon them. But M r . Williams pacified 
them, & tould them they should see justice done upon 
y e offenders ; & wente to y e man, & tooke M r . James, 
a phisition, with him. The man tould him who did it, 
& in what maner it was done; but y e phisition found 
his wounds mortall, and that he could not live, (as he 
after testified upon othe, before y e jurie* in oppen 
courte,) and so he dyed shortly after, as both M r . 
Williams, M r . James, & some Indeans testified in 
courte. The Gov rt in y e Bay were aquented with it, 
but refferrd it hither, because it was done in this 
jurisdiction ; * but pressed by all means y* justice 
might be done in it ; or els y e countrie must rise & 
see justice done, otherwise it would raise a warr. Yet 
some of y e rude & ignorante sorte murmured that any 

* And yet afterwards they laid claime to those parts in y e controversie 
about Seacunk. 


English should be put to death for y e Indeans. So at 
last they of y e iland brought them hither, and being 
often examened, and y e evidence prodused, they all in 
the end freely confessed in effect all y* the Indean 
accused them of, & that they had done it, in y e maner 
afforesaid; and so, upon y e forementioned evidence, 
were cast by y e jurie, & condemned, & executed for 
the same. And some of y e Narigansett Indeans, & of 
y e parties freinds, were presente when it was done, 
which gave them & all y e countrie good satisfaction. 
But it was a matter of much sadnes to them hear, 
and was y e 2. execution which they had since they 
came ; being both for wilfull murder, as hath bene 
before related. Thus much of this mater. 

[229] They received this year more letters from 
England full of reneued complaints, on y e one side, 
that they could gett no money nor accounte from M r . 
Sherley; & he againe, y 1 he was pressed therto, saying 
he was to accounte with those hear, and not with 
them, &c. So, as was before resolved, if nothing came 
of their last letters, they would now send them what 
they could, as supposing, when some good parte was 
payed them, that M r . Sherley & they would more 
easily agree aboute y e remainder. 

So they sent to M r . Andrews and M r . Beachamp, by 
M r . Joseph Yonge, in y e Mary & Anne, 1325*. waight 
of beaver, devided betweene them. M r . Beachamp re- 
turned an accounte of his moyety, that he made 400*. 

436 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

starling of it, fraight and all charges paid. But M r . 
Andrews, though he had y e more and beter parte, yet 
he made not so much of his, through his owne indis- 
cretion ; and yet turned y e loss * upon them hear, but 
without cause. 

They sent them more by bills & other paimente, 
which was received & acknowledged by them, in 
money f & y e like ; which was for katle sould of M r . 
Allertons, and y e price of a bark sold, which belonged 
to y e stock, and made over to them in money, 434*. 
sterling. The whole sume was 1234 U . sterling, save 
what M r . Andrews lost in y e beaver, which was other- 
wise made good. But yet this did not stay their 
clamors, as will apeare here after more at large. 

It pleased God, in these times, so to blesse y e cuntry 
with such access & confluance of people into it, as it 
was therby much inriched, and catle of all kinds stood 
at a high rate for diverce years together. Kine were 
sould at 20 K . and some at 25 ti . a peece, yea, some 
times at 28 11 . A cow-calfe usually at 10 H . A milch 
goate at 3 U . & some at 4*. And femall kids at 30 s . 
and often at 40 s . a peece. By which means y e anciente 
planters which had any stock begane to grow in their 
estats. Corne also wente at a round rate, viz. 6 s . a 
bushell. So as other trading begane to be neglected; 
and the old partners (having now forbidden M r . Sherley 
to send them any more goods) broke of their trade at 

* Being about 40*. f And devided betweene them. 


Kenebeck, and, as things stood, would follow it no 
longer. But some of them, (with other they joyned 
with,) being loath it should be lost by discontinuance, 
agreed with y e company for it, and gave them aboute 
y e 6. parte of their gaines for it; [230] * with y e first 
fruits of which they builte a house for a prison ; and 
the trade ther hath been since continued, to y e great 
benefite of y e place ; for some well fore-sawe that these 
high prises of corne and catle would not long continue, 
and that then y e comodities ther raised would be much 

This year, aboute y e 1. or 2. of June, was a great 
& fearfull earthquake ; it was in this place heard be- 
fore it was felte. It came with a rumbling noyse, or 
low murmure, like unto remoate thunder; it came from 
y e norward, & pased southward. As y e noyse aproched 
nerer, they earth begane to shake, and came at length 
with that violence as caused platters, dishes, & such 
like things as stoode upon shelves, to clatter & fall 
downe ; yea, persons were afraid of y e houses them 
selves. It so fell oute y* at y e same time diverse of 
y e cheefe of this towne were mett together at one 
house, conferring with some of their freinds that were 
upon their removall from y e place, (as if y e Lord 
would herby shew y e signes of his displeasure, in their 
shaking a peeces & removalls one from an other.) 
How ever it was very terrible for y e time, and as 

130 in MS. 

438 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

y e men were set talking in y e house, some women 
& others were without y e dores, and y e earth shooke 
with y l violence as they could not stand without 
catching hould of y e posts & pails y* stood next 
them ; but y e violence lasted not long. And about 
halfe an hower, or less, came an other noyse & 
shaking, but nether so loud nor strong as y e former, 
but quickly passed over ; and so it ceased. It was 
not only on y e sea coast, but y e Indeans felt it 
within land; and some ships that were upon y e coast 
were shaken by it. So powerfull is y e mighty hand of 
y e Lord, as to make both the earth & sea to shake, 
and the mountaines to tremhle before him, when he 
pleases ; and who can stay his hand ? It was observed 
that y e somers, for divers years togeather after this 
earthquake, were not so hotte & seasonable for y e 
ripning of corne & other fruits as formerly ; but 
more could & moyst, & subjecte to erly & untirnly 
frosts, by which, many times, much Indean corne 
xjame not to maturitie ; but whether this was any 
cause, I leave it to naturallists to judge. 

Anno Dom: 1639. & Anno Dom: 1640. 
THESE 2. years I joyne togeather, because in them 
fell not out many things more then y e ordinary pas- 
sages of their comone affaires, which are not need- 
full to be touched. [231] Those of this plantation 
having at sundrie times granted lands for severall 

1639, 1640.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 439 

townships, and amongst y e rest to y e inhabitants of 
Sityate, some wherof issewed from them selves, and 
allso a large tracte of land was given to their 4. 
London partners in y* place, viz. M r . Sherley, M r . 
Beacham, M r . Andrews, & M r . Hatherley. At M r . 
Hatherley's request and choys it was by him taken 
for him selfe and them in y* place ; for the other 
3. had invested him with power & trust to chose 
for them. And this tracte of land extended to their 
utmoste limets that way, and bordered on their neig- 
bours of y e Massachusets, who had some years after 
seated a towne (called Hingam) on their lands next 
to these parts. So as now ther grue great difierance 
betweene these 2. townships, about their bounds, and 
some meadow grownds that lay betweene them. They 
of Hingam presumed to alotte parte of them to their 
people, and measure & stack them out. The other 
pulled up their stacks, & threw them. So it grew 
to a controversie betweene the 2. goverruents, & many 
letters and passages were betweene them aboute it ; 
and it hunge some 2. years in suspense. The Courte 
of Massachusets appointed some to range their line 
according to y e bounds of their patente, and (as they 
wente to worke) they made it to take in all Sityate, 
and I know not how much more. Againe, on y e 
other hand, according to y e line of y e patente of 
this place, it would take in Hingame and much more 
within their bounds. 

440 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

In y e end boath Courts agreed to chose 2. comis- 
sioners of each side, and to give them full & absolute 
power to agree and setle y e bounds betwene them ; and 
what they should doe in y e case should stand irrevo- 
cably. One meeting they had at Hingam, but could 
not conclude ; for their comissioners stoode stiffly on 
a clawes in their graunte, That from Charles-river, 
or any branch or parte therof, they were to extend 
their limits, and 3. myles further to y e southward; 
or from y e most southward parte of y e Massachusets 
Bay, and 3. mile further. But they chose to stand 
on y e former termes, for they had found a smale 
river, or brooke rather, that a great way with in 
land trended southward, and issued into some part 
of y 1 river taken to be Charles-river, and from y e 
most southerly part of this, & 3. mile more south- 
ward of y e same, they would rune a line east to y e 
sea, aboute 20. mile ; which will (say they) take in 
a part of Plimoth itselfe. Now it is to be knowne 
y* though this patente & plantation were much the 
ancienter, yet this inlargemente of y e same (in which 
Sityate stood) was granted after theirs, and so theirs 
were first to take place, before this inlargmente. Now 
their answer was, first, that, however according to their 
owne plan, they could noway come upon any part of 
their ancieante grante. [232] 2 ly . They could never 
prove y* to be a parte of Charles-river, for they knew 
not which was Charles-river, but as y e people of this 

1639, 1640.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 441 

place, which came first, imposed such a name upon 
y* river, upon which, since, Charles-towne is builte 
(supposing y* was it, which Captaine Smith in his 
mapp so named). Now they y* first named it have 
best reason to know it, and to explaine which is it. 
But they only tooke it to be Charles river, as fare 
as it was by them navigated, and y 1 was as farr as 
a boate could goe. But y* every runlett or small 
brooke, y* should, farr within land, come into it, or 
mixe their stremes with it, and were by y e natives 
called by other & difierente names from it, should 
now by them be made Charles-river, or parts of it, 
they saw no reason for it. And gave instance in 
Humber, in Old England, which had y e Trente, Ouse, 
and many others of lesser note fell into it, and yet 
were not counted parts of it ; and many smaler rivers 
& broks fell into y e Trente, & Ouse, and no parts 
of them, but had nams aparte, and divisions & nom- 
inations of them selves. Againe, it was pleaded that 
they had no east line in their patente, but were to 
begine at y e sea, and goe west by a line, &c. At 
this meeting no conclution was made, but things dis- 
cussed & well prepared for an issue. The next year 
y e same comissioners had their power continued or re- 
newed, and mett at Sityate, and concluded y e mater, 
as folio weth. 


The agreemente of y e bounds betwixte Plimoth and Massa- 

Wheras ther were tow comissiones granted by y e 2. juris- 
dictions, y e one of Massachsets Goverrnente, granted unto 
John Endecott, gent : and Israeli Stoughton, gent : the other 
of New-Plimoth Govermente, to William Bradford, Gov r , and 
Edward Winslow, gent: and both these for y e setting out, 
setliug, & determining of y e bounds & lirnitts of y e lands 
betweene y e said jurisdictions, wherby not only this presente 
age, but y e posteritie to come may live peaceably & quietly 
in y 4 behalfe. And for as much as y e said comissioners on 
both sids have full power so to doe, as appeareth by y e 
records of both jurisdictions ; we therfore, y e said comissioners 
above named, doe hearby with one consente & agreemente 
conclude, detirmine, and by these presents declare, that all 
y e marshes at Couahasett y 4 lye of y e one side of y e river 
next to Hingam, shall belong to y e jurisdition of Massa- 
chusetts Plantation ; and all y e marshes y 4 lye on y e other 
side of y e river next to Sityate, shall be long to y e jurisdiction 
of New-Plimoth; excepting 60. acers of marsh at y e mouth 
of y e river, on Sityate side next to the sea, which we doe 
herby agree, conclude, & detirmine shall belong to y e juris- 
dition of Massachusetts. And further, we doe hearby agree, 
determine, and conclude, y 4 the bounds of y e limites betweene 
both y e said jurisditions are as followeth, viz. from y e mouth 
of y e brook y 4 runeth into Chonahasett marches (which we 
call by y e name of Bound-brooke) with a stright & directe 
line to y e rnidle of a great ponde, y 4 lyeth on y e right hand 
of y e uper path, or commone way, y 4 leadeth betweene 
Waimoth and Plimoth, close to y e path as [233] we goe 
alonge, which was formerly named (and still we desire may 
be caled) Accord pond, lying aboute five or 6. myles from 
Weimoth southerley ; and from thence with a straight line to 

1639, 1640.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 443 

y e souther-most part of Charles-river,* & 3. miles southerly, 
inward into y e countrie, according as is expresed in y e patente 
granted by his Ma tie to y e Company of y e Massachusetts Plan- 
tation. Provided allways and never y e less concluded & 
determined by mutuall agreemente betweene y e said comis- 
sioners, y 4 if it fall out y l the said line from Accord-pond 
to y e sothermost parte of Charles-river, & 3. myles southerly 
as is before expresed, straiten or hinder any parte of any 
plantation begune by y e G-ove rt of New-Plimoth, or hereafter 
to be begune within 10. years after y e date of these j>s nts , 
that then, notwithstanding y e said line, it shall be lawfull 
for y e said Gov rt of New-Plimoth to assume on y e northerly 
side of y e said line, wher it shall so intrench as afforesaid, 
so much land as will make up y e quantity of eight miles 
square, to belong to every shuch plantation begune, or to 
[be] begune as afforesaid ; which we agree, determine, & 
conclude to appertaine & belong to y e said Grov rt of New- 
Plimoth. And wheras y e said line, from y e said brooke which 
runeth into Choahassett saltmarshes, called by us Bound- 
brooke, and y e pond called Accord-pond, lyeth nere y e lands 
belonging to y e touuships of Sityate & Hingam, we doe ther- 
fore hereby determine & conclude, that if any devissions 
allready made and recorded, by either y e said townships, doe 
crose the said line, that then it shall stand, & be of force 
according to y e former intents and purposes of y e said townes 
granting them (the marshes formerly agreed on exepted). 
And y* no towne in either jurisdiction shall hereafter ex- 
ceede, but containe them selves within y e said lines expressed. 
In witnes wherof we, the comissioners of both jurisdictions, 
doe by these presents indented set our hands & scales y e 
ninth day of y e 4. month in 16. year of our soveraine lord, 
king Charles ; and in y e year of our Lord, 1640. 



Which is Charles River may still be questioned. 


Wheras y e patente was taken in y e name of William 
Bradford, (as in trust,) and rane in these termes : To 
him, his heires, and associate & assignes ; and now y e 
noumber of free-men being much increased, and diverce 
tounships established and setled in severall quarters of 
y e govermente, as Plimoth, Duxberie, Sityate, Tanton, 
Sandwich, Yarmouth, Barnstable, Marchfeeld, and not 
longe after, Seacunke (called afterward, at y e desire 
of y e inhabitants, Eehoboth) and Nawsett, it was by 
y e Courte desired that William Bradford should make a 
surrender of y e same into their hands. The which he 
willingly did, in this maner following. 

Wheras William Bradford, and diverce others y e first in- 
struments of God in the begining of this great work of 
plantation, togeather with such as y e allordering hand of God 
in his providence soone added unto them, have been at very 
great charges to procure y e lands, priviledges, & freedoms 
from all intanglments, as may appeare by diverse & sundrie 
deeds, inlargments of grants, purchases, and payments of 
debts, &c., by reason wherof y e title to y e day of these 
presents [234] remaineth in y e said William Bradford, his 
heires, ussociats, and assignes : now, for y e better setling 
of y e estate of the said lands (contained in y e grant or 
pattente), the said William Bradford, and those first instru- 
ments termed & called in sondry orders upon publick recorde, 
Y e Purchasers, or Old comers; witnes 2. in spetiall, the one 
bearing date y e 3. of March, 1639. the other in Des : the 
1. An 1640. wherunto these presents have spetiall relation 
& agreemente, and wherby they are distinguished from other 
y e freemen & inhabitants of y e said corporation. Be it 
knowne unto all men, therfore, by these presents, that the 

1639, 1640.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 445 

said William Bradford, for him selfe, his heires, together with 
y e said purchasers, doe only reserve unto them selves, their 
heires, and assignes those 3. tractes of land mentioned in y e 
said resolution, order, and agreernente, bearing date y e first 
of Des : 1640. viz. first, from y e bounds of Yarmouth, 3. miles 
to y e eastward of Naemschatet, and from sea to sea, crose 
the neck of land. The 2. of a place called Acoughcouss, 
which lyeth in y e botome of y e bay adjoyning to y e west-side 
of Pointe Perill, and 2. myles to y e westerne side of y e said 
river, to an other place called Acushente river, which entereth 
at y e westerue end of Nacata, and 2. miles to y e eastward 
therof, and to extend 8. myles up into y e countrie. The 
3. place, from Sowansett river to Patucket river, (with Caw- 
sumsett neck,) which is y e cheefe habitation of y e Indeans, 
& reserved for them to dwell upon,) extending into y e laud 8. 
myles through y e whole breadth therof. Togeather with such 
other small parcells of lands as they or any of them are per- 
sonally possessed of or intressed in, by vertue of any former 
titles or grante whatsoever. And y e said William Bradford 
doth, by y e free & full consente, approbation, and agreemente 
of y e said old-planters, or purchasers, together with y e liking, 
approbation, and acceptation of y e other parte of y e said 
corporation, surrender into y e hands of y e whole courte, con- 
sisting of y e free-men of this corporation of New-Pliinoth, all 
y l other right & title, power, authority, priviledges, immu- 
nities, & freedomes granted in y e said letters patents by y e 
said right Honb le Counsell for New-England ; reserveing his 
& their personall right of freemen, together w th the said old 
planters afforesaid, excepte y e said lands before excepted, 
declaring the freemen of this corporation, togeather with all 
such as shal be legally admitted into y e same, his associats. 
And y e said William Bradford, for him, his heiers, & assignes, 
doe hereby further promise and grant to doe & performe 
whatsoever further thing or things, acte or actes, which in 
him lyeth, which shall be needfull and expediente for y e better 


confirming and establishing the said premises, as by counsel 
lerned in y e lawes shall be reasonably advised and devised, 
when he shall be ther unto required. In witness wherof, the 
said William Bradford hath in publick courte surrendered 
the said letters patents actually into y e hands & power of y e 
said courte, binding him selfe, his heires, executors, admin- 
istrators, and assignes to deliver up whatsoever spetialties are 
in his hands that doe or may concerne the same. 

[235] In these 2. years they had sundry letters out 
of England to send one over to end the buissines and 
accounte with M r . Sherley ; who now professed he 
could not make up his accounts without y c help of 
some from hence, espetialy M r . Winslows. They had 
serious thoughts of it, and y e most parte of y e partners 
hear thought it best to send ; but they had formerly 
written such bitter and threatening letters as M r . Wins- 
low was neither willing to goe, nor y* any other of y e 
partners should ; for he was perswaded, if any of them 
wente, they should be arested, and an action of such 
a sume layed upon them as they should not procure 
baele, but must lye in prison, and then they would 
bring them to what they liste ; or other wise they 
might be brought into trouble by y e arch-bishops 
means, as y e times then stood. But, notwithstand- 
ing, they weer much inclined to send, & Captaine 
Standish was willing to goe, but they resolved, see- 
ing they could not all agree in this thing, and that 
it was waighty, and y e consequence might prove dan- 
gerous, to take M r . Winthrops advise in y e thing, 

1639, 1640.] PLYMOUTH PLANTATION. 447 

and y e rather, because M r . Andrews had by many 
letters acquaynted him with y e differences betweene 
them, and appoynted him for his assigoe to receive 
his parte of y e debte. (And though they deneyed to 
pay him any as a debte, till y e controversie was ended, 
yet they had deposited 110". in money in his hands 
for M r . Andrews, to pay to him in parte as soone 
as he would come to any agreement with y e rest.) 
But M r . Winthrop was of M r . Winslows minde, and 
disswaded them from sending ; so they broak of their 
resolution from sending, and returned this answer: 
that the times were dangerous as things stood with 
them, for they knew how M r . Winslow had suffered 
formerley, and for a small matter was clapte up in 
y e Fleete, & it was long before he could gett out, 
to both his & their great loss and damage ; and 
times were not better, but worse, in y* respecte. 
Yet, that their equall & honest minds might appeare 
to all men, they made them this tender : to refferr y e 
case to some gentle-men and marchants in y e Bay of 
y e Massachusetts, such as they should chuse, and were 
well knowne unto them selves, (as they perceived 
their wer many of their aquaintance and freinds ther, 
better knowne to them then y e partners hear,) and 
let them be informed in y e case by both sids, and 
have all y e evidence y l could be prodused, in writ- 
ing, or other wise ; and they would be bound to 
stand to their determination, and make good their 


award, though it should cost them all they had in 
y e world. But this did not please them, but they 
were offended at it, without any great reasone for 
ought I know, (seeing nether side could give in clear 
accountes, y e partners here could not, by reason they 
(to their smarte) were failed by y e accountant e they 
sent them, and M r . Sherley pretened he could not 
allso,) save as they conceived it a disparagmente 
to yeeld to their inferiours in respecte of y e place 
and other concurring circomstances. So this came to 
nothing ; and afterward M r . Sherley write, y 4 if M r . 
Winslow would mett him in France, y e Low-Coun- 
tries, or Scotland, let y e place be knowne, and he 
[236] come to him ther. But in regard of y c troubles 
that now begane to arise in our owne nation, and 
other reasons, this did not come to any effecte. That 
which made them so desirous to bring things to an 
end was partly to stope y e clamours and aspertions 
raised & cast upon them hereaboute ; though they 
conceived them selves to sustaine the greatest wrong, 
and had most cause of complainte ; and partly because 
they feared y e fall of catle, in which most parte of 
their estats lay. And this was not a vaine feare ; 
for they fell indeede before they came to a conclu- 
sion, and that so souddanly, as a cowe that but a 
month before was worth 20 y ., and would so have 
passed in any paymente, fell now to 5 M . and would 
yeeld no more; and a goate that wente at 3 a . or 50 s . 


would now yeeld but 8. or 10 s . at most. All men 
feared a fall of catle, but it was thought it would 
be by degrees ; and not to be from y e highest pitch 
at once to y e lowest, as it did, which was greatly 
to y e damage of many, and y e undoing of some. An 
other reason was, they many of them grew aged, 
(and indeed a rare thing it was that so many part- 
ners should all live together so many years as these 
did,) and saw many changes were like to befall; so 
as they were loath to leave these intanglments upon 
their children and posteritie, who might be driven to 
remove places, as they had done ; yea, them selves 
might doe it yet before they dyed. But this bussi- 
nes must yet rest ; y e next year gave it more rip- 
nes, though it rendred them less able to pay, for 
y e reasons afforesaid. 

Anno Dom: 1641. 

M R . SHERLEY being weary of this controversie, and 
desirous of an end, (as well as them selves,) write to 
M r . John Atwode and M r . William Collier, 2. of y e 
inhabitants of this place, and of his speatiall aquaint- 
ance, and desired them to be a means to bring this 
bussines to an end, by advising & counselling the 
partners hear, by some way to bring it to a composi- 
tion, by mutuall agreemente. And he write to them 
selves allso to y 1 end, as by his letter may apear ; so 
much therof as concernse y e same I shall hear relate. 

450 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

S r . My love remembered, &c. I have writte so much con- 
cerning y e ending of accounts betweexte us, as I profess I 
know not what more to write, &c. If you desire an end, 
as you seeme to doe, ther is (as I conceive) but 2. waise ; 
that is, to parfecte all accounts, from y e first to y e last, &c. 
Now if we find this difficulte, and tedious, haveing not been 
so stricte & carefull as we should and oughte to have 
done, as for my owne parte I doe confess I have been some- 
what to remisse, and doe verily thinke so are you, &c. I 
fear you can never make a perfecte accounte of all your 
pety viages, out, & home too & againe, &c.* So then y e 
second way must be, by biding, or [237] compounding ; and 
this way, first or last, we must fall upon, &c. If we must 
warr at law for it, doe not you expecte from me, nether 
will I from you, but to cleave y e heare, and then I dare say 
y e lawyers will be most gainers, &c. Thus let us set to y e 
worke, -one way or other, and end, that I may not allways 
suffer in my name & estate. And you are not free ; nay, 
y e gospell suffers by your delaying, and causeth y e professors 
of it to be hardly spoken of, that you, being many, & now 
able, should combine & joyne togeather to oppress & bur- 
den me, &c. Fear not to make a faire & reasonable offer ; 
beleeve me, I will never take any advantage to plead it 
against you, or to wrong you ; or else let M r . Winslow come 
over, and let him have such full power & authority as we may 
ende by compounding ; or else, y e accounts so well and fully 
made up, as we may end by reconing. Now, blesed be God, 
y e times be much changed here, I hope to see many of you 
returne to you r native countrie againe, and have such free- 
dome & libertie as y e word of God prescribs. Our bishops 
were never so near a downfall as now ; God hath miracu- 
lously confounded them, and turned all their popish & 

* This was but to pretend advantage, for it could not be done, neither did 
it need. 


Machavillian plots & projects on their owne heads, &c. 
Thus you see what is fitt to be done concerning our per- 
ticulere greevances. I pray you take it seriously into consid- 
eration ; let each give way a litle that we may me 4 ete, &c. 
Be you and all yours kindly saluted, &c. So I ever rest, 

Your loving friend, 

Clapham, May 18. 1641. 

Being thus by this leter, and allso by M r . Atwodes 
& M r . Colliers mediation urged to bring things to an 
end, (and y e continuall clamors from y e rest,) and by 
none more urged then by their own desires, they tooke 
this course (because many scandals had been raised 
upon them). They apoynted these 2. men before men- 
tioned to meet on a certaine day, and called some 
other freinds on both sids, and M r . Free-man, brother 
in law to M r . Beachamp, and having drawne up a col- 
lection of all y e remains of y e stock, in what soever it 
was, as housing, boats, bark, and all implements be- 
longing to y e same, as they were used in y e time of 
y e trad, were they better or worce, with y e remaines 
of all comodities, as beads, knives, hatchetts, cloth, or 
any thing els, as well y e refuse as y e more vendible, 
with all debts, as well those y* were desperate as 
others more hopefull ; and having spent diverce days 
to bring this to pass, having y e helpe of all bookes and 
papers, which either any of them selves had, or Josias 
Winslow, who was their accountante ; and they found 
y e sume in all to arise (as y e things were valued) to 


aboute 1400 H . And they all of them tooke a volun- 
tary but a sollem oath, in y e presence one of an 
other, and of all their frends, y e persons abovesaid y* 
were now presente, that this was all that any of them 
knew of, or could remember ; and Josias Winslow did 
y c like for his parte. But y e truth is they wrongd 
them selves much in y e valuation, for they reconed 
some catle as they were taken of M r . Allerton, as for 
instance a cowe in y c hands of one cost 25 11 . and so 
she was valued in this accounte ; but when she came 
to be past away in parte of paymente, after y e agree- 
mente, she would be accepted but at 4 M . 15 s . [238] 
Also, being tender of their oaths, they brought in all 
they knew owing to y e stock ; but they had not made 
y e like diligente search what y e stocke might owe to 
any, so as many scattering debts fell upon afterwards 
more then now they knew of. 

Upon this they drew certaine articles of agreemente 
betweene M r Atwode, on M r . Sherleys behalfe, and 
them selves. The effecte is as folloeth. 

Articles of agreemente made and concluded upon y 6 15. day of 
October, 1641. &c. 

Im|?: Wheras ther was a partnership for diverce years 
agreed upon betweene Jarnes Sherlej 7 , John Beacham, and 
Richard Andrews, of London, marchants, and William Brad- 
ford, Edward Winslow, Thomas Prence, Myles Standish, 
William Brewster, John Aldon, & John Howland, w th Isaack 
Allerton, in a trade of beaver skines & other furrs arising 


in New-England ; the terme of which said partnership being 
expired, and diverse sanies of money in goods adventured 
into New-England by y e said James Sherley, John Beachamp, 
& Richard Andrews, and many large returnes made from 
New-England by y e said William Bradford, Ed: Winslow, 
&c. ; and differance arising aboute y e charge of 2. ships, the 
one called y e White Angele, of Bristow, and y e other y e 
Frindship, of Barnstable, and a viage intended in her, &c. ; 
which said ships & their viages, y e said William Bradford, 
Ed : W. &c. conceive doe not at all appertaine to their ac- 
counts of partnership ; and weras y e accounts of y e said 
partnership are found to be confused, and cannot orderley 
appeare (through y e defaulte of Josias Winslow, y e booke 
keeper) ; and weras y e said W. B. &c. have received all 
their goods for y e said trade from the foresaid James Sher- 
ley, and have made most of their returnes to him, by con- 
sente of y e said John Beachamp & Richard Andrews ; and 
wheras also y e said James Sherley hath given power & 
authoritie to M r . John Atwode, with y e advice & consente 
of William Collier, of Duxborow, for and on his behalf e, to 
put such an absolute end to y e said partnership, with all 
and every accounts, reconings, dues, claimes, demands, what- 
soever, to y e said James Sherley, John Beacham, & Richard 
Andrews, from y e said W. B. &c. for and concerning y e said 
beaver trade, & also y e charge y e said 2. ships, and their 
viages made or pretended, whether just or unjuste, from y e 
worlds begining to this presente, as also for y e paimente 
of a purchas of 1800 li . made by Isaack Allertou, for and on 
y e behalfe of y e said W. B., Ed: W., &c., and of y e joynt 
stock, shares, lands, and adventurs, what soever in New- 
England aforesaid, as apeareth by a deede bearing date y e 
6. Nov br . 1627; and also for and from such sume and sumes 
of money or goods as are received by William Bradford, 
Tho : Prence, & Myles Standish, for y e recovery of dues, by 
accounts betwexte them, y e said James Sherly, John Bea- 


champ, & Richard Andrews, and Isaack Allerton, for y e ship 
caled y e White Angell. Now y e said John Attwode, with ad- 
vice & counsell of y e said William Collier, having had much 
comunication & spente diverse days in agitation of all y e 
said differances & accounts with y e said W. B., E. W., 
&c. ; and y e said W. B., E. W., &c. have also, with y e said 
book-keeper spente much time in collecting & gathering 
togeither y e remainder of y e stock of partnership for y e said 
trade, and what soever hath beene received, or is due by y e 
said attorneyship before expresed, and all, and all manner 
of goods, debts, and dues therunto belonging, as well those 
debts that are weake and doubtfull [239] and desperate, as 
those y* are more secure, which in all doe amounte to y e 
sume of 1400 H . or ther aboute ; and for more full satisfac- 
tion of y e said James Sherley, John Beachamp, & Richard 
Andrews, the said W. B. and all y e rest of y e abovesaid 
partners, togeither with Josias Winslow y e booke keeper, 
have taken a voluntarie oath, y* within y e said sume of 
1400 11 . or theraboute, is contained whatsoever they knew, to 
y e utmost of their rememberauce. 

In consideration of all which matters & things before ex- 
pressed, and to y e end y* a full, absolute, and finall end 
may be now made, and all suits in law may be avoyded, 
and love & peace continued, it is therfore agreed and con- 
cluded betweene y e said John Attwode, with y e advice & 
consent of y e said William Colier, for & on y e behalfe of 
y e said James Sherley, to and with y e said W. B., &c. in 
maner and forme following: viz. that y e said John Attwode 
shall procure a sufficieute release and discharge, under y e 
hands & seals of y e said James Sherley, John Beachamp, & 
Richard Andrews, to be delivered fayer & unconcealed unto 
y e said William Bradford, &c., at or before y e last day of 
August, next insuing y e date hereof, whereby y e said William 
Bradford &c., their heires, executors, & administrators, & 


every of them shall be fully and absolutly aquited & dis- 
charged of all actions, suits, reconings, accounts, claimes, and 
demands whatsoever concerning y e generall stock of beaver 
trade, paymente of y e said 1800 H . for y e purchass, and all 
demands, reckonings, and accounts, just or unjuste, con- 
cerning the tow ships Whit-Angell and Frendship aforesaid, 
togeather with whatsoever hath been received by y e said 
William Bradford, of y e goods or estate of Isaack Allerton, 
for satisfaction of y e accounts of y e said ship called y e 
Whit Angele, by vertue of a Ire of attourney to him, Thomas 
Prence, & Myles Standish, directed from y e said James Sher- 
ley, John Beachamp, & Richard Andrews, for y l purpose as 

It is also agreed & concluded upon betweene the said 
parties to these presents, that the said W. B., E. W., &c. 
shall now be bound in 2400 li . for paymente of 1200 li . in full 
satisfaction of all demands as afforesaid ; to be payed in 
maner & forme following ; that is to say, 400 ti . within 2. 
months next after y e receite of the aforesaid releases and 
discharges, one hundred and ten pounds wherof is allready 
in y e hands of John Winthrop senior of Boston, Esquire, by 
the means of M r . Richard Andrews afforesaid, and 80 h . 
waight of beaver now deposited into y e hands of y e said 
John Attwode, to be both in part of paimente of y e said 
400 li . and y e other 800 li . to be payed by 200 H . p r anume, to 
such assignes as shall be appointed, inhabiting either in 
Plimoth or Massachusetts Bay, in such goods & comodi- 
ties, and at such rates, as the countrie shall afford at y e 
time of delivery & paymente ; and in y e mean time y e said 
bond of 2400 li . to be deposited into y e hands of y e said John 
Attwode. And it is agreed upon by & betweene y e said 
parties to these presents, that if y e said John Attwode shall 
not or cannot procure such said releases & discharges as 
afforesaid from y e said James Sherley, John Bachamp, & 


Richard Andrews, at or before y e last day of August next 
insuing y e date hear of, y l then y e said John Attwode shall, 
at y e said day precisely, redeliver, or cause to [240] be de- 
livered unto y e said W. B., E. W., &c. their said bond of 
2400 li . and y e said 80 li . waight of beaver, or y e due valew 
therof , without any fraud or further delay ; and for perform- 
ance of all & singuler y e covenants and agreements hearin 
contained and expressed, which on y e one parte and behalf e 
of y e said James Sherley are to be observed & performed, 
shall become bound in y e sume of 2400 U . to them, y e said 
"William Bradford, Edward Winslow, Thomas Prence, Myles 
Standish, "William Brewster, John Allden, and John How- 
laud. And it is lastly agreed upon betweene y e said parties, 
that these presents shall be left in trust, to be kepte for 
boath parties, in y e hands of Mr. John Reanour, teacher of 
Pliinoth. In witnes wherof, all y e said parties have here- 
unto severally sett their hands, y e day and year first above 

In y e presence of EDMOND FREEMAN, 




The nexte year this long and tedious bussines came 
to some issue, as will then appeare, though not to a 
finall ende with all y e parties ; but this much for y e 

I had forgoten to inserte in its place how y e church 
here had invited and sent for M r . Charles Chansey,* a 

* M r . Chancey came to them in ye year 1638. and staid till y later part of 
this year 1641. 


reverend, godly, and very lamed man, intending upon 
triall to chose him pastor of y e church hear, for y e 
more comfortable performance of y e ministrie with M r . 
John Reinor, the teacher of y e same. Bat ther fell 
out some differance aboute baptising, he holding it 
ought only to be by diping, and putting y e whole body 
under water, and that sprinkling was unlawfull. The 
church yeelded that immersion, or dipping, was law- 
full, but in this could countrie not so conveniente. 
But they could not nor durst not yeeld to him in 
this, that sprinkling (which all y e churches of Christ 
doe for y e most parte use at this day) was unlawfull, 
& an humane invention, as y e same was prest ; but 
they were willing to yeeld to him as far as y ey could, 
& to y e utmost ; and were contented to suffer him to 
practise as he was perswaded ; and when he came to 
minister that ordnance, he might so doe it to any y* 
did desire it in y* way, provided he could peacably 
suffer M r . Reinor, and such as desired to have theirs 
otherwise baptised by him, by sprinkling or powering 
on of water upon them ; so as ther might be no dis- 
turbance in y e church hereaboute. But he said he 
could not yeeld herunto. Upon which the church pro- 
cured some other ministers to dispute y e pointe with 
him publikly ; as M r . Ralfe Partrich, of Duxberie, who 
did it sundrie times, very ablie and sufficently, as allso 
some other ministers within this govermente. But he 
was not satisfied ; so y e church sent to many other 

458 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

churches to crave their help and advise in [241] this 
mater, and, with his will & consente, sent them his 
arguments writen under his owne hand. They sente 
them to y e church at Boston in y e Bay of Massachu- 
sets, to be comunicated with other churches ther. 
Also they sent the same to y e churches of Conighte- 
cutt and New-Haven, with sundrie others ; and re- 
ceived very able & sufficent answers, as they con- 
ceived, from them and their lamed ministers, who all 
concluded against him. But him selfe was not satis- 
fied therw th . Their answers are too large hear to 
relate. They conceived y e church had done what was 
meete in y e thing, so M r . Chansey, having been y e most 
parte of 3. years here, removed him selfe to Sityate, 
wher he now remaines a minister to y e church ther. 
Also about these times, now y* catle & other things 
begane greatly to fall from their former rates, and 
persons begane to fall into more straits, and many 
being allready gone from them, (as is noted before,) 
both to Duxberie, Marshfeeld, and other places, & 
those of y e cheefe sorte, as M r . Winslow, Captaine 
Standish, Mr. Allden, and many other, & stille some 
dropping away daly, and some at this time, and many 
more unsetled, it did greatly weaken y e place, and by 
reason of y e straitnes and barrennes of y e place, it sett 
y e thoughts of many upon removeall ; as will appere 
more hereafter. 


Anno Dom: 1642. 

MARVILOUS it may be to see and consider how some 
kind of wickednes did grow & breake forth here, in a 
land wher the same was so much witnesed against, and 
so narrowly looked unto, & severly punished when it 
was knowne ; as in no place more, or so much, that 
I have known or heard of; insomuch as they have 
been somewhat censured, even by moderate and good 
men, for their severitie in punishments. And yet all 
this could not suppress y e breaking out of sundrie no- 
torious sins, (as this year, besids other, gives us too 
many sad presidents and instances,) espetially drunk- 
ennes and unclainnes ; not only incontinencie betweene 
persons unmaried, for which many both men & women 
have been punished sharply enough, but some rnaried 
persons allso. But that which is worse, even socl- 
omie and bugerie, (things fearfull to name,) have broak 
forth in this land, oftener then once. I say it may 
justly be marveled at, and cause us to fear & tremble 
at the consideration of our corrupte natures, which are 
so hardly bridled, subdued, & mortified ; nay, cannot 
by any other means but y e powerfull worke & grace of 
Gods spirite. But (besids this) one reason may be, 
that y e Divell may carrie a greater spite against the 
churches of Christ and y e gospell hear, by how much 
y e more they indeaour to preserve holynes and puritie 
amongst them, and strictly punisheth the contrary 


when it ariseth either in church or comone wealth ; 
that he might cast a [242] blemishe & staine upon 
them in y e eyes of [y e ] world, who use to be rash in 
judgmente. I would rather thinke thus, then that 
Satane hath more power in these heathen lands, as 
som have thought, then in more Christian nations, es- 
petially over Gods servants in them. 

2. An other reason may be, that it may be in this 
case as it is with waters when their streames are 
stopped or damed up, when they gett passage they 
flow with more violence, and make more noys and dis- 
turbance, then when they are suffered to rune quietly 
in their owne chanels. So wikednes being here more 
stopped by strict laws, and y e same more nerly looked 
unto, so as it cannot rune in a comone road of liberty 
as it would, and is inclined, it searches every wher, 
and at last breaks out wher it getts vente. 

3. A third reason may be, hear (as I am verily per- 
swaded) is not more evills in this kind, nor nothing 
nere so many by proportion, as in other places ; but 
they are here more discoverd and seen, and made pub- 
lick by due serch, inquisition, and due punishment; 
for y e churches looke narrowly to their members, and 
y e magistrats over all, more strictly then in other 
places. Besids, here the people are but few in com- 
parison of other places, which are full & populous, 
and lye hid, as it were, in a wood or thickett, and 
many horrible evills by y 4 means are never seen nor 


knowne ; wheras hear, they are, as it were, brought 
into y e light, and set in y plaine feeld, or rather on 
a hill, made conspicuous to y e veiw of all. 

But to proceede ; ther came a letter from y e Gov r 
in y e Bay to them here, touching matters of y e fore- 
mentioned nature, which because it may be usefull 
I shall hear relate it, and y e passages ther aboute. 

S r : Having an opportunitie to signifie y e desires of our Gen- 
erall Court in toow things of spetiall importance, I willingly 
take this occasion to imparte them to you, y 4 you may imparte 
them to y e rest of your magistrats, and also to your Elders, 
for counsell ; and give us your advise in them. The first is 
concerning heinous offences in point of uncleannes ; the per- 
ticuler cases, with y e circomstances, and y e questions ther 
upon, you have hear inclosed. The 2. thing is concerning 
y e Ilanders at Aquidnett ; y l seeing the cheefest of them are 
gone from us, in offences, either to churches, or comone welth, 
or both ; others are dependants on them, and y e best sorte 
are such as close with them in all their rejections of us. 
Neither is it only in a faction y* they are devided from us, 
but in very deed they rend them selves from all y e true 
churches of Christ, and, many of them, from all y e powers 
of majestracie. We have had some experience hereof by some 
of their underworkers, or emissaries, who have latly come 
amongst us, and have made publick defiance against magis- 
tracie, ministrie, churches, & church covenants, &c. as anti- 
Christian ; secretly also sowing y e seeds of Familisme, and 
Anabaptistrie, to y e infection of some, and danger of others ; 
so that we are not willing to joyne with them in any league 
or confederacie at all, but rather that you would consider & 
advise with us how we may avoyd them, and keep ours from 
being infected by them. Another thing I should mention 


to you, for y e maintenance of y e trad of beaver ; if ther be 
not a company to order it in every jurisdition among y e 
English, which companies should agree in generall of their 
way in trade, I supose that y e trade will be overthrowne, and 
y e Indeaus will abuse us. For this cause we have latly put 
it into order amongst us, hoping of incouragmente from you 
(as we have had) y l we may continue y e same. Thus not 
further to trouble you, I rest, with my loving remembrance 
to your selfe, &c. 

Your loving friend, 

Boston, 28. (1.) 1642. 

The note inclosed follows on y e other side.* 

[244] Worthy & beloved S r : 

Your letter (with y e questions inclosed) I have comunicated 
with our Assistants, and we have refered y e answer of them 
to such Reve d Elders as are amongst us, some of whose 
answers thertoo we have here sent you inclosed, under their 
owne hands ; from y e rest we have not yet received any. Our 
farr distance hath bene y e reason of this long delay, as also 
y* they could not conferr their counsells togeather. 

For our selves, (you know our breedings & abillities,) we 
rather desire light from your selves, & others, whom God 
hath better inabled, then to presume to give our judgments in 
cases so difficulte and of so high a nature. Yet under cor- 
rection, and submission to better judgments, we propose this 
one thing to your prudent considerations. As it seems to us, 
in y e case even of willfull murder, that though a man did 
smite or wound an other, with a full pourpose or desire to kill 
him, (w ch is murder in a high degree, before God,) yet if he 

* A leaf is here wanting in the original manuscript, it having been cut out. 


did not dye, the magistrate was not to take away y e others 
life.* So by proportion in other grosse & foule sines, though 
high attempts & nere approaches to y e same be made, and 
such as in the sight & account of God may be as ill as y e 
accomplishmente of y e foulest acts of y* sine, yet we doute 
whether it may be safe for y e magistrate to proceed to death ; 
we thinke, upon y e former grounds, rather he may not. As, 
for instance, in y e case of adultrie, (if it be admitted y t it is 
to be punished w th death, which to some of us is not cleare,) 
if y e body be not actually defiled, then death is not to be 
inflicted. So in sodomie, & beastialitie, if ther be not pene- 
tration. Yet we confess foulnes of circomstances, and fre- 
quencie in y e same, doth make us rernaine in y e darke, and 
desire further light from you, or any, as God shall give. 

As for y e 2. thing, concerning y e Ilanders? we have no con- 
versing with them, nor desire to have, furder then necessitie 
or humanity may require. 

And as for trade? we have as fair as we could ever therm 
held an orderly course, & have been sory to see y e spoyle 
therof by others, and fear it will hardly be recovered. But 
in these, or any other things which may concerne y e comone 
good, we shall be willing to advise & concure with you in 
what we may. Thus w th my love remembered to your selfe, 
and y e rest of our worthy friends, your Assistants, I take 
leave, & rest, 

Your loving friend, 

W. B. 

Plim: 17. 3. month, 1642. 

Now follows y e ministers answers. And first M r . 

* Exod: 21. 22. Deu : 19. 11. Nura : 35. 16. 18. 


Qest : What sodmiticall acts are to be punished with death, 
& what very facte (ipso facto) is worthy of death, or, if y e 
fact it selfe be not capitall, what circomstances concurring 
may make it capitall? 

Ans : In y e judiciall law (y e moralitie wherof concerneth us) 
it is manyfest y l carnall knowledg of man, or lying w th man, 
as with woman, cum penetratione corporis, was sodomie, to 
be punished with death ; what els can be understood by Levit : 
18. 22. & 20. 13. & Gen: 19. 5? 2 ly . It seems allso y* this 
foule sine might be capitall, though ther was not penitratio 
corporis, but only contactus & fricatio us ad effusionem 
seminis, for these reasons : [245] 1. Because it was sin to be 
punished with death, Levit. 20. 13. in y e man who was lyen 
withall, as well as in him y 4 lyeth with him ; now his sin is 
not mitigated wher ther is not penitration, nor augmented 
wher it is ; wheras its charged upon y e women, y 1 they were 
guilty of this unnaturall sine, as well as men, Rom. 1. 26. 27. 
Y e same thing doth furder apeare, 2. because of y* proportion 
betwexte this sin & beastialitie, wherin if a woman did stand 
before, or aproach to, a beast, for y* end, to lye downe therto, 
(whether penetration was or not,) it was capitall, Levit : 18. 
23. & 20. 16. 3 ly . Because something els might be equivalent 
to penetration wher it had not been, viz. y e fore mentioned 
acts with frequencie and long continuance with a high hand, 
utterly extinguishing all light of nature ; besids, full intention 
and bould attempting of y e foulest acts may seeme to have 
been capitall here, as well as coming presumptuously to slay 
with guile was capitall. Exod : 21. 14. 

Yet it is not so manyfest y 1 y e same acts were to be pun- 
ished with death in some other sines of uncleannes, w ch yet 
by y e law of God were capitall crimes ; besids other reasons, 
(1.) because sodomie, & also beastialitie, is more against y e 
light of nature then some other capitall crimes of unclainnes, 
which reason is to be attended unto, as y* which most of all 


made this sin capitall ; (2.) because it might be comited with 
more secrecie & less suspition, & therfore needed y e more to 
be restrained & suppresed by y e law ;- (3 ly ) because ther was 
not y e like reason & degree of sining against family & pos- 
teritie in this sin as in some other capitall sines of uncleannes. 

2. Quest: How farr a magistrate may extracte a confession 
from a delinquente, to acuse him selfe of a capitall crime, 
seeing Nemo tenetur prodere seipsum. 

Ans : A majestrate cannot without sin neglecte diligente 
inquision into y e cause brought before him. Job 29. 16. 
Pro: 24. 11. 12. & 25. 2. (2 ly .) If it be manifest y* a capitall 
crime is committed, & y* comone reporte, or probabilitie, 
suspition, or some complainte, (or y e like,) be of this or y* 
person, a magistrate ought to require, and by all due means 
to procure from y e person (so farr allready bewrayed) a naked 
confession of y e fact, as apears by y* which is morall & of 
perpetuall equitie, both in y e ease of uncertaine murder, Deut : 
21. 1. 9. and slander, Deut: 22. 13. 21; for though nemo 
tenetur prodere seipsum, yet by that w ch may be known to y e 
magistrat by y e forenamed means, he is bound thus to doe, 
or els he may betray his countrie & people to y e heavie dis- 
pleasure of God, Levit: 18. 24. 25. Jos: 22. 18. Psa : 106. 
30 ; such as are inocente to y e sinfull, base, cruell lusts of 
y e profane, & such as are delinquents, and others with them, 
into y e hands of y e stronger temptations, & more bouldness, 
& hardnes of harte, to comite more & worse villany, besids 
all y e guilt & hurt he will bring upon him selfe. (3 ly .) To 
inflicte some punishmeute meerly for this reason, to extracte 
a conffession of a capitall crime, is contrary to y e nature of 
vindictive justice, which always hath respecte to a know crime 
comitited by y e person punished ; and it will therfore, for any 
thing which can before be knowne, be y e provocking and 
forcing of wrath, compared to y e wringing of y e nose, Pro : 
30. 33. which is as well forbiden y e fathers of y e countrie as 


of y e family, Ephe. 6. 4. as produsing many sad & dangerous 
effects. That an oath (ex officio) for such a purpose is no 
due means, hath been abundantly proved by y e godly learned, 
& is well known. 

Q. 3. In what cases of capitall crimes one witnes with 
other circomstances shall be sufflciente to convince? or is ther 
no conviction without 2. witneses? 

Ans : In taking away y e life of man, one witnes alone 
will not suffice, ther must be tow, or y* which is instar ; 
y e texts are manifest, Numb: 35. 30. Deut : 17. 6. & 19. 15. 
2 ly . Ther may be conviction by one witnes, & some thing 
y' hath y e force of another, as y e evidencie of y e fact done 
by such an one, & not an other ; unforced confession when 
ther was no fear or danger of suffering for y e fact, hand 

writings acknowledged & confessed. 


[246] M r . Partrich his writing, in ans: to y* questions. 

What is y l sodomiticall acte which is to be punished with 

Though I conceive probable y l a voluntary effusion of seed 
per modum concubitus of man with man, as of a man with 
woman, though in concubitu ther be not penetratio corporis, 
is y l sin which is forbiden, Levit : 18. 22. & adjudged to be 
punished with death, Levit: 20. 13. because, though ther be 
not penetratio corporis, yet ther may be similitude concubitus 
muliebris, which is y* the law specifieth ; yet I dar not be 
con-* (1.) because, Gen: 19. 5. y e intended acte of y e Sodo- 
mits (who were y e first noted maisters of this unnaturall act 
of more then brutish filthines) is expressed by carnall copu- 
lation of man with woman : Bring them out unto us, y* we 
may know them; (2 ly .) because it is observed among y e 
nations wher this unnaturall unclainnes is comitecl, it is w 411 
penetration of y e body; (3 ly .) because, in y e judiciall pro- 

* "Confident"? 


ceedings of y e judges in England, y e indict: so rune (as 
I have been informed) . 

Q. How farr may a magistrat extracte a confession of 
a capitall crime from a suspected and an accused person? 

Ans. I conceive y* a magistrate is bound, by carfull ex- 
amenation of circomstances & waighing of probabilities, to 
sifte y e accused, and by force of argumente to draw him 
to an acknowledgment of y e truth ; but he may not extracte 
a confession of a capitall crime from a suspected person by 
any violent means, whether it be by an oath imposed, or 
by any punishmente inflicted or threatened to be inflicted, 
for so he may draw forth an acknowledgmente of a crime 
from a fearfull inocente ; if guilty, he shall be compelled to 
be his owne accuser, when no other can, which is against 
y e rule of justice. 

Q. In what cases of capitall crimes one witnes with other 
circomstances shall be sufficente to convicte ; or is ther no 
conviction without two witnesses? 

Ans : I conceive y 4 , in y e case of capitall crimes, ther can 
be no safe proceedings unto judgmente without too witnesses, 
as Numb: 35. 30. Dent: 19. 15. excepte ther can some evi- 
dence be prodused as aveilable & firme to prove y e facte as 
a witnes is, then one witnes may suffice ; for therin y e end 
and equitie of y e law is attained. But to proceede unto 
sentence of death upon presumptions, wher probably ther 
may subesse falsum, though ther be y e testimony of one 
wittnes, I supose it cannot be a safe way ; better for such a 
one to be held in safe custodie for further triall, I conceive. 


The Answer of M r . Charles Chancy. 

An contactus et fricatio usq, ad seminis effusioem sine 
penetratione corporis sit sodomia morte plectenda? 

Q. The question is what sodomiticall acts are to be pun- 

468 HISTORY or [BOOK ir. 

ished w th death, & what very facte comitted, (ipso facto,) 
is worthy of death, or if y e facte it selfe be not capitall, 
what circomstances concuring may make it capitall. The 
same question may be asked of rape, inceste, beastialitie, 
unnaturall sins, presumtuous sins. These be y e words of y e 
first question. 

Ans : The answer unto this I will lay downe (as God 
shall directe by his word & spirite) in these following con- 
clusions: (1.) That y e judicials of Moyses, that are appen- 
dances to y e morall law, & grounded on y e law of nature, 
or y e decalogue, are imutable, and ppetuall, w ch all orthodox 
devines acknowledge ; see y e authors following. Luther, 
Tom. 1. Whitenberge: fol. 435. & fol. 7. Melancthon, 
in loc: com loco de conjugio. Calvin, 1. 4. Institu. c. 4. 
sect. 15. Junious de politia Moysis, thes. 29. & 30. Hen: 
Bulin : Decad. 3. sermo. 8. Wolf : Muscu. loc : com : in 6. 
precepti explicaci: Bucer de regno Christi, 1. 2. c. 17. 
Theo: Beza, vol : 1. de hereti : puniendis, fol. 154. Zanch : 
in 3. praecept : Ursin : Pt. 4. explicat. contra John. Piscat : 
in Aphorismi Loc. de lege dei aphorism. 17. And more 
might be added. I forbear, for brevities sake, to set downe 
their very words ; this being y e constante & generall oppinion 
of y e best devines, I will rest in this as undoubtedly true, 
though much more might be said to confirme it. 

2. That all y e sines mentioned in y e question were pun- 
ished with death by y e judiciall law of Moyses, as adultry, 
Levit: 20. 10. Deut : 22. 22. Esech : 16. 38. Jhon. 8. 5. 
which is to be understood not only of double adultrie, when 
as both parties are maried, (as some conceive,) but who- 
soever (besids her husband) lyes with a married woman, 
whether y e man be maried or not, as in y e place, Deut : 22. 
22. or whosoever, being a maried man, lyeth with another 
woman (besids his wife), as P. Martire saith, loc: com: 
which in diverce respects maks y e sine worse on y e maried 


mans parte ; for y e Lord in this law hath respect as well to 
publick honesty, (the sin being so prejudicall to y e church 
& state,) as y e private wrongs (saith Junious). So incest 
is to be punished with death, Levit: 20. 11. 22. Beastiality 
likwise, Lev: 20. 15. Exod : 22. 19. Raps in like maner, 
Deut: 22. 25. ' Sodomie in like sort, Levit: 18. 22. & 20 
13. And all presumptuous sins, Numb: 15. 30. 31. 

3. That y e punishmente of these foule sines w th death is 
grounded on y e law of nature, & is agreeable to the morall 
law. (1.) Because y e reasons anexed shew them to be per- 
petuall. Deut. 22. 22. So shalt thou put away evill. Incest, 
beastiality, are caled confusion, & wickednes. (2.) Infamie 
to y e whole humane nature, Levit: 22. 12. Levit: 18. 23. 
Raps are as murder, Deut: 22. 25. Sodomie is an abomi- 
nation, Levit: 22. 22. [247] No holier & juster laws can 
be devised by any man or angele then have been by y e 
Judg of all y e world, the wisdome of y e Father, by whom 
kings doe raigne, &c. (3.) Because, before y e giving of y e 
Law, this punishmente was anciently practised, Gen: 26. 11. 
38. 29. 39. 20. & even by the heathen, by y e very light of 
nature, as P. Martire shews, (4 ly .) Because y e land is de- 
filed by such sins, and spews out y e inhabitants, Levit: 18. 
24, 25. & that in regard of those nations y* were not ac- 
quainted w th the law of Moyses. 5. All y e devins above 
specified consent in this, that y e unclean acts punishable 
with death by y e law of God are not only y e grose acts of 
uncleannes by way of carnall copulation, but all y e evidente 
attempts therof, which may appeare by those severall words 
y* are used by y e spirite of God, expressing y e sins to be 
punished with death ; as y e discovering of nakednes, Levit : 
18. 20. which is retegere pudenda, as parts p r euphemismum 
(saith Junius), or detegere ad cubandum (saith Willett), to 
uncover y e shamefull parts of y e body (saith Ainsworth), 
which, though it reaches to y e grose acts, yet it is plaine it 

470 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

doth comprehend y e other foregoing immodest attempts, as 
contactum, fricationem, &c. ; likwise y e phrase of lying with, 
so often used, doth not only signifie carnall copulation, but 
other obscene acts, ^ceding y e same, is implyed in Pauls 
word dptisvoKoiraiy 1. Cor: 6. 9. & men lying with men, 
1. Tim: 1. 9. men defiling them selves w th mankind, men 
burning with lust towards men, Rom: 1. 26. & Levit: 18.* 22. 
sodom) & sin going after strange flesh, Jud : v. 7. 8. and 
lying with mankind as with a woman, Levit: 18. 22. Abu- 
lentis says y l it signifies omnes modos quibus masculus mas- 
culo abutatur, changing y e naturall use into y* which is against 
nature, Rom: 1. 26. arrogare sibi cubare, as Junius well 
translats Levit: 20. 15. to give consente to lye withall, so 
approaching to a beast, & lying downe therto, Levit : 20. 16. 
ob solum conatu| (saith Willett) or for going about to doe 
it. Add to this a notable speech of Zepperus de legibus 
(who hath enough to end controversies of this nature). 
L. 1. he saith: In crimine adulterii voluntas (understand- 
ing manifeste) sine effectu subsecuto de jure attenditur; 
and he proves it out of good laws, in these words : Solici- 
tatores j alienum nuptiam itemq, matrimonium interpellatores, 
etsi effectu sceleris potiri non possunt, propter voluntatem 
tamen perniciosse libidinis extra ordinem puniuntur ; nam 
generale est quidem affectu sine effectu [non] puniri, sed 
contrarium observatur in atrocioribus & horum similibus. 

5. In concluding punishments from y e judiciall law of 
Moyses y* is perpetuall, we must often p r ceed by analogicall 
proportion & interpretation, as a paribus similibus, minore 
ad ma jus, &c. ; for ther will still fall out some cases, in 
every comone-wealth, which are not in so many words ex- 
taute in holy write, yet y e substance of y e matter in every 
kind (I conceive under correction) may be drawne and con- 
cluded out of y e scripture by good consequence of an equeva- 

* 8 in MS. f Contic in MS. J Solicitations in MS. 


lent nature ; as, for example, ther is no express law against 
destroying conception in y e wombe by potions, yet by anologie 
with Exod : 21. 22, 23. we may reason y* life is to be given 
for life. Againe, y e question, An contactus & fricatio, &c., 
and methinks y l place Gen : 38. 9. in y e punishmeute of 
Onans sin, may give some cleare light to it ; it was (saith 
Pareus) beluina crudelitas quam Deus pari loco cum parri- 
cidio habuit, nam semen corrumpere, quid fuit aliud quam 
hominem ex semine generandum occidere? Propterea juste 
a Deo occisus est. Observe his words. And againe, Disca- 
mus quantopere Deus abominetur omnem seminis genitalis 
abusum, illicita effusionem, & corruption*}, &c., very perti- 
nente to this case. That allso is considerable, Deut : 25. 
11, 12. God comanded y*, if any wife drue nigh to deliver 
her husband out of y e hand of him y 4 smiteth him, &c., her 
hand should be cutt off. Yet such a woman in y* case might 
say much for her selfe, y' what she did was in trouble & 
perplexitie of her minde, & in her husbands defence ; yet 
her hand must be cutt of for such impuritie (and this is 
morall, as I conceive). Then we may reason from y e less 
to y e greater, what greevous sin in y e sight of God it is, 
by y e instigation of burning lusts, set on fire of hell, to 
proceede to contactum & fricationem ad emissionem seminis, 
&c., & y { contra naturam, or to attempte y e grosse acts of 
unnaturall filthines. Againe, if y* unnaturall lusts of men 
with men, or woman with woman, or either with beasts, be 
to be punished with death, then a pari naturall lusts of men 
towards children under age are so to be punished. 

6. Circumstantise variant vis e actiunes, (saith y e lawiers,) 
& circomstances in these cases cannot possibly be all recked 
up ; but God hath given laws for those causes & cases that 
are of greatest momente, by which others are to be judged 
of, as in y e differance betwixte chanc medley, & willfull 
murder ; so in y e sins of uncleannes, it is one thing to doe 


an acte of uncleannes by sudden temptation, & another to 
lye in waite for it, yea, to make a comune practise of it; 
this mightily augments & multiplies y e sin. Againe-, some 
sines of this nature are simple, others compound, as y l is 
simple adultrie, or inceste, or simple sodomie ; but when 
ther is a mixture of diverce kinds of lust, as when adultery 
& sodomie & p r ditio seminis goe togeather in y e same acte 
of uncleannes, this is capitall, double, & trible. Againe, 
when adultrie or sodomie is comited by |>fessors or church 
members, I fear it corns too near y e sine of y e preists daugh- 
ters, forbidden, & comanded to be punished, Levit : 21. 9. 
besids y e presumption of y e sines of such. Againe, when 
uncleannes is comited with those whose chastity they are 
bound to $serve, this corns very nere the incestious copula- 
tion, I feare ; but I must hasten to y e other questions. 

[248] 2. Question y e second, upon y e pointe of exami- 
nation, how fair a magistrate may extracte a confession 
from a delinqueute to accuse him selfe in a capitall crime, 
seeing Nemo tenetur prodere seipsum. 

Ans : The words of y e question may be understood of 
extracting a confession from a delinquente either by oath or 
bodily tormente. If it be mente of extracting by requiring 
an oath, (ex officio, as some call it,) & that in capitall 
crimes, I fear it is not safe, nor warented by Gods word, 
to extracte a confession from a delinquente by an oath in 
matters of life and death. (1.) Because y e practise in y e 
Scripturs is other wise, as in y e case of Achan, Jos: 7. 19. 
Give, I pray y e , glorie to y e Lord God of Israll, and make 
a confession to him, & tell me how thou hast done. He 
did not compell him to sweare. So when as Johnathans life 
was indangered, 1. Sam. 14. 43. Saule said unto Johnathan, 
Tell me what thou hast done ; he did not require an oath. 
And notable is y*, Jer: 38. 14. Jeremiah was charged by 
Zedechias, who said, I will aske the a thing, hide it not 


from ine ; & Jeremiah said, If I declare it unto y e , wilt 
thou not surely put me to death? impling y 4 , in case of 
death, he would have refused to answer him. (2.) Reason 
shews it, & experience ; Job : 2. 4. Skin for skin, &c. It 
is to be feared y' those words (whatsoever a man hath) will 
comprehend also y e conscience of an oath, and y e fear of 
God, and all care of religion; therfore for laying a snare 
before y e guiltie, I think it ought not to be donn. But 
now, if y e question be mente of inflicting bodyly torments 
to extracte a confession from a mallefactor, I conceive y* 
in maters of higest consequence, such as doe conceirne 
y e saftie or mine of stats or countries, magistrats may 
proceede so fan* to bodily torments, as racks, hote-irons, 
&c., to extracte a couffession, espetially wher presumptions 
are strounge ; 'but otherwise by no means. God sometims 
hids a sinner till his wickednes is filled up. 

Question 3. In what cases of capitall crimes, one witnes 
with other circumstances shall be sufficente to convicte, or 
is ther no conviction without 2. witneses? 

Deut : 19. 25. God hath given an express rule y' in no 
case one witness shall arise in judgmente, espetially not in 
capitall cases. God would not put our lives into y e power 
of any one toungue. Besids, by y e examination of more 
wittneses agreeing or disagreeing, any falshood ordenarilly 
may be discovered ; but this is to be understood of one 
witnes of another ; but if a man witnes against him selfe, 
his owiie testimony is sufficente, as in y e case of y e Amala- 
kite, 2. Sam: 1. 16. Againe, when ther are sure & certaine 
signes & evidences by circumstances, ther needs no witnes 
in this case, as in y e bussines of Adoniah desiring Abishage 
y e Shunamite to wife, that therby he might make way for 
him selfe unto y e kingdome, 1. King: 2. 23, 24. Againe, 
probably by many concurring circumstances, if probability 
may have y e strength of a witnes, somthing may be this 

474 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

way gathered, me thinks, from Sallomons judging betweexte 
y e true mother, and y e harlote, 1. King. 3. 25. Lastly, I 
see no cause why in waighty matters, in defecte of witneses 
& other proofes, we may not have recourse to a lott, as in 
y e case of Achan, Josu : 7. 16. which is a clearer way in 
such doubtfull cases (it being solemnely & religiously per- 
formed) then any other that I know, if it be made y e last 
refuge. But all this under correction. 

The Lord in mercie directe & prosper y e desires of his 
servants that desire to walk before him in truth & right- 
eousnes in the administration of justice, and give them wis- 

dome and largnes of harte. 


Besids y e occation before mentioned in these writ- 
ings concerning the abuse of those 2. children, they 
had aboute y e same time a case of buggerie fell out 
amongst them, which occasioned these questions, to 
which these answers have been made. 

And after y e time of y e writig of these things 
befell a very sadd accidente of the like foule nature 
in this govermente, this very year, which I shall 
now relate. Ther was a youth whose name was 
Thomas Granger ; he was servant to an honest man 
of Duxbery, being aboute 16. or 17. years of age. 
(His father & mother lived at the same time at 
Sityate.) He was this year detected of buggery (and 
indicted for y e same) with a mare, a cowe, tow goats, 
five sheep, 2. calves, and a turkey. Horrible [249] 
it is to mention, but y e truth of y e historic requires 
it. He was first discovered by one y { accidentally 


saw his lewd practise towards the mare. (I forbear 
perticulers.) Being upon it examined and comitted, 
in y e end he not only confest y e fact with that beast 
at that time, but sundrie times before, and at sev- 
erall times with all y e rest of y e forenamed in his 
indictmente ; and this his free-confession was not only 
in private to y e magistrats, (though at first he strived 
to deney it,) but to sundrie, both ministers & others, 
and afterwards, upon his indictmente, to y e whole 
court & jury ; and confirmed it at his execution. 
And wheras some of y e sheep could not so well be 
knowne by his description of them, others with them 
were brought before him, and he declared which were 
they, and which were not. And accordingly he was 
cast by y e jury, and condemned, and after executed 
about y e 8. of Sept 1 ', 1642. A very sade spectakle 
it was; for first the mare, and then y e cowe, and 
y e rest of y e lesser catle, were kild before his face, 
according to y e law, Levit : 20. 15. and then he him 
selfe was executed. The catle were all cast into a 
great & large pitte that was digged of purposs for 
them, and no use made of any part of them. 

Upon y e examenation of this person, and also of a 
former that had made some sodomiticall attempts upon 
another, it being demanded of them how they came 
first to y e knowledge and practice of such wickednes, 
the one confessed he had long used it in old England ; 
and this youth last spoaken of said he was taught it 

476 HISTOEY or [BOOK n. 

by an other that had heard of such things from some 
in England when he was ther, and they kept catle 
togeather. By which it appears how one wicked per- 
son may infecte many; and what care all ought to 
have what servants they bring into their families. 

But it may be demanded how came it to pass that 
so many wicked persons and profane people should 
so quickly come over into this land, & mixe them 
selves amongst them? seeing it was religious men y* 
begane y e work, and they came for religions sake. 
I confess this may be marveilled at, at least in time 
to come, when the reasons therof should not be 
knowne ; and y e more because here was so many 
hardships and wants mett withall. I shall therfore 
indeavor to give some answer hereunto. And first, 
according to y* in y e gospell, it is ever to be remem- 
bred that wher y e Lord begins to sow good seed, 
ther y e envious man will endeavore to sow tares. 
2. Men being to come over into a wildernes, in 
which much labour & servise was to be done aboute 
building & planting, &c., such as wanted help in y* 
respecte, when they could not have such as y ey would, 
were glad to take such as they could; and so, many 
untoward servants, sundry of them proved, that were 
thus brought over, both men & women kind; who, 
when their times were expired, became families of 
them selves, which gave increase hereunto. 3. An 
other and a maine reason hearof was, that men, find- 


ing so many godly disposed persons willing to come 
into these parts, some begane to make a trade of it, 
to transeport passengers & their goods, and hired 
ships for that end ; and then, to make up their 
fraight and advance their profite, cared not who y e 
persons were, so they had money to pay them. And 
by this means the cuntrie became pestered with many 
unworthy persons, who, being come over, crept into 
one place or other. 4. Againe, the Lords blesing 
usually following his people, as well in outward as 
spirituall things, (though afflictions be mixed with- 
all,) doe make many to adhear to y e people of 
God, as many followed Christ, for y e loaves sake, 
John 6. 26. and a mixed multitud came into y e 
willdernes with y e people of God out of Eagipte 
of old, Exod. 12. 38 ; so allso ther were sente by 
their freinds some under hope y* they would be made 
better ; others that they might be eased of such bur- 
thens, and they kept from shame at home y 1 would 
necessarily follow their dissolute courses. And thus, 
by one means or other, in 20. years time, it is a 
question whether y e greater part be not growne y e 

[250] I am now come to y c conclusion of that long 
& tedious bussines betweene y e partners hear, & them 
in England, the which I shall manifest by their owne 
letters as followeth, in such parts of them as are per- 
tinente to y e same. 

478 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

M r . Slierleys to M r . Attwood. 

M r . Attwood, my approved loving freind : Your letter of y e 
18. of October last I have received, wherin I find you have 
taken a great deall of paines and care aboute y 4 trouble- 
some bussiues betwixte our Plimoth partners & freinds, & 
us hear, and have deeply iugaged your selfe, for which 
complements & words are no reall satisfaction, &c. For 
y e agreemente you have made with M r . Bradford, M r . Wins- 
low, & y e rest of y e partners ther, considering how honestly 
and justly I am pers waded they have brought in an accounte 
of y e remaining stock, for my owne parte I am well satis- 
fied, and so I thinke is M r . Andre wes, and I supose will 
be M r . Beachampe, if most of it might acrew to him, to 
whom y e least is due, &c. And now for peace sake, and 
to conclud as we began, lovingly and freindly, and to pass 
by all failings of all, the conclude is accepted of; I say this 
agreemente y* you have made is condesended unto, and M r . 
Andrews hath sent his release to M r . Winthrop, with such 
directions as he conceives fitt ; and I have made bould to 
trouble you with mine, and we have both sealed in y e pres- 
ence of M r . Weld, and M r . Peeters, and some others, and 
I have also sente you an other, for the partners ther, 
to seale to me ; for you must not deliver mine to them, 
excepte they seale & deliver one to me ; this is fitt and 
equall, &c. 

Yours to comand in what I may or can, 

June 14. 1642. 

His to y 6 partners as followeth. 
Loving freinds, 

M r . Bradford, M r . Winslow, M r . Prence, Captaine Stan- 
dish, M r . Brewster, M r . Alden, & M r . Howland, give me 
leave to joyne you all in one letter, concerning y e finall end 


& conclude of y f tedious & troublsome bussiues, & I thinke 
I may truly say uncomfurtable & unprofitable to all, &c. It 
hath pleased God now to put us upon a way to sease all suits, 
and disquieting of our spirites, and to conclude with peace 
and love, as we began. I am contented to yeeld & make 
good what M r . Attwood and you have agreed upon ; and for 
y* end have sente to my loving freind, M r . Attwood, an abso- 
lute and generall release unto you all, and if ther wante any 
thing to make it more full, write it your selves, & it shall be 
done, provided y 4 all you, either joyntly or severally, seale 
y e like discharge to me. And for y* end I have drawne one 
joyntly, and sent it to M r . Attwood, with y' I have sealed to 
you. M r . Andrews hath sealed an aquitance also, & sent 
it to M r . Winthrop, whith such directions as he conceived 
fitt, and, as I hear, hath given his debte, which he maks 544 li . 
unto y e gentlemen of y e Bay. Indeed, M r . Welld, M r . Peters, 
& M r . Hibbens have taken a great deale of paines with Mr. 
Andrews, M r . Beachamp, & my selfe, to bring us to agree, 
and to y' end we have had many meetings and spent much 
time aboute it. But as they are very religious & honest 
gentle-men, yet they had an end y l they drove at & laboured 
to accomplish (I meane not any private end, but for y e gen- 
erall good of their patente). It had been very well you had 
sent one over. M r . Andrew wished you might have one 3. 
parte of y e 1200 li . & y e Bay 2. thirds; but then we 3. must 
have agreed togeather, which were a hard mater now. But 
M r . Weld, M r . Peters, & M r . Hibbens, & I, have agreed, they 
giving you bond (so to compose with M r . Beachamp, as) to 
procure his generall release, & free you from all trouble & 
charge y l he may put you too ; which indeed is nothing, for 
I am perswaded M r . Weld will in time gaine him to give them 
all that is dew to [251] him, which in some sorte is granted 
allready ; for though his demands be great, yet M r . Andrewes 
hath taken some paines in it, and makes it appear to be less 
then I thinke he will consente to give them for so good an 

480 HISTORY or [BOOK 11. 

use ; so you neede not fear, that for taking bond ther to save 
you bar rales, you be safe and well. Now our accord is, y 4 
you must pay to y e gentle-meu of y e Bay 900 M . ; they are to 
bear all chargs y* may any way arise concerning y e free 
& absolute clearing of you from us three. And you to have 
y e other 300 li . &c. 

Upon y e receiving of my release from you, I will send you 
your bonds for y e purchass money. I would have sent them 
now, but I would have M r . Beachamp release as well as I, be- 
cause you are bound to him in them. Now I know if a man 
be bound to 12. men, if one release, it is as if all released, 
and my discharge doth cutt them of ; wherfore doubte you not 
but you shall have them, & your comission, or any thing els 
that is fitt. Now you know ther is tow years of y e purchass 
money, that I would not owne, for I have formerley certified 
you y l I would but pay 7. years ; but now you are discharged 
of all, &c. 

Your loving and kind friend in what I may or can, 


June 14. 1642. 

The coppy of his release is as folio weth. 

Wheras diverce questions, differences, & demands have 
arisen & depended betweene William Bradford, Edward Wins- 
low, Thomas Prence, Mylest Stand ish, William Brewster, John 
Allden, and John Rowland, gent : now or latly inhabitants or 
resident at New-Plimoth, in New-England, on y e one party, 
and James Sherley of London, marchante, and Bothers, in th' 
other parte, for & concerning a stocke & partable trade of 
beaver & other comodities, and fraighting of ships, as y e 
White Angell, Frindship, or others, and y e goods of Isaack 
Allerton which were seazed upon by vertue of a leter of 
atturney made by y e said James Sherley and John Beachamp 
and Richard Andrews, or any other maters concerning y e said 


trade, either hear in Old-England or ther in New-England or 
elsewher, all which differences are since by mediation of 
freinds composed, compremissed, and all y e said parties 
agreed. Now know all men by these presents, that I, the 
said James Sherley, in performance of y e said compremise & 
agreemente, have remised, released, t and quite claimed, & doe 
by these presents remise, release, and for me, rnyne heires, 
executors, & Administrators, and for every of us, for ever 
quite claime unto y e said William Bradford, Edward Winslow, 
Thomas Prence, Myles Standish, William Brewster, John 
Allden, & John Rowland, and every of them, their & every 
of their heires, executors, and administrators, all and all 
maner of actions, suits, debts, accounts, rekonings, comissions, 
bonds, bills, specialties, judgments, executions, claimes, chal- 
linges, differences, and demands whatsoever, with or against 
y e said William Bradford, Edward Winslow, Thomas Prence, 
Myles Standish, William Brewster, John Allden, and John 
Rowland, or any of them, ever I had, now have, or in time 
to come can, shall, or may have, for any mater, cause, or 
thing whatsoever from y e begining of y e world uutill y e day 
of y e date of these presents. In witnes wherof I have here- 
unto put my hand & seale, given y e second day of June, 1642, 
and in y e eighteenth year of y e raigne of our soveraigne lord, 
king Charles, &c. 

Sealed and delivered 
in y e presence of THOMAS WELD, 




THO : STURGS, his servante. 

M r . Andrews his discharg was to y e same effecte ; he 
was by agreemete to have 500*. of y e money, the which 


he gave to them in y e Bay, who brought his discharge 
and demanded y e money. And they tooke in his re- 
lease and paid y e money according to agreemete, viz. 
one third of the 500 fl . they paid downe in hand, and 
y e rest in 4. equall payments, to be paid yearly, 
for which they gave their bonds. And wheras 44 H . 
was more demanded, they conceived they could take 
it of with M r . Andrews, and therfore it was not in the 
bonde. [252] But M r . Beachamp would not parte with 
any of his, but demanded 400 M . of y e partners here, & 
sent a release to a friend, to deliver it to them upon 
y e receite of y e money. But his relese was not per- 
fecte, for he had left out some of y e partners names, 
with some other defects ; and besids, the other gave 
them to understand he had not near so much due. So 
no end was made with him till 4. years after; of which 
in it plase. And in y* regard, that them selves did not 
agree, I shall inserte some part of M r . Andrews letter, 
by which he conceives y e partners here were wronged, 
as folio weth. This leter of his was write to M r . 
Edmond Freeman, brother in law to M r . Beachamp. 

M r . Freeman, 

My love remembred unto you, &c. I then certified y e part- 
ners how I found M r . Beachamp & M r . Sherley, in their per- 
ticuler demands, which was according to mens principles, of 
getting what they could ; allthough y e one will not shew any 
accounte, and y e other a very unfaire and unjust one ; and 
both of them discouraged me from sending y e partners my 
accounte, M r . Beachamp espetially. Their reason, I have 


cause to conceive, was, y l allthough I doe not, nor ever 
intended to, wrong y e partners or y e bussines, yet, if I gave 
no accounte, I might be esteemed as guiltie as they, in some 
degree at least; and they might seeme to be y e more free 
from taxation in not delivering their accounts, who have both 
of them charged y e accounte with much intrest they have 
payed forth, and one of them would likwise for much intrest 
he hath not paid forth, as appeareth by his accounte, &c. 
And seeing y e partners have now made it appear y 4 ther is 
1200 li . remaining due between us all, and that it may appear 
by my accounte I have not charged y e bussines with any in- 
trest, but doe forgive it unto y e partners, above 200 U . if M r . 
Sherley & M r . Beachamp, who have betweene them wronged 
y e bussines so many 100 li . both in principall & intrest likwise, 
and have therin wronged me as well and as much as any of 
y e partners ; yet if they will not make & deliver faire & true 
accounts of y e same, nor be coutente to take what by com- 
putation is more then can be justly due to either, that is, to 
M r . Beachamp 150 H . as by M r . Allertons accounte, and M r . 
Sherleys accounte, on oath in chancerie ; and though ther 
might be nothing due to M r . Sherley, yet he requirs 100 li . 
&c. I conceive, seing y e partners have delivered on their 
oaths y e sume remaining in their hands, that they may justly 
detaine y e 650* 1 . which may remaine in their hands, after I am 
satisfied, untill M r . Sherley & M r . Beachamp will be more fair 
& just in their ending, &c. And as I intend, if y e partners 
fayrly end with me, in satisfing in parte and ingaging them 
selves for y e rest of my said 544 H . to returne back for y e poore 
my parte of y e land at Sityate, so likwise I intend to re- 
linquish my right & intrest in their dear patente, on which 
much of our money was laid forth, and also my right & 
intrest in their cheap purchass, the which may have cost me 
first & last 350 li .* But I doubte whether other men have not 

* This he means of y e first adventures, all which were lost, as hath before 
been shown; and what he here writs is probable at least. 

484 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

charged or taken on accounte what they have disbursed in y e 
like case, which I have not charged, neither did I conceive 
any other durst so doe, untill I saw y e accounte of the one 
and heard y e words of y e other ; the which gives me just cause 
to suspecte both their accounts to be unfaire ; for it seeuieth 
they consulted one with another aboute some perticulers 
therin. Therfore I conceive y e partners ought y e rather to 
require just accounts from each of them before they parte 
with any money to either of them. For marchants understand 
how to give an acounte ; if they mean fairley, they will not 
deney to give an accounte, for they keep memorialls to helpe 
them to give exacte acounts in all perticulers, and memoriall 
cannot forget his charge, if y e man will remember. I desire 
not to wrong M r . Beachamp or M r . Sherley, nor may be 
silente in such apparente probabilities of their wronging y e 
partners, and me likwise, either in deney ing to deliver or shew 
any accounte, or in delivering one very unjuste in some per- 
ticulers, and very suspitious in many more ; either of which, 
being from understanding marchants, cannot be from weaknes 
or simplisitie, and therfore y e more unfaire. So comending 
you & yours, and all y e Lord's people, unto y e gratious pro- 
tection and blessing of y e Lord, and rest your loving friend, 

Aprill 7. 1643. 

This leter was write y e year after y e agreement, as 
doth appear ; and what his judgmente was herein, y e 
contents doth manifest, and so I leave it to y e equall 
judgmente of any to consider, as they see cause. 

Only I shall adde what M r . Sherley furder write in 
a leter of his, about y e same time, and so leave this 
bussines. His is as folio weth on y e other side.* 

* Being the conclusion, as will be seen, of page 252 of the original. 


[253] Loving freinds, M r . Bradford, M r . "Winslow, Cap: 
Standish, M r . Prence, and y e rest of y e partners w th you ; I 
shall write this generall leter to you all, hoping it will be 
a good conclude of a generall, but a costly & tedious bussines 
I thinke to all, I am sure to me, &c. 

I received from M r . Winslow a letter of y e 28. of Sept : last, 
and so much as concernes y e generall bussines I shall answer 
in this, not knowing whether I shall have opportunitie to 
write perticuler letters, &c. I expected more letters from you 
all, as some perticuler writs,* but it seemeth no fitt oppor- 
tunity was offered. And now, though y e bussines for y e 
maine may stand, yet some perticulers is alltered ; I say my 
former agreemente with M r . "Weld & M r . Peters, before they f 
could conclude or gett any grante of M r . Andrews, they 
sought to have my release ; and ther upon they sealed me a 
bond for a 110 li . So I sente my acquittance, for they said 
without mine ther would be no end made (& ther was good 
reason for it). Now they hoped, if y ey ended with me, to 
gaine M r . Andrews parte, as they did holy, to a pound, (at 
which I should wonder, but y* I observe some passages,) and 
they also hoped to have gotten M r . Beachamps part, & I did 
thinke he would have given it them. But if he did well 
understand him selfe, & that acounte, he would give it; for 
his demands make a great sound. J But it seemeth he would 
not parte with it, supposing it too great a sume, and y* he 
might easily gaine it from you. Once he would have given 
them 40 b . but now they say he will not doe that, or rather 
I suppose they will not take it; for if they doe, & have M r . 
Andrewses, then they must pay me their bond of 110 li . 
3 months hence. Now it will fall out farr better for you, 
y' they deal not with M r . Beachamp, and also for me, if you 

* Perhaps write, for wrote. f The in the manuscript. 

t This was a misterie to them, for they heard nothing hereof from any 
side y e last year, till now y e conclution was past, and bonds given. 

486 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

be as kind to me as I have been & will be to you ; and y* 
thus, if you pay M r . Andrews, or y e Bay men, by his order, 
544 li . which is his full demande ; but if looked into, perhaps 
might be less. The man is honest, & in my conscience would 
not wittingly doe wronge, yett he may forgett as well as other 
men ; and M r . Winslow may call to minde wherin he for- 
getts; (but some times it is good to buy peace.) The gentle- 
men of y e Bay may abate 100 11 . and so both sids have more 
right & justice then if they exacte all, &c. Now if you send 
me a 150 li . then say M r . Andrews full sume, & this, it is nere 
700 li . M r . Beachamp he demands 400 11 . and we all know 
that, if a man demands money, he must shew wherfore, and 
make proofe of his debte ; which I know he can never make 
good proafe of one hunderd pound dew unto him as principall 
money ; so till he can, you have good reason to keep y e 
500 y . &c. This I proteste I write not in malice against 
M r . Beachamp, for it is a reall truth. You may partly see it 
by M r . Andrews making up his accounte, and I think you 
are all perswaded I can say more then M r . Andrews con- 
cerning that accounte. I wish I could make up my owne as 
plaine & easily, but because of former discontents, I will 
be sparing till I be called ; & you may injoye y e 500 li . quietly 
till he begine ; for let him take his course hear or ther, it shall 
be all one, I will doe him no wronge ; and if he have not on 
peney more, he is less loser then either M r . Andrews or I. 
This I conceive to be just & honest ; y e having or not having 
of his release matters not; let him make such proafe of his 
debte as you cannot disprove, and according to your first 
agreemente you will pay it, &c. 

Your truly affectioned freind, 

London, Aprill 27. 1643. 


Anno Dom: 1643. 

I AM to begine this year whith that which was a 
mater of great saddnes and mouring unto them all. 
Aboute y e 18. of Aprill dyed their Eeve d Elder, and 
my dear & loving friend, M r . William Brewster; a 
man that had done and suffered much for y e Lord 
Jesus and y e gospells sake, and had bore his parte in 
well and woe with this poore persecuted church above 
36. years [254] in England, Holand, and in this 
wildernes, and done y e Lord & them faithfull service 
in his place & calling. And notwithstanding y e many 
troubls and sorrows he passed throw, the Lord upheld 
him to a great age. He was nere fourskore years 
of age (if not all out) when he dyed. He had this 
blesing added by y e Lord to all y e rest, to dye in his 
bed, in peace, amongst y e mids of his freinds, who 
mourned & wepte over him, and ministered what help 
& comforte they could unto him, and he againe re- 
comforted them whilst he could. His sicknes was not 
long, and till y e last day therof he did not wholy 
keepe his bed. His speech continued till somewhat 
more then halfe a day, & then failed him ; and aboute 
9. or 10. a clock that eving he dyed, without any 
pangs at all. A few howers before, he drew his 
breath shorte, and some few minuts before his last, 
he drew his breath long, as a man falen into a sound 
slepe, without any pangs or gaspings, and so sweetly 
departed this life unto a better. 

488 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

I would now demand of any, what he was y e worse 
for any former sufferings? What doe I say, worse? 
Nay, sure he was y e better, and they now added to 
his honour. It is a manifest token (saith y e Apostle, 
2. Thes : 1. 5, 6, 7.) of y 6 righeous judgmente of God 
y' ye may be counted worthy of y e kingdome of God, 
for which ye allso suffer; seing it is a righteous thing 
with God to recompence tribulation to them y* trouble 
you: and to you who are troubled, rest with us, when 
y e Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven, with his 
mighty angels. 1. Pet. 4. 14. If you be reproached 
for y* name of Christ, hapy are ye, for y e spirite 
of glory and of God resteth upon you. What though 
he wanted y e riches and pleasurs of y e world in this 
life, and pompous monuments at his funurall? yet y e 
memoriall of y e just shall be blessed, when y e name 
of y e wicked shall rott (with their marble monuments). 
Pro: 10. 7. 

I should say something of his life, if to say a litle 

were not worse then to be silent. But I cannot wholy 

forbear, though hapily more may be done hereafter. 

After he had attained some learning, viz. y e knowledg 
of y e Latine tongue, & some insight in y e Greeke, and 
spent some small time at Cambridge, and then being 
first seasoned with y e seeds of grace and vertue, he went 
to y e Courte, and served that religious and godly gentl- 
man, M r . Davison, diverce years, when he was Secre- 
tary of State ; who found him so discreete and faithfull 


as he trusted him above all other that were aboute 
him, and only imployed him in all matters of greatest 
trust and secrecie. He esteemed him rather as a sonne 
then a servante, and for his wisdom & godlines (in 
private) he would converse with him more like a freind 
& familier then a inaister. He attended his m r . when 
he was sente in ambassage by the Queene into y e Low- 
Countries, in y e Earle of Leicesters time, as for other 
waighty affaires of state, so to receive possession of the 
cautionary townes, and in tokeh & signe therof the 
keyes of Flushing being delivered to him, in her ma tls 
name, he kepte them some time, and comitted them 
to this his servante, who kept them under his pilow, 
on which he slepte y e first night. And, at his returne, 
y e States honoured him with a gould chaine, and his 
maister comitted it to him, and comanded him to wear 
it when they arrived in England, as they ridd thorrow 
the country, till they came to y e Courte. He afterwards 
remained with him till his troubles, that he was put 
from his place aboute y e death of y e Queene of Scots ; 
and some good time after, doeing him manie faithfull 
offices of servise in y e time of his troubles. Afterwards 
he wente and lived in y e country, in good esteeme 
amongst his freinds and y e gentle-men of those parts, 
espetially the godly & religious. He did much good 
in y e countrie wher he lived, in promoting and further- 
ing religion, not only by his practiss & example, and 
provocking and incouraging of others, but by procuring 

490 HISTORY or [BOOK n.- 

of good preachers to y e places theraboute, and drawing 
on of others to assiste & help forward in such a worke ; 
he him selfe most comonly deepest in y e charge, & 
some times above his abillitie. And in this state he 
continued many years, doeing y e best good he could, 
and walking according to y e light he saw, till y e Lord 
re veiled further unto him. And in y e end, by y e tir- 
rany of y e bishops against godly preachers & people, 
in silenceing the one & persecuting y e other, he and 
many more of those times begane to looke further into 
things, and to see into y e unlawfullnes of their callings, 
and y e burthen of many anti-christian corruptions, which 
both he and they endeavored to cast of; as y ey allso 
did, as in y e begining of this treatis is to be scene. 
[255] After they were joyned togither in comunion, 
he was a spetiall stay & help unto them. They ordi- 
narily mett at his house on y e Lords day, (which was 
a manor of y e bishops,) and with great love he enter- 
tained them when they came, making provission for 
them to his great charge. He was y e cheefe of those 
that were taken at Boston, and suffered y e greatest 
loss ; and of y e seven that were kept longst in prison, 
and after bound over to y e assises. Affter he came 
into Holland he suffered much hardship, after he had 
spente y e most of his means, haveing a great charge, 
and many children ; and, in regard of his former breed- 
ing & course of life, not so fitt for many imployments 
as others were, espetially such as were toylesume & 


laborious. But yet he ever bore his condition with 
much cherfullnes and contentation. Towards y e later 
parte of those 12. years spente in Holland, his outward 
condition was mended, and he lived well & plentifully; 
for he fell into a way (by reason he had y e Latine 
tongue) to teach many students, who had a disire 
to lerne y e English tongue, to teach them English ; 
and by his method they quickly attained it with great 
facilitie ; for he drew rules to lerne it by, after y e 
Latine maner; and many gentlemen, both Danes & 
Germans, resorted to him, as they had time from other 
studies, some of them being great mens sones. He 
also had means to set up printing, (by y e help of some 
freinds,) and so had imploymente inoughg, and by 
reason of many books which would not be alowed 
to be printed in England, they might have had more 
then they could doe. But now removeing into this 
countrie, all these things were laid aside againe, and 
a new course of living must be framed unto ; in which 
he was no way unwilling to take his parte, and to bear 
his burthen with y e rest, living many times without 
bread, or corne, many months together, having many 
times nothing but fish, and often wanting that also; 
and drunke nothing but water for many years togeather, 
yea, till within 5. or 6. years of his death. And yet 
he lived (by y e blessing of God) in health till very old 
age. And besids y*, he would labour with his hands 
in y e feilds as long as he was able; yet when the 

492 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

church had no other minister, he taught twise every 
Saboth, and y* both powerfully and profitably, to y e 
great contentment of y e hearers, and their comfortable 
edification ; yea, many were brought to God by his 
ministrie. He did more in this behalfe in a year, then 
many that have their hundreds a year doe in all their 
lives. For his personall abilities, he was qualified 
above many ; he was wise and discreete and well 
spoken, having a grave & deliberate utterance, of a 
very cherfull spirite, very sociable & pleasante amongst 
his freinds, of an humble and modest mind, of a peace- 
able disposition, under vallewing him self & his owne 
abilities, and some time over valewing others; inoffen- 
cive and inocente in his life & conversation, w ch gained 
him y e love of those without, as well as those within; 
yet he would tell them plainely of their faults & evills, 
both publickly & privatly, but in such a maner as usu- 
ally was well taken from him. He was tender harted, 
and compassionate of such as were in miserie, but 
espetialy of such as had been of good estate and ranke, 
and were fallen unto want & poverty, either for good- 
nes & religions sake, or by y e injury & oppression 
of others ; he would say, of all men these deserved 
to be pitied most. And none did more offend & dis- 
please him then such as would hautily and proudly 
carry & lift up themselves, being rise from nothing, 
and haveing litle els in them to comend them but a few 
fine cloaths, or a litle riches more then others. In 


teaching, he was very moving & stirring of affections, 
also very plaine & distincte in what he taught; by 
which means he became y e more profitable to y e hearers. 
He had a singuler good gift in prayer, both publick 
& private, in ripping up y e hart & conscience before 
God, in y e humble confession of sinne, and begging y e 
mercies of God in Christ for y e pardon of y e same. 
He always thought it were better for ministers to pray 
oftener, and devide their prears, then be longe & te- 
dious in y e same (excepte upon sollemne & spetiall 
occations, as in days of humiliation & y e like). His 
reason was, that y e harte & spirits of all, espetialy 
y e weake, could hardly continue & stand bente (as it 
were) so long towards God, as they ought to doe 
in y* duty, without nagging and falling of. For 
y e govermente of y e church, (which was most [256] 
proper to his office, ) he was carfull to preserve good 
order in y e same, and to preserve puritie, both in 
y e doctrine & comunion of y e same; and to supress 
any errour or contention that might begine to rise 
up amongst them ; and accordingly God gave good 
success to his indeavors herein all his days, and he 
saw y e fruite of his labours in that behalfe. But 
I must breake of, having only thus touched a few, 
as it were, heads of things. 

I cannot but here take occasion, not only to men- 
tion, but greatly to admire y e marvelous providence 
of God, that notwithstanding y e many changes and 


hardships that these people wente throwgh, and y e 
many enemies they had and difficulties they mette with 
all, that so many of them should live to very olde age ! 
It was not only this reve d mans condition, (for one 
swallow maks no summer, as they say,) but many 
more of them did y e like, some dying aboute and 
before this time, and many still living, who attained 
to 60. years of age, and to 65. diverse to 70. and 
above, and some nere 80. as he did. It must needs 
be more then ordinarie, and above naturall reason, that 
so it should be ; for it is found in experience, that 
chaing of aeir, famine, or unholsome foode, much drink- 
ing of water, sorrows & troubls, &c., all of them are 
enimies to health, causes of many diseaces, consumers 
of naturall vigoure and y e bodys of men, and shortners 
of life. And yet of all these things they had a large 
parte, and suffered deeply in y e same. They wente 
from England to Holand, wher they found both worse 
air and dyet then that they came from ; from thence 
(induring a long imprisonmente, as it were, in y e ships 
at sea) into New-England; and how it hath been with 
them hear hath allready beene showne ; and what crosses, 
troubls, fears, wants, and sorrowes they had been lyable 
unto, is easie to conjecture ; so as in some sorte they 
may say with y e Apostle, 2. Cor: 11. 26, 27. they 
were in journey ings often, in perils of waters, in per ills 
of robers, in perills of their owne nation, in perils among 
y e heathen, in perills in y 6 willdernes, in perills in y e sea, 


in perills among false breethern ; in wearines & painfidl- 
nes, in watching often, in hunger and thirst, in fasting 
often, in could and nakednes. What was it then that 
upheld them? It was Gods vissitation that preserved 
their spirits. Job 10. 12. Thou hast given me life 
and grace, and thy vissitation hath preserved my spirite. 
He that upheld y e Apostle upheld them. They were 
persecuted, but not forsaken, cast downe, but perished 
not. 2. Cor: 4. 9. As unknowen, and yet knowen; 
as dying, and behold we live; as chastened, and yett 
not kiled. 2. Cor: 6. 9. God, it seems, would have 
all men to behold and observe such mercies and works 
of his providence as these are towards his people, that 
they in like cases might be incouraged to depend upon 
God in their trials, & also blese his name when they 
see his goodnes towards others. Man lives not by 
bread only, Deut : 8. 3. It is not by good & dainty 
fare, by peace, & rest, and harts ease, in injoying 
y e contentments and good things of this world only, 
that preserves health and prolongs life. God in such 
examples would have y e world see & behold that he 
can doe it without them; and if y e world will shut 
ther eyes, and take no notice therof, yet he would 
have his people to see and consider it. Daniell could 
be better liking with pulse then others were with 
y e kings dainties. Jaacob, though he wente from one 
nation to another people, and passed thorow famine, 
fears, & many afflictions, yet he lived till old age, and 

496 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

dyed sweetly, & rested in y e Lord, as infinite others 
of Gods servants have done, and still shall doe, (through 
Gods goodnes,) notwithstanding all y e malice of their 
enemies ; when y* branch of y e wicked shall be cut of 
before his day. Job. 15. 32. and y e bloody and deceitfull 
men shall not live out halfe their days. Psa : 55. 23. 

By reason of y e plottings of the Narigansets, (ever 
since y e Pequents warr,) the Indeans were drawne into 
a generall conspiracie against y e English in all parts, 
as was in part discovered y e yeare before; and now 
made more plaine and evidente by many discoveries 
and free-conffessions of sundrie Indeans (upon severall 
occasions) from diverse places, concur ing in one ; with 
such other concuring circomstances as gave them suffis- 
sently to understand the trueth therof, and to thinke 
of means how to prevente y e same, and secure them 
selves. Which made them enter into this more nere 
union & confederation following. 

[257] Articles of Confederation betweene y e Plantations un- 
der y e Govermente of Massachusets, y e Plantations under 
y e Govermente of New-Plimoth, y e Plantations under y e 
Govermente of Conightecute, and y e Govermente of New- 
Haven, with y e Plantations in combination therwith. 

Wheras we all came into these parts of America with one 
and y e same end and airne, namly, to advance the kingdome 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, & to injoye y e liberties of y e Gospell 
in puritie with peace ; and wheras in our setling (by a wise 
providence of God) we are further disperced upon y e sea 


coasts and rivers then was at first intended, so y l we cannot, 
according to our desires, with conveniencie comunicate in one 
govermente & jurisdiction ; and wheras we live encompassed 
with people of severall nations and strang languages, which 
hereafter may prove injurious to us and our posteritie ; and 
for as much as y e natives have formerly comitted sundrie inso- 
lencies and outrages upon severall plantations of y e English, 
and have of late combined them selves against us ; and 
seeing, by reason of those distractions in England (which 
they have heard of) and by which they know we are hindered 
from y e humble way of seeking advice or reaping those com- 
furtable fruits of protection which at other times we might 
well expecte ; we therfore doe conceive it our bounden duty, 
without delay, to enter into a presente consociation amongst 
our selves, for mutuall help & strength in all our future 
concernments. That as in nation and religion, so in other 
respects, we be & continue one, according to y e tenor and 
true meaning of the insuing articles. (1) Wherfore it is 
fully agreed and concluded by & betweene y e parties or 
jurisdictions above named, and they joyntly & severally 
doe by these presents agree & conclude, that they all be 
and henceforth be called by y e name of The United Colonies 
of New-England. 

2. The said United Collonies, for them selves & their pos- 
terities, doe joyntly & severally hereby enter into a firme 
& perpetuall league of frendship & amitie, for offence and 
defence, mutuall advice and succore upon all just occasions, 
both for preserving & propagating y e truth of y e Gospell, and 
for their owne mutuall saftie and wellfare. 

3. It is further agreed that the plantations which at 
presente are or hereafter shall be setled with [in] y e limites 
of y e Massachusets shall be for ever under y e Massachusets, 
and shall have peculier jurisdiction amonge them selves in all 
cases, as an intire body. And y* Plimoth, Conightecutt, and 


New-Haven shall each of them have like peculier jurisdition 
and govermente within their limites and in refference to y e 
plantations which allready are setled, or shall hereafter be 
erected, or shall setle within their limites, respectively; pro- 
vided y 4 no other jurisdition shall hereafter be taken in, as 
a distincte head or member of this confederation, nor shall 
any other plantation or jurisdiction in presente being, and 
not allready in combination or under y c jurisdiction of any 
of these confederats, be received by any of them ; nor shall 
any tow of y e confederats joyne in one jurisdiction, without 
consente of y e rest, which consete to be interpreted as is 
expresed in y e sixte article ensewing. 

4. It is by these conffederats agreed, y* the charge of all 
just warrs, whether offencive or defencive, upon what parte 
or member of this confederation soever they fall, shall, both 
in men, provissions, and all other disbursments, be borne by 
all y e parts of this confederation, in diffe rente proportions, 
according to their differente abillities, in maner following: 
namely, y* the comissioners for each jurisdiction, from time 
to time, as ther shall be occasion, bring a true accounte and 
number of all their males in every plantation, or any way 
belonging too or under their severall jurisdictions, of what 
qualitie or condition soever they be, from 16. years old to 
60. being inhabitants ther ; and y 1 according to y e differente 
numbers which from time to time shall be found in each 
jurisdiction upon a true & just accounte, the service of men 
and all charges of y e .warr be borne by y e pole ; each juris- 
diction or plantation being left to their owne just course & 
custome of rating them selves and people according to their 
differente estates, with due respects to their qualities and 
exemptions amongst them selves, though the confederats take 
no notice of any such priviledg. And y 4 according to their 
differente charge of each jurisdiction & plantation, the whole 
advantage of y e warr, (if it please God to blesse their 


indeaours,) whether it be in lands, goods, or persons, shall be 
proportionably devided amonge y e said confederats. 

5. It is further agreed, that if these jurisdictions, or any 
plantation under or in combynacion with them, be invaded 
by any enemie whomsoever, upon notice & requeste of any 
3. [258] magistrats of y 4 jurisdiction so invaded, y e rest 
of y e confederats, without any further meeting or expostu- 
lation, shall forthwith send ayde to y e confederate in danger, 
but in differente proportion ; namely, y e Massachusets an 
hundred men slifflcently armed & provided for such a service 
and journey, and each of y e rest forty five so armed & pro- 
vided, or any lesser number, if less be required according to 
this proportion. But if such confederate in danger may be 
supplyed by their nexte confederates, not exeeding y c number 
hereby agreed, they may crave help ther, and seeke no further 
for y e presente ; y e charge to be borne as in this article is 
exprest, and at y e returne to be victuled & suplyed with 
powder & shote for their jurney (if ther be need) by y* juris- 
diction which imployed or sent for them. But none of y e 
jurisdictions to exceede these numbers till, by a meeting 
of y e comissioners for this confederation, a greater aide 
appear nessessarie. And this proportion to continue till upon 
knowlege of greater numbers in each jurisdiction, which shall 
be brought to y e nexte meeting, some other proportion be 
ordered. But in such case of sending men for presente 
aide, whether before or after such order or alteration, it is 
agreed y* at y e meeting of y e comissiouers for this confeder- 
ation, the cause of such warr or invasion be duly considered ; 
and if it appeare y l the falte lay in y e parties so invaded, 
y 4 then that jurisdiction or plantation make just satisfaction 
both to y e invaders whom they have injured, and beare all y e 
charges of y e warr them selves, without requiring any allow- 
ance from y e rest of y e confederats towards y e same. And 
further, y* if any jurisdiction see any danger of any invasion 


approaching, and ther be time for a meeting, that in such 
a case 3. magistrats of y l jurisdiction may sumone a meeting, 
at such conveniente place as them selves shall thinke meete, 
to consider & provid against y e threatened danger, provided 
when they are mett, they may remove to what place they 
please ; only, whilst any of these foure confederats have but 
3 magistrats in their jurisdiction, their requeste, or sum- 
mons, from any 2. of them shall be accounted of equall 
force with y e 3. mentioned in both the clauses of this arti- 
cle, till ther be an increase of majestrats ther. 

6. It is also agreed y*, for y e managing & concluding of 
all affairs propper, & concerning the whole confederation, 
tow comissioners shall be chosen by & out of each of these 
4. jurisdictions ; namly, 2. for y e Massachusets, 2. for Plim- 
oth, 2. for Conightecutt, and 2. for New-Haven, being all 
in church fellowship with us, which shall bring full power 
from their severall Generall Courts respectively to hear, ex- 
amene, waigh, and detirmine all affairs of warr, or peace, 
leagues, aids, charges, and numbers of men for warr, divis- 
sions of spoyles, & whatsoever is gotten by conquest ; re- 
ceiving of more confederats, or plantations into combination 
with any of y e confederates, and all things of like nature, 
which are y e proper concomitants or consequences of such 
a confederation, for amitie, offence, & defence ; not inter- 
medling with y e govermente of any of y e jurisdictions, 
which by y e 3. article is preserved entirely to them selves. 
But if these 8. comissioners when they meete shall not all 
agree, yet it concluded that any 6. of the 8. agreeing 
shall have power to setle & determine y e bussines in ques- 
tion. But if 6. doe not agree, that then such propositions, 
with their reasons, so farr as they have been debated, be 
sente, and referred to y e 4. Generall Courts, viz. y e Massa- 
chusets, Plimoth, Conightecutt, and New-haven ; and if at 
all y e said Generall Courts y e bussines so referred be con- 


eluded, then to be prosecuted by y e confederats, and all 
their members. It was further agreed that these 8. comis- 
sioners shall meete once every year, besids extraordinarie 
meetings, (according to the fifte article,) to consider, treate, 
& conclude of all affaires belonging to this confederation, 
which meeting shall ever be y e first Thursday in September. 
And y* the next meeting after the date of these presents, 
which shall be accounted y e second meeting, shall be at 
Boston in y e Massachusets, the 3. at Hartford, the 4. at 
New-Haven, the 5. at Plimoth, and so in course succes- 
sively, if in y e meane time some midle place be not found 
out and agreed on, which may be comodious for all y e 

7. It is further agreed, y 4 at each meeting of these 8. 
comissioners, whether ordinarie, or extraordinary, they all 
6. of them agreeing as before, may chuse a presidente out 
of them selves, whose office & work shall be to take care 
and directe for order, and a comly carrying on of all pro- 
ceedings in y e present meeting; but he shall be invested 
with no such power or respecte, as by which he shall hin- 
der y e propounding or progress of any bussines, or any 
way cast y e scailes otherwise then in y e precedente article 
is agreed. 

[259] 8. It is also agreed, y 4 the comissioners for this 
confederation hereafter at their meetings, whether ordinary 
or extraordinarie, as they may have comission or oppor- 
tunitie, doe indeaover to frame and establish agreements 
& orders in generall cases of a civill nature, wherin all 
y e plantations are iriteressed, for y e preserving of peace 
amongst them selves, and preventing as much as may be 
all occasions of warr or difference with others ; as aboute 
y c free & speedy passage of justice, in every jurisdiction, 
to all y e confederats equally as to their owne ; not receiving 
those y* remove from one plantation to another without due 


certificate ; how all y e jurisdictions may carry towards y e 
Indeans, that they neither growe insolente, nor be injured 
without due satisfaction, least warr breake in upon the con- 
federate through such miscarriages. It is also agreed, y* 
if any servante rune away from his maister into another 
of these confederated jurisdictions, that in such case, upon 
y e certificate of one magistrate in y e jurisdiction out of 
which y e said servante fledd, or upon other due proof e, the 
said servante shall be delivered, either to his maister, or 
any other y l pursues & brings such certificate or proof e. 
And y* upon y e escape of any prisoner whatsoever, or fugi- 
tive for any criminal! cause, whether breaking prison, or 
getting from y e officer, or otherwise escaping, upon y e cer- 
tificate of 2. magistrats of y e jurisdiction out of which y e 
escape is made, that he was a prisoner, or such an offender 
at y e time of y e escape, they magistrats, or surne of them of 
y l jurisdiction wher for y e presente the said prisoner or fugi- 
tive abideth, shall forthwith grante such a warrante as y e 
case will beare, for y e apprehending of any such person, & 
y e delivering of him into y e hands of y e officer, or other 
person who pursues him. And if ther be help required, for 
y e safe returning of any such offender, then it shall be 
granted to him y* craves y e same, he paying the charges 

9. And for y 4 the justest warrs may be of dangerous 
consequence, espetially to y e smaler plantations in these 
United Collonies, it is agreed y l neither y e Massachusets, 
Plimoth, Conightecutt, nor New-Haven, nor any member of 
any of them, shall at any time hear after begine, under- 
take, or ingage them selves, or this confederation, or any 
parte therof, in any warr whatsoever, (sudden* exegents, 
with y e necessary consequents therof excepted, which are 
also to be moderated as much as y e case will permitte,) 

* Substituted for sundry on the authority of the original MS. Records. 


without y e consente and agreemente of y e forementioned 8. 
comissioners, or at y e least 6. of them, as in y e sixt article 
is provided. And y l no charge be required of any of they 
confederats, in case of a defensive warr, till y e said comis- 
sioners have mett, and approved y e justice of y e warr, and 
have agreed upon y e sume of money to be levied, which 
sume is then to be paid by the severall confederats in pro- 
portion according to y e fourth article. 

10. That in extraordinary occasions, when meetings are 
summoned by three magistrates of any jurisdiction, or 2. as 
in y e 5. article, if any of'y e comissioners come not, due 
warning being given or sente, it is agreed y 4 4. of the 
comissioners shall have power to directe a warr which can- 
not be delayed, and to send for due proportions of men out 
of each jurisdiction, as well as 6. might doe if all mett ; 
but not less then 6. shall determine the justice of y e warr, 
or alow y e demands or bills of charges, or cause any levies 
to be made for y e same. 

11. It is further agreed, y 4 if any of y e confederats shall 
hereafter breake any of these presente articles, or be any 
other ways injurious to any one of y e other jurisdictions, 
such breach of agreemente or injurie shall be duly consid- 
ered and ordered by y e comissioners for y e other jurisdic- 
tion ; that both peace and this presente confederation may 
be intirly preserved without violation. 

12. Lastly, this perpetuall confederation, and y e severall 
articles therof being read, and seriously considered, both by 
y e Generall Courte for y e Massachusets, and by y e comis- 
sioners for Plimoth, Conigtecute, & New-Haven, were fully 
alowed & confirmed by 3. of y e forenamed confederats, 
namly, y e Massachusets, Conightecutt, and New-Haven ; 
only y e comissioners for Plimoth haveing no comission to 
conclude, desired respite till they might advise with their 
Generall Courte ; wher upon it was agreed and concluded 


by y e said Courte of y e Massachusets, and the comissioners 
for y e other tow confederats, that, if Plimoth consente, then 
the whole treaty as it stands in these present articls is, and 
shall continue, firme & stable without alteration. But if 
Plimoth come not in, yet y e other three confederats doe by 
these presents [260] confeirme y e whole confederation, and 
y e articles therof ; only in September nexte, when y e second 
meeting of y e comissioners is to be at Boston, new consid- 
eration may be taken of y e 6. article, which concerns num- 
ber of comissioners for meeting & concluding the affaires 
of this confederation, to y e satisfaction of y e Courte of y e 
Massachusets, and y e comissioners for y e other 2. confed- 
erats, but y e rest to stand unquestioned. In y e testimonie 
wherof, y e Generall Courte of y e Massachusets, by ther 
Secretary, and y e comissioners for Conightecutt and New- 
Haven, have subscribed these presente articles this 19. of 
y e third month, comonly called May, Anno Dom : 1643. 

At a meeting of y e comissioners for y e confederation held 
at Boston y e 7. of Sept : it appearing that the Generall Courte 
of New-Plimoth, and y e severall towneshipes therof, have 
read & considered & approved these articles of confederation, 
as appeareth by comission from their Generall Courte bearing 
date y e 29. of August, 1643. to M r . Edward Winslow and 
M r . William Collier, to ratine and confirme y e same on their 
behalfes. We, therfore, y e Gomissioners for y e Massachusets, 
Conightecutt, & New Haven, doe also, for our severall gover- 
ments, subscribe unto them. 

JOHN WINTHROP, Gov r . of y e Massachusest. 




These were y e articles of agreemente in y e union and 
confederation which they now first entered into ; and in 


this their first meeting, held at Boston y e day & year 
abovesaid, amongst other things they had this matter 
of great consequence to considere on : the Narigansets, 
after y e subduing of y e Pequents, thought to have ruled 
over all y e Indeans aboute them; but y e English, espe- 
tially those of Conightecutt holding correspondencie & 
frenship with Uncass, sachem of y e Monhigg Indeans 
which lived nere them, (as y e Massachusets had done 
with y e Narigansets,) and he had been faithful! to them 
in y e Pequente warr, they were ingaged to supporte 
him in his just liberties, and were contented y* such of 
y e surviving Pequents as had submited to him should 
remaine with him and quietly under his protection. 
This did much increase his power and augniente his 
greatnes, which y e Narigansets could not indure to see. 
But Myantinomo, their cheefe sachem, (an ambitious 
& politick man,) sought privatly and by trearchery 
(according to y e Indean maner) to make him away, 
by hiring some to kill him. Sometime they assayed to 
poyson him ; that not takeing, then in y e night time to 
knock him on y e head in his house, or secretly to shoot 
him, and such like attempts. But none of these taking 
effecte, he made open warr upon him (though it was 
against y e covenants both betweene y e English & them, 
as also betweene them selves, and a plaine breach of y e 
same). He came suddanly upon him with 900. or 1000. 
men (never denouncing any warr before). Y e others 
power at y* presente was not above halfe so many ; 


but it pleased God to give Uncass y e victory, and he 
slew many of his men, and wounded many more ; but 
y e cheefe of all was, he tooke Miantinomo prisoner. 
And seeing he was a greate man, and y e Narigansets 
a potente people & would seeke revenge, he would doe 
nothing in y e case without y e advise of y e English ; 
so he (by y e help & direction of those of Conightecutt) 
kept him prisoner till this meeting of y e comissioners. 
The comissioners weighed y e cause and passages, as 
they were clearly represented & sufficently evidenced 
betwixte Uncass and Myantinomo ; and the things being 
duly considered, the comissioners apparently saw y* 
Uncass could not be safe whilst Miantynomo lived, but, 
either by secrete trechery or open force, his life would 
still be in danger. Wherfore they thought he might 
justly put such a false & bloud-thirstie enimie to death ; 
but in his owne jurisdiction, not in y e English plan- 
tations. And they advised, in y e maner of his death 
all mercy and moderation should be showed, contrary 
to y e practise of y e Indeans, who exercise torturs and 
cruelty. And, [261] Uncass having hitherto shewed 
him selfe a freind to y e English, and in this craving 
their advise, if the Narigansett Indeans or others shall 
unjustly assaulte Uncass for this execution, upon notice 
and request, y e English promise to assiste and protecte 
him as farr as they may agaiste such violence. 

This was y e issue of this bussines. The reasons and 
passages hereof are more at large to be seene in y e acts 


& records of this meeting of y e comissioners. And 
Uncass follewd this advise, and accordingly executed 
him, in a very faire maner, acording as they advised, 
with due respecte to his honour & greatnes. But what 
followed on y e Narigansets parte will appear hear after. 

Anno Dom: 1644. 

M R . EDWARD WINSLOW was chosen Gov r this year. 

Many having left this place (as is before noted) by 
reason of y e straightnes & barrennes of y e same, and 
their finding of better accommodations elsewher, more 
sutable to their ends & minds ; and sundrie others 
still upon every occasion desiring their dismissions, 
the church begane seriously to thinke whether it were 
not better joyntly to remove to some other place, then 
to be thus weakened, and as it were insensibly dis- 
solved. Many meetings and much consultation was held 
hearaboute, and diverse were mens minds and opinions. 
Some were still for staying togeather in this place, 
aledging men might hear live, if they would be con- 
tente with their condition ; and y l it was not for wante 
or necessitie so much y* they removed, as for y e enrich- 
ing of them selves. Others were resolute upon removal!, 
and so signified y* hear y ey could .not stay; but if y e 
church did not remove, they must ; insomuch as many 
were swayed, rather then ther should be a dissolution, 
to condescend to a removall, if a fitt place could 
be found, that might more conveniently and comforta- 


blie receive y e whole, with such accession of others 
as might come to them, for their better strength & 
subsistence ; and some such like cautions and limita- 
tions. So as, with y e afforesaide provissos, y e greater 
parte consented to a removall to a place called Nawsett, 
which had been superficially veiwed and y e good will 
of y e purchassers (to whom it belonged) obtained, with 
some addition thertoo from y e Courte. But now they 
begane to see their errour, that they had given away 
already the best & most comodious places to others, 
and now wanted them selves; for this place was about 
50. myles from hence, and at an outside of y e countrie, 
remote from all society; also, that it would prove so 
straite, as it would not be competente to receive 
y e whole body, much less be capable of any addition 
or increase ; so as (at least in a shorte time) they 
should be worse ther then they are now hear. The 
which, with sundery other like considerations and in- 
conveniences, made them chaing their resolutions ; but 
such as were before resolved upon removall tooke advan- 
tage of this agreemente, & wente on notwithstanding, 
neither could y c rest hinder them, they haveing made 
some begining. And thus was this poore church left, 
like an ancieute mother, growne olde, and forsaken of 
her children, (though not in their affections,) yett in 
regarde of their bodily presence and personall help- 
fullness. Her anciente members being most of them 
worne away by death ; and these of later time being 


like children translated into other families, and she like 
a widow left only to trust in God. Thus she that had 
made many rich became her selfe poore. 

[262] Some things handled, and pacified by y comissioner 
this year. 

Wheras, by a wise providence of God, tow of y e jurisdic- 
tions in y e westerne parts, viz. Conightecutt & New-haven, 
have beene latly exercised by sundrie insolencies & outrages 
from y e Indeans ; as, first, an Englishman, runing from his 
m r . out of y e Massachusets, was murdered in y e woods, in or 
nere y e limites of Conightecute jurisdiction; and aboute 6. 
weeks after, upon discovery by an Indean, y e Indean saga- 
more in these parts promised to deliver the murderer to y e 
English, bound ; and having accordingly brought him within 
y e sight of Uncaway, by their joynte consente, as it is 
informed, he was ther unbound, and left to shifte for him 
selfe ; wherupon 10. Englishmen forthwith coming to y e place, 
being sente by M r . Ludlow, at y e Indeans desire, to receive 
y e murderer, who seeing him escaped, layed hold of 8. of y e 
Indeans ther presente, amongst whom ther was a sagamore 
or 2. and kept them in hold 2. days, till 4. sagamors ingaged 
themselves within one month to deliver y e prisoner. And 
about a weeke after this agreemente, an Indean came pre- 
sumtuously and with guile, in y e day time, and murtherously 
assalted an English woman in her house at Stamford, and 
by 3. wounds, supposed mortal 1, left her for dead, after he 
had robbed y e house. By which passages y e English were 
provoked, & called to a due consideration of their owne 
saftie ; and y e Indeans generally in those parts arose in an 
hostile maner, refused to come to y e English to carry 
on treaties of peace, departed from their wigwames, left 
their corne unweeded, and shewed them selves tumultuously 

510 HISTORY or [BOOK ir: 

about some of y e English plantations, & shott of peeces 
within hearing of y e towne ; and some Indeans came to y e 
English & tould them y e Indeans would fall- upon them. 
So y* most of y e English thought it unsafe to travell in those 
parts by land, and some of y e plantations were put upon 
strong watchs and ward, night & day, & could not attend 
their private occasions, and yet distrusted their owne strength 
for their defence. Wherupon Hartford & New-Haven were 
sent unto for aide, and saw cause both to send into y e weaker 
parts of their owne jurisdiction thus in danger, and New- 
Haven, for convenience of situation, sente aide to Uncaway, 
though belonging to Conightecutt. Of all which passages 
they presently acquainted y e comissioners in y e Bay, & had 
y e allowance & approbation from y e Generall Courte ther, 
with directions neither to hasten warr nor to bear such iriso- 
lencies too longe. Which courses, though chargable to them 
selves, yet through Gods blessing they hope fruite is, & will 
be, sweete and wholsome to all y e collonies ; the murderers 
are since delivered to justice, the piiblick peace preserved for 
y e presente, & probabillitie it may be better secured for y e 

Thus this mischeefe was prevented, and y e fear of 
a warr hereby diverted. But now an other broyle was 
begune by y e Narigansets ; though they unjustly had 
made warr upon Uncass, (as is before declared,) and 
had, y e winter before this, ernestly presed y e Gove 1 ' 
of y e Massachusets that they might still make warr 
upon them to revenge y e death of their sagamore, w ch , 
being taken prisoner, was by them put to death, (as 
before was noted,) pretending that they had first received 
and accepted his ransome, and then put him to death. 


But y e Gove r refused their presents, and tould them 
y* it was them selves had done y e wronge, & broaken 
y c conditions of peace ; and he nor y e English neither 
could nor would allow them to make any further warr 
upon him, but if they did, must assiste him, & oppose 
them ; but if it did appeare, upon good proofe, that 
he had received a ransome for his life, before he put 
him to death, when y e comissioners mett, they should 
have a fair hearing, and they would cause Uncass 
to returne y e same. But notwithstanding, at y e spring 
of y e year they gathered a great power, and fell upon 
Uucass, and slue sundrie of his men, and w r ounded 
more, and also had some loss them selves. Uncass 
cald for aide from y e English; they tould him what 
y e Narigansets objected, he deney the same ; they tould 
him it must come to triall, and if he was inocente, if 
y e Narigansets would not desiste, they would aide & 
assiste him. So at this meeting they [263] sent both 
to Uncass & y e Narrigansets, and required their saga- 
mors to come or send to y e comissioners now mete 
at Hartford, and they should have a faire & inpartiall 
hearing in all their greevances, and would endeavor 
y* all wrongs should be rectified wher they should be 
found ; and they promised that they should safly come 
and returne without any danger or molestation ; and 
sundry y e like things, as appears more at large in 
y e messengers instructions. Upon w ch the Narigansets 
sent one sagamore and some other deputies, with full 

512 HISTORY or [BOOK 11. 

power to doe in y e case as should be meete. Uncass 
came in person, accompanyed with some cheefe aboute 
him. After the agitation of y e bussines, y e issue was 
this. The comissioners declared to y e Narigansett depu- 
ties as folio weth. 

1. That they did not find any proof e of any ransome 
agreed on. 

2. It appeared not y e any wampam had been paied as a 
ransome, or any parte of a ransome, for Myantinomos life. 

3. That if they had in any measure proved their charge 
against Uncass, the comissioners would have required him 
to have made answerable satisfaction. 

4. That if hereafter they can make satisfing profe, y e Eng- 
lish will consider y e same, & proceed accordingly. 

5. The comissioners did require y l neither them selves nor 
y e Nyanticks make any warr or injurious assaulte upon 
Unquass or any of his company untill they make profe 
of y e ransume charged, and y* due satisfaction be deneyed, 
unless he first assaulte them. 

6. That if they assaulte Uncass, the English are engaged 
to assist him. 

Hearupon y e Narigansette sachim, advising with y e other 
deputies, ingaged him selfe in the behalfe of y e Narigansets 
& Nyanticks that no hostile acts should be comitted upon 
Uncass, or any of his, untill after y e next planting of corne ; 
and y' after that, before they begine any warr, they will give 
30. days warning to y e Gove r of the Massachusets or Con- 
ightecutt. The comissioners approving of this offer, and 
taking their ingagmente under their hands, required Uncass, 
as he expected y e continuance of y e favour of the English, 
to observe the same termes of peace with y e Narigansets 
and theirs. 


These foregoing conclusions were subscribed by y e comis- 
sioners, for y e severall jurisdictions, y e 19. of Sept: 1644. 

EDWA : HOPKINS, Presidente. 








The forenamed Narigansets deputies did further promise, that 
if, contrary to this agreemente, any of y e Nyantick Pequents 
should make any assaulte upon Uncass, or any of his, they 
would deliver them up to y e English, to be punished accord- 
ing to their demerits ; and that they would not use any means 
to procure the Mowacks to come against Uncass during this 

These were their names subscribed with their marks. 


[264] Anno Dom: 1645. 

THE comissioners this year were caled to meete to- 
gither at Boston, before their ordinarie time ; partly in 
regard of some difierances falen betweene y e French and 
y e govermente of y e Massachusets, about their aiding 
of Munseire Latore against Munsseire de Aulney, and 
partly aboute y e Indeans, who had broaken y e former 
agreements aboute the peace concluded y e last year. 
This meeting was held at Boston, y e 28. of July. 


Besids some underhand assualts made on both sids, 
the Narigansets gathered a great power, and fell upon 
Uncass, and slew many of his men, and wounded 
more, by reason y* they farr exseeded him in number, 
and had gott store of peeces, with which they did him 
most hurte. And as they did this withoute y e knowl- 
edg and consente of y e English, (contrary to former 
agreemente, ) so they were resolved to prosecute y e same, 
notwithstanding any thing y e English said or should doe 
against them. So, being incouraged by ther late vic- 
torie, and promise of assistance from y e Mowaks, (being 
a strong, warlike, and desperate people,) they had all- 
ready devoured Uncass & his, in their hops ; and surly 
they had done it in deed, if the English had not timly 
sett in for his aide. For those of Conightecute sent 
him 40. men, who were a garison to him, till y e comis- 
sioners could meete and take further order. 

Being thus mett, they forthwith sente 3. messengers, 
viz. Sargent John Davis, Benedicte Arnold, and Francis 
Smith, with full & ample instructions, both to y e Nari- 
gansets and Uncass ; to require them y* they should 
either come in person or send sufficiente men fully 
instructed to deale in y e bussines ; and if they refused 
or delayed, to let them know (according to former 
agreements) y* the English are engaged to assiste 
against these hostile invasions, and y* they have sente 
their men to defend Uncass, and to know of y e Nari- 
gansets whether they will stand to y e former peace, 


or they will assaulte y e English also, that they may 
provid accordingly. 

But y e messengers returned, not only with a sleight- 
ing, but a threatening answer from the Narigansets 
(as will more appear hereafter). Also they brought 
a letter from M r . Roger Williams, wherin he assures 
them that y e warr would presenly breake forth, & y e 
whole country would be all of a flame. And y* the 
sachems of y e Narigansets had concluded a newtrality 
with y e English of Providence and those of Aquidnett 
Hand. Wherupon y e comissioners, considering y e great 
danger & provocations offered, and y e necessitie we 
should be put unto of making warr with y e Narigan- 
setts, and being also carfull, in a matter of so great 
waight & generall concernmente, to see y e way cleared, 
and to give satisfaction to all y e colonies, did thinke 
fitte to advise with such of y e magistrats & elders of 
y e Massachusets as were then at hand, and also with 
some of y e cheefe millitary comanders ther ; who being 
assembled, it was then agreed, 

First, y 4 our ingagmente bound us to aide & defend 
Uncass. 2. That this ayde could not be intended only 
to defend him & his forte, or habitation, but (according 
to y e comone acceptation of such covenants, or ingag- 
ments, considered with y e grounds or occasion therof) 
so to ayde him as he might be preserved in his liberty 
and estate. 3 ly . That this ayde [265] must be speedy, 
least he might be swalowed up in y e mean time, and 

516 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

so come to late. 4 ly . The justice of this warr being 
cleared to our selves and y e rest then presente, it was 
thought meete y* the case should be stated, and y e 
reasons & grounds of y e warr declared and published. 
5 ly . That a day of humilliation should be apoynted, 
which was y e 5. day of y e weeke following. 6 ly . It was 
then allso agreed by y e comissioners that y e whole num- 
ber of men to be raised in all y e colonies should be 300. 
Wherof from y e Massachusets a 190. Plimoth, 40. 
Conightecute, 40. New-Haven, 30. And considering 
y* Uncass was in present danger, 40. men of this num- 
ber were forthwith sente from y e Massachusets for his 
sucoure; and it was but neede, for y e other 40. from 
Conightecutt had order to stay but a month, & their 
time being out, they returned ; and y e Narigansets, hear- 
ing therof, tooke the advantage, and came suddanly 
upon him, and gave him another blow, to his further 
loss, and were ready to doe y e like againe ; but these 
40. men being arrived, they returned, and did nothing. 
The declaration which they sett forth I shall not 
transcribe, it being very larg, and put forth in printe, 
to which I referr those y* would see y e same, in which 
all passages are layed open from y e first. I shall only 
note their prowd carriage, and answers to y e 3. mes- 
sengers sent from y e comissioners. They received them 
with scorne & contempte, and tould them they resolved 
to have no peace without Uncass his head; also they 
gave them this further answer : that it mattered not 


who begane y e warr, they were resolved to follow it, 
and that y e English should withdraw their garison from 
Uncass, or they would procure y e Mo wakes against 
them; and withall gave them this threatening answer: 
that they would lay y e English catle on heaps, as high 
as their houses, and y 4 no English-man should sturr out 
of his dore to pisse, but he should be kild. And 
wheras they required guids to pass throw their countrie, 
to deliver their message to Uncass from y e comissioners, 
they deneyed them, but at length (in way of scorne) 
offered them an old Pequente woman. Besids allso 
they conceived them selves in danger, for whilst y e in- 
terpretour was speakeing with them about y e answer 
he should returne, 3. men came & stood behind him 
with ther hatchets, according to their murderous maner ; 
but one of his fellows gave him notice of it, so they 
broak of & came away ; with sundry such like affrontes, 
which made those Indeans they carryed with them to 
rune away for fear, and leave them to goe home as 
they could. 

Thus whilst y e comissioners in care of y e publick 
peace sought to quench y e fire kindled amongst y e 
Indeans, these children of strife breath out threatenings, 
provocations, and warr against y e English them selves. 
So that, unless they should dishonour & provoak God, 
by violating a just ingagmente, and expose y e colonies to 
contempte & danger from y e barbarians, they cannot but 
exerciese force, when no other means will prevaile to 


reduse y e Narigansets & their confederats to a more 
just & sober temper. 

So as here upon they went on to hasten y e prepa- 
rations, according to y e former agreemente, and sent to 
Plimoth to send forth their 40. men with all speed, 
to lye at Seacunke, least any deanger should befalle 
it, before y c rest were ready, it lying next y e enemie, 
and ther to stay till y e Massachusetts should joyne with 
them. Allso Conigtecute & Newhaven forces were to 
joyne togeather, and march with all speed, and y s 
Indean confederats of those parts with them. All which 
was done accordingly; and the souldiers of this place 
were at Seacunk, the place of their rendevouze, 8. or 
10. days before y e rest were ready ; they were well 
armed all with snaphance peeces, and wente under 
y e camand of Captain [266] Standish. Those from 
other places were led likwise by able comanders,* as 
Captaine Mason for Conigtecute, &c. ; and Majore 
Gibons was made generall over y e whole, with such 
comissions & instructions as was meete. 

Upon y e suden dispatch of these souldiears, (the 
present necessitie requiring it,) the deputies of y e 
Massachusetts Courte (being now assembled imediatly 
after y e setting forth of their 40. men) made a ques- 
tion whether it was legally done, without their comis- 
sion. It was answered, that howsoever it did properly 
belong to y e authority of y e severall jurisdictions (after 

* Comander in the MS. 


y e warr was agreed upon by y e comissioners, & the 
number of men) to provid y e men & means to carry 
on y e warr ; yet in this presente case, the proceeding 
of y e comissioners and y e comission given was as suffi- 
ciente as if it had been done by y e Grenerall Courte. 

First, it was a case of such presente & urgente necessitie, 
as could not stay y e calling of y e Courte or Counsell. 2 ly . 
In y e Articles of Confederation, power is given to y e comis- 
sioners to consult, order, & determine all affaires of warr, 
&c. And y e word determine comprehends all acts of author- 
ity belonging therunto. 

3 ly . The comissioners are y e judges of y e necessitie of the 

4 ly . The Generall Courte have made their owne comis- 
sioners their sole counsell for these affires. 

5 ly . These counsels could not have had their due effecte 
excepte they had power to proceede in this case, as they 
have done ; which were to make y e comissioners power, and 
y e maine end of y e confederation, to be frustrate, and that 
mearly for observing a ceremony. 

6 ly . The comissioners haveing sole power to manage y e 
warr for number of men, for time, place, &c., they only 
know their owne counsells, & determinations, and therfore 
none can grante comission to acte according to these but 
them selves. 

All things being thus in readines, and some of y e 
souldiers gone forth, and the rest ready to march, 
the comissioners thought it meete before any hostile 
acte was performed, to cause a presente to be re- 
turned, which had been sente to y e Gove r of the Mas- 
sachusetts from y e Narigansett sachems, but not by 


him received, but layed up to be accepted or refused 
as they should carry them selves, and observe y e cove- 
nants.. Therfore they violating the same, & standing 
out thus to a warr, it was againe returned, by 2. mes- 
sengers & an interpretour. And further to let know 
that their men already sent to Uncass (& other wher 
sent forth) have hitherto had express order only to 
stand upon his & their owne defence, and not to 
attempte any invasion of y e Narigansetts country ; and 
yet if they may have due reperation for what is past, 
and good securitie for y e future, it shall appear they 
are as desirous of peace, and shall be as tender of 
y e Narigansets blood as ever. If therefore Pessecuss, 
Innemo, with other sachemes, will (without further 
delay) come along with you to Boston, the comis- 
sioners doe promise & assure them, they shall have 
free liberty to come, and retourne without molesta- 
tion or any just greevance from y e English. But 
deputies will not now serve, nor may the prepara- 
tions in hand be now stayed, or y e directions given 
recalled, till y e forementioned sagamors come, and 
some further order be taken. But if they will have 
nothing but warr, the English are providing, and will 
proceede accordingly. 

Pessecouss, Mixano, & Witowash, 3. principall sa- 
chems of y e Narigansett Indeans, and Awasequen, dep- 
utie for y e Nyanticks, with a large traine of men, 
within a few days after came to Boston. 


And to onritte all other circomstances and debats y* 
past betweene them and the comissioners, they came 
to this conclusion following. 

[267] 1. It was agreed betwixte y e comissioners of y e 
United Collonies, and y e forementioned sagamores, & Nian- 
tick deputie, that y e said Narigansets & Niantick sagamores 
should pay or cause to be payed at Boston, to y e Massa- 
chusets comissioners, y e full sume of 2000. fathome of good 
white wampame, or a third parte of black wampampeage, 
in 4. payments ; namely, 500. fathorne within 20. days, 
500. fathome within 4. months, 500. fathome at or before 
next planting time, and 500. fathome within 2. years next 
after y e date of these presents; which 2000. fathome y e 
comissioners accepte for satisfaction of former charges ex- 

2. The foresaid sagamors & deputie (on y e behalf e of y e 
Narigansett & Niantick Indeans) hereby promise & cove- 
nante that they upon demand and profe satisfie & re- 
store unto Uucass, y e Mohigan sagamore, all such cap- 
tives, whether men, or women, or children, and all such 
canowes, as they or any of their men have taken, or as 
many of their owne canowes in y e roome of them, full as 
good as they were, with full satisfaction for all such come 
as they or any of theire men have spoyled or destroyed, of 
his or his mens, since last planting time ; and y e English 
comissioners hereby promise y 1 Uncass shall doe y e like. 

3. Wheras ther are sundry differences & greevances be- 
twixte Narigansett & Niantick Indeans, and Uncass & his 
men, (which in Uncass his absence cannot now be detir- 
mined,) it is hearby agreed y 4 Nariganset & Niantick saga- 
mores either come them selves, or send their deputies to y e 
next meeting of y e comissioners for y e collonies, either at 
* New-Haven in Sep* 1646. or sooner (upon conveniente warn- 

522 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

ing, if y e said comissioners doe meete sooner), fully instructed 
to declare & make due proofe of their injuries, and to sub- 
mite to y e judgmente of y e comissioners, in giving or receiv- 
ing satisfaction ; and y e said comissiouers (not doubting but 
Uncass will either come him selfe, or send his deputies, 
in like maner furnished) promising to give a full hearing 
to both parties with equall justice, without any partiall 
respects, according to their allegations and profs. 

4. The said Narigansett & Niantick sagamors & deputies 
doe hearby promise & covenante to keep and maintaine a 
firme & perpetuall peace, both with all y e English United 
Colonies & their successors, and with Uncass, y e Monhegen 
sachem, & his men; with Ossamequine, Pumham, Sokanoke, 
Cutshamakin, Shoanan, Passaconaway, and all other Indean 
sagarnors, and their companies, who are in freindship with 
or subjecte to any of y e English ; hearby ingaging them 
selves, that they will not at any time hearafter disturbe y e 
peace of y e cuntry, by any assaults, hostile attempts, inva- 
sions, or other injuries, to any of y e Unnited Collonies, or 
their successors ; or to y e afforesaid Indeans ; either in their 
persons, buildings, catle, or goods, directly or indirectly ; nor 
will they confederate with any other against them ; & if 
they know of any Indeans or others y l conspire or intend 
hurt against y e said English, or any Indeans subjecte to or in 
freindship with them, they will without delay acquainte & give 
notice therof to y e English comissioners, or some of them. 

Or if any questions or differences shall at any time here- 
after arise or grow betwext them & Uncass, or any Endeans 
before mentioned, they will, according to former ingagments 
(which they hearby confirme & ratine) first acquainte y e 
English, and crave their judgments & advice therin ; and 
will not attempte or begine any warr, or hostille invasion, 
till they have liberty and alowance from y e comissioners of 
y e United Collonies so to doe. 


5. The said Narigansets & Niantick sagamores & depu- 
ties doe hearby promise y* they will forthw th deliver & re- 
store all such Indean fugitives, or captives which have at 
any time fled from any of y e English, and are now living 
or abiding amongst them, or give due satisfaction for them 
to y e comissioners for y e Massachusets ; and further, that 
they will (without more delays) pay, or cause to be payed, 
a yearly tribute, a month before harvest, every year after 
this, at Boston, to y e English Colonies, for all such Peqtients 
as live amongst them, according to y e former treaty & 
agreemente, made at Hartford, 1638. iiamly, one fathome 
of white wampam for every Pequente man, & halfe a 
fathume for each Pequente youth, and one hand length 
for each mal-child. And if Weequashcooke refuse to pay 
this tribute for any Pequents with him, the Narigansetts 
sagamores promise to assiste y e English against him And 
they further covenante y l they will resigne & yeeld up the 
whole Pequente cuntrie, and every parte of it, to y e Eng- 
lish collonies, as due to them by conquest. 

6. The said Narigansett & Niautick sagamores & deputie 
doe hereby promise & covenante y { within 14. days they will 
bring & deliver to y e Massachusetts comissioners on y e be- 
half e of y e collonies, [268] foure of their children, viz. 
Pessecous his eldest son, the sone Tassaquanawite, brother 
to Pessecouss, Awashawe his sone, and Ewangsos sone, a 
Niantick, to be kepte (as hostages & pledges) by y e English, 
till both y e forementioned 2000. fathome of wampam be payed 
at y e times appoynted, and y e differences betweexte themselves 
& Uncass be heard -& ordered, and till these artickles be 
under writen at Boston, by Jenemo & Wipetock. And fur- 
ther they hereby promise & covenante, y l if at any time 
hearafter any of y e said children shall make escape, or be 
conveyed away from y e English, before y e premisses be fully 
accomplished, they will either bring back & deliver to y e 

524 HISTORY or [BOOK n. 

Massachusett comissioners y e same children, or, if they be not 
to be founde, such & so many other children, to be chosen 
by y e comissioners for y e United Collonies, or their assignes, 
and y 1 within 20. days after demand, and in y e mean time, 
untill y e said 4. children be delivered as hostages, y e Nari- 
gansett & Niantick sagamors & deputy doe, freely & of their 
owne accorde, leave with y e Massachusett comissioners, as 
pledges for presente securitie, 4. Indeans, namely, Witowash, 
Pumanise, Jawashoe, Waughwamino, who allso freely con- 
sente, and offer them selves to stay as pledges, till y e said 
children be brought & delivered as abovesaid. 

7. The comissioners for y e United Collouies doe hereby 
promise & agree that, at y e charge of y e United Collonies, 
y e 4. Indeans now left as pledges shall be provided for, and y* 
the 4. children to be brought & delivered as hostages shall 
be kepte & maintained at y e same charge ; that they will 
require Uncass & his men, with all other Indean sagamors 
before named, to forbear all acts of hostilitie againste y e Nari- 
gansetts and Niantick Indeans for y e future. And further, 
all y e promises being duly observed & kept by y e Narigansett 
& Niantick Indians and their company, they will at y e end 
of 2. years restore y e said children delivered as hostiages, 
and retaine a firme peace with y e Narigansets & Nianticke 
Indeans and their successours. 

8. It is fully agreed by & betwixte y e said parties, y* if 
any hostile attempte be made while this treaty is in hand, 
or before notice of this agreemente (to stay further prepara- 
tions & directions) can be given, such attempts & y e conse- 
quencts therof shall on neither parte be accounted a violation 
of this treaty, nor a breach of y e peace hear made & con- 

9. The Narigansets & Niantick sagamors & deputie hereby 
agree & covenante to & with y e comissiouers of y e United 
Collonies, y 1 henceforth they will neither give, grante, sell, 
or in any maner alienate, any parte of their countrie, nor 


any parcell of land therin, either to any of y e English or 
others, without consente or allowance of y e comissioners. 

10. Lastly, they promise that, if any Pequente or other be 
found & discovered amongst them who hath in time of peace 
murdered any of y e English, he or they shall be delivered to 
just punishmente. 

In witness wherof y e parties above named have inter- 
chaingablie subscribed these presents, the day & year above 


JOHN WINTHROP, President. 








PESSECOUSS his mark / 

MEEKESANO his mark ) ^ 

WITOWASH his mark C C C 

/ f the Niantick 
AUMSEQUEN hlS mark \^J deputy 

ABDAS his mark 
PUMMASH his mark 

This treaty and agreemente betwixte the comissioners of y e 
United Collonies and y e sagamores and deputy of Narrigansets 
and Niantick Indeans was made and concluded, Benedicte 
Arnold being interpretour upon his oath ; Sergante Callicate 
& an Indean, his man, being presente, and Josias & Cut- 
shamakin, tow Indeans aquainted with y e English language, 
assisting therin; who opened & cleared the whole treaty, & 
every article, to y e sagamores and deputie there presente. 

And thus was y e warr at this time stayed and pre- 


[269] .^71710 Dom: 1646. 

ABOUT y e midle of May, this year, came in 3. ships 
into this harbor, in warrlike order ; they were found to 
be men of warr. The captains name was Crumwell, 
who had taken sundrie prizes from y e Spaniards in y e 
West Indies. He had a comission from y e Earle of 
Warwick. He had abord his vessels aboute 80. lustie 
men, (but very unruly,) who, after they came ashore, 
did so distemper them selves with drinke as they be- 
came like madd-men; and though some of them were 
punished & imprisoned, yet could they hardly be re- 
strained ; yet in y e ende they became more moderate 
& orderly. They continued here aboute a month or 
6. weeks, and then went to y e Massachusets ; in which 
time they spente and scattered a great deale of money 
among y e people, and yet more sine (I fear) then 
money, notwithstanding all y e care & watchfullnes that 
was used towards them, to prevente what might be. 

In which time one sadd accidente fell out. A des- 
perate fellow of y e company fell a quarling with some 
of his company. His captine comanded him to be quiet 
& surcease his quarelling ; but he would not, but 
reviled his captaine with base language, & in y e end 
halfe drew his rapier, & intended to rune at his captien ; 
but he closed with him, and wrasted his rapier from 
him, and gave him a boxe on y e earr ; but he would 
not give over, but still assaulted his captaine. Wher- 


upon he tooke y e same rapier as it was in y e scaberd, 
and gave him a blow with y e hilts; but it light on his 
head, & y e smal end of y e bar of y e rapier hilts peirct 
his scull, & he dyed a few days after. But y e captaine 
was cleared by a counsell of warr. This fellow was 
so desperate a quareller as y e captaine was faine many 
times to chaine him under hatches from hurting his 
fellows, as y e company did testifie ; and this was his 

This Captaine Thomas Cromuell sett forth another 
vioage to the Westindeas, from the Bay of the Massa- 
chusets, well maned & victuled ; and was out 3. years, 
and tooke sundry prises, and returned rich unto the 
Massachusets, and ther dyed the same somere, having 
gott a fall from his horse, in which fall he fell on his 
rapeir hilts, and so brused his body as he shortly after 
dyed therof, with some other distempers, which brought 
him into a feavor. Some observed that ther might be 
somthing of the hand pf God herein ; that as the fore- 
named man dyed of y e blow he gave him with y e rapeir 
hilts, so his owne death was occationed by a like means. 

This year M r . Edward Winslow went into England, 
upon this occation : some discontented persons under 
y e govermente of the Massachusets sought to trouble 
their peace, and disturbe, if not innovate, their gover- 
mente, by laying many [270] scandals upon them ; 
and intended to prosecute against them in England, by 
petitioning & complaining to the Parlemente. Allso 


Samuell Gorton & his company made complaints against 
them; so as they made choyse of M r . Winslovv to be 
their agente, to make their defence, and gave him 
comission & instructions for that end; in which he so 
carried him selfe as did well answer their ends, and 
cleared them from any blame or dishonour, to the 
shame of their adversaries. But by reason of the great 
alterations in the State, he was detained longer then 
was expected; and afterwards fell into other imploy- 
ments their, so as he hath now bene absente this 
4. years, which hath been much to the weakning of 
this govermente, without whose consente he tooke these 
imployments upon him. 

Anno 1647. And Anno 1648. 



No. I. 

[Passengers of the flay flower.] 

The names of those which came over first, in y e year 1620. 
and were by the blessing of God the first beginers and 
(in a sort) the foundation of all the Plantations and 
Colonies in New-England ; and their families. 

M r . John Carver ; Kathrine, his wife ; Desire Minter ; 
& 2. man-servants, John Rowland, Roger Wilder ; Wil- 


Ham Latham, a boy ; & a maid servant, & a child y* 
was put to him, called Jasper More. 

M r . William Brewster; Mary, his wife; with 2. sons, 

whose names were Love & Wrasling ; and a boy was 

6. put to him called Richard More ; and another of his 

brothers. The rest of his children were left behind, & 

came over afterwards. 

M r . Edward Winslow ; Elizabeth, his wife ; & 2. men 
servants, caled Georg Sowle and Elias Story ; also a litle 
girle was put to him, caled Ellen, the sister of Richard 

William Bradford, and Dorothy, his wife; having but 
one child, a sone, left behind, who came afterward. 

M r . Isaack Allerton, and Mary, his wife ; with 3. chil- 
6. dren, Bartholmew, Remember, & Mary; and a servant 
boy, John Hooka. 


M r . Samuell Fuller, and a servant, caled William But- 
2. ten. His wife was behind, & a child, which came after- 

2. John Crakston, and his sone, John Crakston. 
2. Captin Myles Standish, and Rose, his wife. 

M r . Christopher Martin, and his wife, and 2. servants, 

Salamon Prower and John Laugemore. 

M r . William Mullines, and his wife, and 2. children, 
Joseph & Priscila; and a servant, Robart Carter. 

M r . William White, and Susana, his wife, and one 

sone, caled Resolved, and one borne a ship-bord, caled 

Peregriene ; & 2. servants, named William Holbeck & 

Edward Thomson. 

M r . Steven Hopkins, & Elizabeth, his wife, and 2. chil- 
dren, caled Giles, and Constanta, a doughter, both by 
8. a former wife ; and 2. more by this wife, caled Damaris 
& Oceanus ; the last was borne at sea ; and 2. servants, 
called Edward Doty and Edward Litster. 

M r . Richard Warren ; but his wife and children were 
lefte behind, and came afterwards. 

John Billinton, and Elen, his wife ; and 2. sones, John 
& Francis. 

Edward Tillie, and Ann, his wife ; and 2. children that 

were their cossens, Henery Samson and Humillity Coper. 

John Tillie, and his wife ; and Eelizabeth, their 


Francis Cooke, and his sone John. But his wife & 
other children came afterwards. 


Thomas Rogers, and Joseph, his sone. His other chil- 
dren came afterwards. 

3.* Thomas Tinker, and his wife, and a sone. 

2. John Rigdale, and Alice, his wife. 

James Chilton, and his wife, and Mary, their dougter. 

3. They had an other doughter, y l was maried, came after- 

3. Edward Fuller, and his wife, and Samuell, their sonne. 

John Turner, and 2. sones. He had a doughter came 
some years after to Salem, wher she is now living. 

Francis Eaton, and Sarah, his wife, and Samuell, their 


sone, a yong child. 

Moyses Fletcher, John Goodman, Thomas "Williams, 
Digerie Preist, Edmond Margeson, Peter Browne, Richard 
Britterige, Richard Clarke, Richard Gardenar, Gilbart 

John Alden was hired for a cooper, at South-Hampton, 
wher the ship victuled ; and being a hopfull yong man, 
was much desired, but left to his owne liking to go or 
stay when he came here ; but he stayed, and maryed here. 

John Allerton and Thomas Enlish were both hired, the 
later to goe m r of a shalop here, and y e other was reputed 
2. as one of y e company, but was to go back (being a sea- 
man) for the help of others behind. But they both dyed 
here, before the shipe returned. 

* Written 2 in MS. 


There were allso other 2. seamen hired to stay a year 
2. here in the country, William Trevore, and one Ely. But 
when their time was out, they both returned. 

These, bening aboute a hundred sowls, came over in 
this first ship ; and began this worke, which God of his 
goodnes hath hithertoo blesed ; let his holy name have 
y e praise. 

And seeing it hath pleased him to give me to see 30. years 
eompleated since these beginings ; and that the great 
works of his providence are to be observed, I have 
thought it not unworthy my paines to take a veiw of the 
decreasings & increasings of these persons, and such 
changs as hath pased over them & theirs, in this thirty 
years. It may be of some use to such as come after ; 
but, however, I shall rest in my owne benefite. 

I will therfore take them in order as they lye. 

M r . Carver and his wife dyed the first year; he in y e 
spring, she in y e somer; also, his man Roger and y e litle 
boy Jasper dyed before either of them, of y e commone in- 
fection. Desire Minter returned to her freinds, & proved 
not very well, and dyed in England. His servant boy 
Latham, after more then 20. years stay in the country, 
went into England, and from thence to the Bahamy Hands 
in y e West Indies, and ther, with some others, was starved 
for want of food. His maid servant maried, & dyed 
a year or tow after, here in this place. 

His servant, John Rowland, maried the doughter of 
John Tillie, Elizabeth, and they are both now living, 

and have 10. children, now all living ; and their eldest 

daughter hath 4. children. And ther 2. daughter, 1. all 

living ; and other of their children mariagable. So 15. 
are come of them. 


M r . Brewster lived to very old age ; about 80. years he 
was when he dyed, having lived some 23. or 24. years 
here in y e countrie ; & though his wife dyed long before, 
yet she dyed aged. His sone Wrastle dyed a yonge man 

4. unmaried; his sone Love lived till this year 1650. and 
dyed, & left 4. children, now living. His doughters 
which came over after him are dead, but have left sundry 
children alive ; his eldst sone is still live ing, and hath 9. 

2. or 10 children; one maried, who hath a chi